US 2822002 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 4, 1958 w. MACK A DISPENSER RoR FLowABLE MATERIALS Filed May 25,v 1954 F/GZ IN VEN TOR. W/LL/A M MA CK TORNEYS 4United, States Patent DISPENSER FOR FLOWABLE MATERIALS William Mack, Hartford, Conn., assignor to Frank E. Wolcott, Hartford, Conn.
Application May 25, 1954, Serial No. 432,125
9 Claims. (Cl. 141-17) The present invention relates to dispensers and, more particularly to a dispenser for spraying, atomizing, squirting, or otherwise ejecting a liowable material by means of gas under relatively high pressure from a non-pressurized reservoir.
ADevices for dispensing materials under pressure have recently come into widespread use, and have proved convenient and effective kfor dispensing a wide variety of materials lsuch as, for example, insecticides, paints and other coating materials, foodstuffs, cosmetics, medicinal preparations, lubricants, detergents, etc. In some of the common forms of such devices, the force for dispensing the material is provided manually, for example by squeezing the container yor moving an actuator, all of which are tedious operations and usually fail to produce suiiicient pressure for optimum results. Another common form 'of such dispensing devices is the pressurized or bomb type of container which is charged directly with a pressurized gas propellant at the time of loading. One outstanding disadvantage vof this latter type of dispensing device is V"that the 'container :itself must be sufficiently strong to withstand the pressure of the propellant gas charge without bursting or leaking. This consideration has limited the ymaterials from whichsu'ch containers can be constructed to those 'of high, strength and proportionately high cost, such as metal, and has prevented the use of other materials `such as glass, plastic, paperboard, etc., which have Imany advantages from the standpoint of cost, attractive appearance, etc. Also, such pressurized containers are subject to many limitations in use requiring special handling, avoidance lof high temperatures, etc.
A principal object of the present -invention is to provide `a 'dispensing device 'suitable lfor effectively and conveniently dispensing la wide variety of flowable materials 'from containers under high pressure without material physical effort and without requiring the containers themselves to be pressurized, the dispensing device thereby enablin'g the containers themselves to be constructed of any desired material 'without regard to the dispensing pressure involved. p
A further aim is to provide such a device which can be of simple, compact and light-weight construction so 'that itis -suitable for use as a portable hand dispenser for a wide variety of uses in the household and otherwise. Included in this aim lis the object -of providing such a dispenser whi'ch can he 'made inexpensively and at relatively iow cost. Y
Another aim 'is to provide a dispensing device utilizing a 'self-contained source 'oi gas under pressure as the operating 'force which does not pressurize the reservoir of 'material being dispensed, which is fully safe and foolproof in operation, and which at the `same time provides a high operating pressure for effective and efficient dispensing.
Another aim is to provide such a dispenser in `which 'pensed whereby re'iilling or replenishing the supply-is facili- 2,822,002 iatented Feb. 4, 1975.8
2 tated and whereby only one cap is required for use with diierent containers.
Other objects will be in part obvious, and in part pointed out more in detail hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the features `of construction, combination of elements and arrangement of parts which will be exemplified in the 'construction hereafter set forth and the scope of 'the application of'wh-ich will be indicated in the appended claims.
ln the drawing:
Figure l is an elevation View of a dispenser constructed in accordance with the present invention;
Figure 2 is `an enlarged sectional View of the structure shown in Figure l showing the operating parts; and
Figure 3 is a sectional view of a portion of the structure shown in Figure 2 taken on the line 3--3 thereof.
Referring to the drawings, the embodiment of a ydispenser constructed in accordance with the present invention shown therein includes a cap generally denoted lat 2 which is adapted to iit over the top lof a container li of material to be dispensed. The cap has a main body portion 10 formed with a rdown-turned ange 6 adapted to screw on or snap over the top of the container. A gasket S may be inserted between the cap and the container to prevent leakage of the contents of the container.
For convenience of manufacture, the body portion 10 is provided at its center with an insert 14 preferably cast therein. The insert 14 has a bore 12 enlarged at its outer end to seat the neck or end of a cartridge 16 of highly compressed gas, such as carbon dioxide, which may be directly inserted therein. A gasket 24 is provided in the port to insure a tight seal and avoid leakage of `gas between the end of the cartridge 16 and insert 14. The cartridge is adapted to be held n place by a cover member 18 threaded onto the outer end of bushing 14. Seated in the bore 12 is a piercer 20 supported by a shoulder 22 and positioned so as to engage and puncture the end of the gas cartridge when the cover member is turned to press down on the cartridge, thus admitting gas into the bore 12. A through passageway 21 facilitates the passage of gas from the cartridge past the needle.
