US 2824735 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 25, 1958 H. L. STAVENAU ETAL 2,824,735
CLOSURE OPERATOR IMPROVEMENTS I Filed April 5,1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 BY REUBEN w. KAPLAN 197T OENE Y5 INVENTOR.
HAROLD L. SI'AVENAU Feb, 25, 1958 H. 1.. STAVENAU ETAL' 2,
CLOSURE OPERATOR IMPROVEMENTS FiledApril 5, 1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 z 4 3 Eu w a 3"3 INVENTOR. HAROLD L. STAVENAU 'BY-R BF-N w- KAPLAN MOE/V578 Feb.- 1958 H. L. STAVENAU EI'AL 2,824,735
CLOSURE OPERATOR IMPROVEMENTS HAROLD L. snvzmu By REUBEN w. xmmu WORNEYS Feb. 25, 1958 Filed April 5. 1956 H. L. sTAvEN u ETAL O 2,824,735
CLOSURE OPERATOR IMPROVEMENTS 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 A/HB ' INVENTOR. mu) 1.. STAVENM) aausau w KAPLAN BY O WWW Feb. 25, 1958 H. L. STAVENAU EI'AL 2,824,735
CLOSURE OPERATOR IMPROVEMENTS 5 Sheets-Shet 5 Filed April 5, 1956 IN VEN TOR.
United States Patent CLOSURE OPERATOR IMPROVEMENTS Harold Louis Stavenau, Mankato, and Reuben W. Kaplan, Owatonna, Minn., assignors to Truth Tool Company, Mankato, Minn., a corporation of Minnesota Application April 5, 1956, Serial No. 576,435
14 Claims. (Cl.- 268- 104) This invention relates to improved closure operators and more especially to manual operators for opening, closing and latching windows, doors, hatchway closures and the like where the primary purpose of the opening is ventilation rather than access. A principal field of usefulness of the invention is as a window operator for canopy and the similar outwardly opening casement win dows of dwelling houses, offices and industrial buildings It is an object of the invention to provide a closureoperator wherein final closure and retaining force is distributed at several points along the free swinging-edge of the sash.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a closure operator having a compound action for closing a sash and then automatically latching the same at one or more additional places.
It is another object of the invention to provide a closure operator wherein closing force is applied at one or more places along the free swinging edge of the sash and then to apply automatically a final closure and latching force at several additional spaced places along the same side of the sash.
It is a specific object of the invention to provide an improved closure operator for window sashes and the like wherein a mechanism is provided and attached at a central place to a free edge ofthe sash for manipulating To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, this invention then comprises the features hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out inthe" claims, the following description setting forth in detail certain embodiments of the invention, these'be'ingindicative however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principles of the invention may be employed.
The inventionis' illustrated-in the drawings in which the same numerals refer to corresponding" parts and" in which:
Figure 1 is an ele'v'ati'onal vievsiillustratingl a modern" canopy-type window, shown from-theinsideand'shown with the'sash and operator'in the open position;
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view of the window and operator of the present invention, taken along the line and in the direction of arrows 22 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional view of a portion of the apparatus shown in Figure 2, namely the attachment'between the window operator and the window sash;
Figure 4 is a'generally horizontal sectional view of the window and operator, taken along the line and in the direction of arrows 4- 4 of Figure 2;
Figures 5, 6 and 7 are related views, similar to Figure 4, except that they showthe position of the window operator and the window as thru a succession of opening stages, to'wit: In Figure 5, as the sash has just begun to open; in Figure 6, as the opening has proceeded, and in Figure 7 stillfurther advanced toward the fully opened position. Itis noted, parenthetically, that these views relate to and should be considered with Figure 4, which in dotted lines shows the closed positions and in fulllines showsthe open position. Figures 5, 6 and 7 are all fragmentary views;
Figure 8 is-a horizontal sectional view, similar to Figure 4, but illustrating a slightly modified form of the invention. I
Figures 1, 2 and 4 in full lines, show the window open to its maximum condition of opening that is achieved through the operation of the window operator. It is noted however, that the window operator may, according to the present invention, be disconnected from the sashto permit further opening to a limiting position (shownin dot and dashlines in Figure 2 for cleaning, servicing. of storm windows and the like;
Referring to the drawings, and particularly Figures 17, it may be stated that the window operator of the present invention may be utilized for the operation of the modern canopy window; or casement windows'whether swung on horizontal or vertical axis. It is illustrated with reference to a modern canopy type window swung on a (floating pivot type)'horizontal axis, but it will be understood thatthe operator may be used equally well with canopy type windows swung on a fixed axis or with casement type;
windows swung on-either fixed or floating pivots.
Referring particularly to Figures l, 2 and 4, the window sash generallydesignated it), consists of the usual sash havinga glass pane in it. This window is manufactured and usually, sold with a frame 11 in which the window is mounted as a sales unit. The frame 11 forms a surround for the window and is built into the building structure when the window isinstalled. in the form of windowsshowh, the'sash itiis m'ounted'by means of a floating 'pivot- 12" at opposite endsof the upper sash rail 10A. The pins 12" extend outwardly beyond the-sash a slightdistance'ateither side and operate ina vertical track, not illustrated; in the vertical side portions of the frame 11. The window is also provided with a radius rod-14 at eachside or the window. Theradiusrod 14 isattach'ed by means of a pivot 14A to'the window frame'll'l' and is attached by pivot-15 to the sideportions of the sashi'ti. As'a' result the window sash 10 may bemoved 'from the dottedline position shownin Figure 2, (which is" the closed-position); through the full lineposition, (whiclristhe full open-position), as achieved by-"Athe window operator, and-thenafter the window operator isunhookedfrom the"window sash, as
herein explained; the".vind'ow"may bemoved a further distance 'to the limiting position shown in dot-dash lines; (which is the servicing position). inthe' latter position the window may be cleaned or the" storm sash; SS--rnay he installed-or removed fromthe exterior surface ofthe= window sash without" going outside ofthe building.- This is one usual form of modern canopy window. ,Whenthe windowds in the fully 'closed p'osition, as-shown in dotted lines in Figure 2, it closes against a molding 13 which is a part of frame 11 and forms an abutment running completely around inside the frame. The moldlng 13 has an inner edge 13A as shown in Figure 2 which also forms an abutment for the installationon the inside of the building, of the usual insect screen not shown.
For the operation of this kind of window, there is provided according to this invention, a window operator which is generally of the type shown and described in application Ser. No. 520,555 filed July 7, 1955 and application Ser. No. 540,671 filed October 17, 1955, which are incorporated herein by reference. The present invention forms improvements on the window operator shown in such prior applications.
In general it may be stated that the window operator is composed of a mechanism generally designated 20 which may be constructed according to the aforesaid prior applications. This window operator is mounted by means of a bracket generally designated 48 which has a horizontal portion 48A that is inturned and is screwed down to the exposed lower surface of the window frame 11. The particular shape of the bracket 48 may be varied according to the dimensions of the window to which the operator is applied. The particular form of window operator herein illustrated, and generally designated 20 has inwardly projecting upper and lower plates A and E between which there is pivoted a drum like member 21 which has stub shafts 22 at the top and at the bottom that extends thru apertures in the plates A and E and is pivoted therein. The drum 21 has an outwardly extending handle 23, which in this particular exemplification slants slightly upward and terminates in the hand piece 24. The handle 2324 and drum 21 operate as a unit and may be swung approximately 180 clockwise (to close) or counterclockwise (to open), from the full line position which represents the window open position to the dotted line position which is the window closed position, all in Figure 4. The arrow 112 shows the direction of swinging movement of handle 2324 for closing the window and arrow 113 shows the direction of swinging movement for openingthe window.
The drum 21 carries a crank pin (not shown) which is moved arcuately as the actuator handle 2324 is moved from its full line to its dotted line position and vice versa, the said crank pin (not shown) being thus moved to over-center positions which are slightly more than 180 apart, as the actuator handle is moved. The said crank pin (not shown) is connected by leverages and/ or cam surfaces for actuating the arms 26R and 26L thru their arcuate swinging paths of motion.
Upon the window operator mechanism 20 there are pivotally mounted a pair of primary arms 26R and 26L which are pivoted to the frame of the operator mechanism at the pivot point 25R and 25L. Within the mechanism 20 there are suitable mechanical components interconnecting the drum 21 and arms 26R and 26L so that as the drum 21 is rotated by movement of handle 23-44, the primary arms 26R and 26L will be swung simultaneously but in opposite directions so as to move them from the full line position to the dotted line position of Figure 4. Several forms of mechanical linkage for achieving such motions are specifically illustrated in the aforementioned applications which are incorporated herein by reference and need not be further referred to here. Each of the arms 26R and 26L is actually composed of an upper and lower component and these are provided with pivots at 27R and 27L which are in the form of rivets. The upper component of each arm 26R and 26L, terminates at (slightly beyond) the pivot 27R or 27L, but the lower components of the arms extend at 26RX and 26LX as shown in Figure 4. These extending portions terminate as a narrowed end 26RE and 26LE rescpectively which are shaped to engage a window retaining locking bracket as will later be described.