In accordance with the invention and as explained more fully hereinafter, the highly compressed gas from the selfcontained reservoir or cartridge 16 is utilized, under the control of the operator, to actuate a piston pump generally denoted at 2S which is affixed to the underside of the cap 2. As best shown in Figure 2, the pump 25 includes an elongate tube or cylinder 26 firmly and securely seated in a pocket formed by the depending flange 27. The pump cylinder 26, which may be integral with the body portion .10, if preferred, is adapted to extend 'down inside the container 4 beneath the surface of the material therein. The `lower end of cylinder 26 is closed .by a cap .28 having an oriiice 30 which provides an inlet for vadmitting the contents of the container into the cylinder. vIn the orifice 30 is a one-way valve such as a .ball check valve 32 which permits material to iiow into cylinder 26 from the container, but prevents escape of material from the cylinder 26 back into the container. A retaining vplate 3S having 'a center vorifice 39 maintains the ball 32 inoperative position.
lWithin the cylinder is a pumping member comprising a exible cup-shaped seal 34 secured to the top of an inverted cup-shaped plunger or piston 36. A relatively heavy `compression `spring 40 positioned `between Athe plunger 36 yand plate 38 serves to bias the piston '34 upwardly toward the top of the cylinder 26.
Alongside the cylinder 26 and preferably formed integrally in a thickened portion ofthe cylinderwall, as
'best shown in Figure 3, is v1a discharge passage :42. The
discharge passage is connected at its lower lend zto vthe interior of cylinder 26 through an orifice 44intheibottom of Vthe cylinder wall, and -is .connected at its upper end through a passage 46 to a discharge nozzle 48 mounted in the cap body. The nozzle 48 may be of any conventional type, suitable for spraying, atomizing, or otherwise ejecting material under pressure. As will be apparent, the form in which material is dispensed from the container can be varied by proper selection of the nozzle to include ine and coarse sprays, foams, lathers, solid streams and So forth. An outwardly opening ball check valve 49 is provided in passage 46 to close the same during the suction stroke of the pump.
As will be apparent, the operation of the piston 34 and cylinder 26 is such that the spring 40 normally maintains the piston at the upper end of the cylinder, i. e. the spring 40 is suiciently strong so as to move the plunger 36 upwardly when the lower end of the cylinder is immersed into the material in the container to thereby draw in material from the container through the inlet orice 30 and ball valve 32 into the cylinder 26. When piston 34 v is displaced downwardly in the cylinder, the ball valve closes and the material in the cylinder is displaced and forced outwardly through the discharge passage 42 and is discharged from the nozzle in whatever form desired as determined by the characteristics of the nozzle. capillary passage 51 is provided in the cap body to vent the interior of the container. The ventl passage 51 is Smallenough to prevent leakage from the container, but of sucient size to prevent formation of a vacuum in the container when material is sucked into the cylinder 26, and to prevent pressure build-np in the container should a leakage of gas into the container occur.
As indicated previously, downward displacement of piston 36 in cylinder 26 is effected by admitting to the top of the cylinder pressurized gas from the cartridge 16. f
To this end, there is provided in the body 10 a chamber 52 connected by a passage 50 to the top of the cylinder and by a port 53 with a chamber 54 formed in the insert 14.
The chamber 54 communicates by means of port 56 inch by a suitable pressure regulator carried by the in- 1 sert 14. The pressure regulator shown in the drawing is of a conventional type and includes a diaphragm 60 backed up on one side by a spring 62 and having a stem 64 projecting lfrom its other side and extending into orifice 56. A ball valve 66 in orifice 56 serves to prevent ow from the bore 12 into chamber 54 until the gas pressure in the chamber acting upon the diaphragm falls below the .desired level, whereupon spring 62 lifts diaphragm 60 and stem 64 lifts ball valve 66 to admit more gas into chamber 54 and restore the pressure. The pressure regullator may of course be adjusted to provide any desired pressure level in chamber 54, depending on the material being dispensed, the form in which it is dispensed, etc.
Control of gas ow between cylinder 26 and chamber 54 is afforded by a manually operable three-way valve 70 located in chamber 52. In one position of the valve, which is its normal position, passage 53 is closed, preventing flow of gas from chamber 54, and the valving chamber 52 is vented to the outside atmosphere through a vent passage 72. This in turn vents cylinder 26 through passage 50, permitting spring 40 to displace the piston to its uppermost position and suck a charge into the cylinder.
In the other position of the valve 70, vent passage 72 is closed and pressurized gas is allowed to ow from chamber 54 to the cylinder. This displaces the piston in the cylinder downwardly and dispenses material from the nozzle 48. Although any conventional type of three-way valve may be employed, a simple inexpensive exemplary valve for this purpose is shown in the drawing as comprising a valve member 74 for closing the vent passage 72 and another valve member 76 for closing the passage 53 to the pressure regulating chamber 54. The two valve Imembers are joined `back-to-back by a lost motion connection in the form of a compressible spacer 78. The valve is normally positioned by a compression spring so that valve member 74 is unseated from passage 72, valve member 76 maintains passage 53 closed, and the compressible spacer 78 is compressed. The valve has a stem 82 which engages one end of a pivotally mounted lever 84. When the other end of lever 84 is depressed, valve member 74 closes the vent passage 72 allowing spacer 78 to expand and valve member 76 to open passage 53, thereby further admitting pressurized gas through chamber 52 and passage 50 to the top of the cylinder. With this arrangement no material loss of pressurized gas through vent 72 occurs. Release of lever 84'closes valve member 76 in passage 53 and allows spring 80 to compress spacer 78 and lift valve member 74 to open vent passage 72. This vents cylinder 26, permitting spring 40 to lift piston 34 and draw a fresh charge into the cylinder, as previously explained.
To condition the dispenser for operation, it is merely necessary to insert a gas cartridge into the end of the pressure port 12 and then turn down the cap 18 to cause the piercing pin 20 to engage and puncture the end of the cartridge, thereby admitting gas into the pressure regulating chamber 54. During insertion the cartridge is sealed against the tapered sides .of gasket 24 before the piercing pin 20 punctures it, thus preventing gas leakage. With the bottom of the pump cylinder 26 immersed in the material in the container, the handle 84 of valve 70 is squeezed inwardly to close vent passage 72 and open passage 53 to admit pressurized gas to the upper side of the piston 34. This will drive the piston 36 to the bottom of the pump cylinder and compress spring 40 so that when the valve is subsequently released to remove the pressure from the pump and vent it to atmosphere, the valve will be pushed up by the spring to lill the cylinder with material to be dispensed.
To perform a dispensing operation, all that it is necessary for the operator to do once the pump is loaded is to actuate the handle 84 to place the pump under pressure. This displaces the piston smoothly downward in the cylinder under substantial pressure, and since ball valve 32 prevents escape ofthe material from the cylinder back into the container, the entire contents of the cylinder are displaced out discharge passage 42 and dispensed through the nozzle 48. Depending of course on the size of the cylinder 26 and the stroke length of piston 34, it has been found that an ample quantity of material can be dispensed in a single discharge for most purposes. In any event, at the end of the piston stroke, when dispensing ceases, handle 84 can be released briefly to permit valve 76 to close passage 53 -and valve 74 to open passage 72, thereby venting the top of the cylinder 26 to atmosphere and permitting spring 40 to return piston 34 to the top of the cylinder. During the upward stroke of the piston, ball valve 49 prevents backflow in the discharge passage and hence ball valve 32 is lifted and a fresh charge is sucked from the container through the inlet 30 and into the cylinder. I
A dispenser such as above described has many advantages, which will be apparent from the above description.
A single cap attachment may be used interchangeably with a variety of containers and converts each to the equivalent of a self-pressurized dispenser. Since the pressurized gas propellant is always confined within the body 10 of the cap or the cylinder 26, at no time is the gas ,pressure applied to the walls of the container 4. Hence the dispenser may use containers which are not especially vdesigned to withstand gas pressure, but are made of low strength materials, such as paper board, glass, etc., which have heretofore been impractical for use in the pressurized dispensing field. Y A I Another advantage of the cap attachment is that since -the gas propellant is never allowed to come into contact with the material in the container, the gas cannot diss olve in or dilute the material being dispensed, and the selection of the propellant gas from the standpoint of solubility, etc. is not critical so that any readily available inexpensive gas may be used.
As many changes could be made in the above construction and many apparently widely different embodiments of this invention could be made Without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above -descriptoin or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that the language used in the following claims is intended to cover all of the generic and specic features of the invention herein described and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.
l. A dispenser for owable materials comprising a container for the material to be dispensed, a cap on the container having a receptacle for a cartridge of compressed gas, a pump carried by the cap and removable therewith as a unit having an inlet within the container, a dispensing nozzle on the cap connected to the outlet of the pump, and means forming a gas flow passage separated from the interior of the container and connecting the receptacle and pump for applying compressed gas from the cartridge to the pump, and a manually operable valve in said passage.
2. A dispenser for owable materials comprising a container for the material to be dispensed, a cap on the container having a receptacle nor a cartridge of compressed gas, a pump cylinder carried by the cap extending downwardly into the container having an inlet adjacent its lo-wer end, a nozzle on the cap connected to the outlet of the cylinder, a piston in the cylinder, means forming a gas flow passage separated from the interior of the container and connecting the receptacle and the cylinder for applying compressed gas from the cartridge to the piston, and a manually operable valve in said passage.
3, A dispenser for owable materials comprising a container for the material to be dispensed, a removable cap on the container having a receptacle Afor a cartridge of compressed gas, a pump cylinder depending from the cap and having an inlet adjacent the bottom off the container, a nozzle connected to the outlet of the cylinder, a piston in the cylinder, biasing means operatively connected with the piston to move the piston in one direction, and means for applying compressed gas from the cartridge to the cylider to move the piston in the other direction including a passage in the cap Connecting the receptacle and the pump cylinder and a manually operable valve in the passage.
4, A dispenser for owable materials comprising a container for the material to be dispensed, a removable cap on the container having a receptacle for a cartridge of compressed gas, a pump cylinder depending from the cap and extending into the container having an inlet and an outlet orice adjacent its lower end, a one-way valve associated with said inlet orifice, a nozzle mounted in the cap, means connecting the nozzle with the outlet orifice of the pump cylinder including a one-way valve, a piston in the cylinder, a biasing spring between the piston and the lower end of the cylinder, and means lfor applying compressed gas from the cartridge to the upper end of the Vcylinder including a manually operable valve on the cap.
5. The dispenser defined in claim 4 wherein the manually operable valve is a three-way valve communicating with the cartridge and the cylinder having a I'irst position connecting the cartridge with the cylinder and a second position venting the cylinder to atmosphere.
6. A dispenser *for owable materials comprising a container for the material to be dispensed, a cap on the container having a receptacle for a cartridge of compressed gas, an apertured piercing pin associated with the receptacle to puncture a cartridge disposed therein, a pump cylinder depending from the cap and extending into the container having an inlet and an outlet adjacent its lower end, a nozzle in the cap connected to the outlet of the pump cylinder, a three-way valve in the cap having a vent opening, and means forming passageways from the apertured piercing pin to the valve and from the valve to the upper end of the pump cylinder, said valve having a first position connecting the pump cylinder to the vent opening and a second position interconnecting said passageways.
7. A dispenser for iiowable materials comprising a container for the material to be dispensed, a cap on the container having a receptacle for a cartridge of compressed gas, an apertured piercing pin disposed to puncture a cartridge placed in the receptacle, a pressure regulating valve communicating with the apertured piercing pin, a three-way valve communicating with the pressure regulating valve and having a vent opening, a pump cylinder depending from the cap connected at its upper end to the three-way valve, said three-way valve having a iirst position venting the cylinder to atmosphere and a second position admitting gas under pressure from the cartridge to the cylinder, a piston in the cylinder, a spring biasing the piston toward the top oi the cylinder, said cylinder having a one-way inlet orifice adjacent the bottom of the cylinder, means forming a one-way outlet passageway from adjacent the bottom of the cylinder to the cap, and a nozzle in the cap connected to said passageway.
8. A dispenser for use with a non-pressurized container to dispense the contents thereof comprising a cap adapted to close the top of the container having a selfcontainer source of gas under pressure, a piston pump comprising a cylinder depending from the cap having an inlet and an outlet adjacent its bottom end and arranged to be inserted within the container, a piston in the cylinder and a spring biasing the piston toward the top of the cylinder, a nozzle mounted in the cap, means connecting the outlet of the cylinder to the nozzle, means in the cap forming gas passageways between the source of gas under pressure and the top of the cylinder, and a manually operable vaive in the cap connected to said passageways.
9. A dispenser for use with a non-pressurized container to dispense the contents thereof comprising a cap adapted to be secured to the top of the container, means in the cap forming a receptacle for a cartridge of compressed gas, an apertured piercing pin in the cap arranged to puncture a cartridge disposed in the receptacle, a piston pump comprising a cylinder depending from the cap, a piston in the cylinder and a spring biasing the piston toward the top of the cylinder, means forming a passageway between the piercing pin and the top of the cylinder, a manually operable three-way valve mounted in the cap and connected to the passageway having a tirst position venting the cylinder to atmosphere and a second position admitting gas under pressure from the cartridge to the cylinder, a nozzle mounted in the cap, means forming a one-way outlet passageway between the nozzle and the lower end of the cylinder, and means forming a one-way inlet opening at the lower end of the cylinder.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,140,679 Mcieever Dec. 20, 1938 2,189,643 Ward Feb. 6, 1940 2,294,236 Levernier Aug. 25, 1942 2,606,696 Miner Aug. l2, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS 202,156 Great Britain Aug. 16, 1923