From the pivots 27R and 27L there extends other links as at 28R and 28L and these two links converge together as shown in Figure 4 and are joined at the pivots 29R and 29L to a. clip bracket 30, which as shown in Figure 4 is relatively short and lies parallel to the lower portion 10B of the window sash 10. The link 30 is provided with a slot 31. Referring to Figures 2, 3 and 4 particularly, it will be observed that the slot 31 in the link 30 hooks over the upwardly extending portion 32H of a bracket 32. The bracket 32 has a portion which is attached by the screws 34 to the inside of the lower part 108 of the sash 10 and the head 34H of the screw 34 are of such height that when the window is closed, the front edge of the link 30 will hit against the head if an attempt is made to raise the link 30 directly upward and slightly forward off of the hook portion 32H, which slants toward the sash. However, the inherent resiliency of the arms 26R-28R and 26L28L (right and left) is sufficient to permit them to bend as shown in Figure 2 so as to allow the arms to follow the upward swing of the free edge 10B of the sash and this resiliency also allows the arms and link 30 to be raised a little farther to the dotted line position shown in Figure 3, in which position the under side of the link 30 will clear the tip of the hook 32H without the front edge of link 30 engaging screw head 34H and the link may thus be disengaged so as to permit the window to be swung manually to the servicing position shown in Figure 2. After servicing the window is brought back manually to the full line position shown in Figure 2 and the link 30 is re-engaged and is held engaged by the natural resiliency of the arms and links 26R-28R and 26L-28L (right and left). The operation of the arms as previously described moves the window from the dotted line position to the full line position and vice versa, in Figures 2 and 4, for normally closing and opening the window. It may be stated that the swinging movement of the lever 23-24 is sufficient for moving the window from the fully opened position as shown in Figures 2 and 4 to the fully closed position shown in dotted lines in Figures 2 and 4 and vice versa.
In the foregoing description, the components 26R- 27R28R and 26L27L-2SL have been denoted arms and links but it will be recognized that they may also be denoted toggles wherein the operating force is provided by swinging one link, of each (i. e. by swinging links 26R and 26L), and this nomenclature is also adopted herein. The pivots 27R and 27L are, under this momenclature, toggle-pivots.
Referring to Figures 2 and 4, it will be noted that all of the force for pushing the window outward to the open position or for pulling it inward to closed position is concentrated at the connection between link 30 and the bracket 32 on the sash. In some forms of windows, which have as long dimension along the piece 1013, it has been found that some deflection will take place in the member 10B and permit the side rails of the window sash at 10R and 10L to come to rest at positions a slight disstance outward in respect to the window frame 11. This eflfect is noted particularly where the window, for tight closure, is drawn firmly home against a springy weathcrstripping which applies pressure against the inner side of the sash 10 or against its edges. Considerable force is necessary to bring the window sash 10 home to fully closed position when a spring-type Weatherstripping is used since this required deflection for effective sealing action.
According to the present invention, there are provided two additional clips at 100R and 100L. These clips are similar except that one is a right" and the other is a left and therefore only one need be described. Thus referring to the clip 100R, Figure 4, it is composed of a flange 101 which is seated against the inner surface of the lower portion 10B of the sash 10 and is held in place by the screws 102-102. The flange 101 extends downwardly and there is an integral inwardly extending flat portion 103 which presents; a horizontal. upper surface when the window is closed. It will be noted that this portion has inwardly converging edges 103A and 103B which are joined, together by an upwardly extending flange 104 which rises slightly above the level of the upper surface of the portion 103 and then continues inwardly as inturn flange 1&5. As a result of this configuration, a space is provided at 106, see Figure 2. It will be noted. that the'edge 107 of this clip is spaced outwardly in respect to the junction of the edge 103 with the portion 1M, as measured from the centerline of the window operator (to theright for clip 100R, Figure 4).
The purpose of the clips 100Rand 100L is to provide a detent or catch into which the ends 26KB and 26LE of the window operator arms, may swing and engage as the window operator draws the window to fully closed position and in so engaging, to apply a closing force on the freely moving portion of the window, which is the side 1013. This operation is illustrated in the sequence of views Figures 4-7. It will be noted that in Figure 4, the window sash is shown closed in dotted lines and in this position the front surface ofthe flange 104 of each clip (100R and ltitiL) is engaged by the tip end 26RE for the clip 100?. and 261E for the clip 100L of the window operating arms. In this position the window arms are tensioned by movement of the window operating lever 2324 for producing a strong force. in the direction of arrows 110-111 and in so doing, the lever arms 26RX and 26LX in engaging the surfaces 104 of the clips and lhtlL produce a strong inward pull on the lower corners of the window 1%. At' the same time the link 30 is being pulled inwardly by the operator and exerts a strong inward pull at the center of the lower sash: element 103. This is very desirable because the closing force is thus distributed along the free-swinging'side of the window sash and accordingly malfunctioningdue to the deflection of side 10B is greatly minimized. When it is desired to move the window to the open position the window operating lever 23-24, which is then'in the dotted lines as shown in Figure 4'is moved in the direction of arrow 113 and in so doing the primary arms 26R and 26L are swung in the direction of arrows 114 and 115, with the result that the plate 30 is moved outwardly in the direction of arrow 116, causing the window to open. At the same time the tip end 26RE and the corresponding tip end 26LE also swing in the-direction of arrows 114 and 115 respectively and move at a rate which is equal to or which" slightly exceeds ..the rate of movement in the opening direction of clips 100R and ltltBL. in this way the tips 26KB and 26LE do not constitute a restraining force during any portion of the open-.
ing movement once opening-is started. As the opening movement proceeds, the window reaches the position shown in Figure 5 where it will be seen that the tip 26RE is well clear of thesurface 104 of the clip 100R and as the motion then continues the tip 26RE gradually swings inwardly thru the position shown in Figure. 6
(where it has cleared the clip 100R) and then through the position shown in Figure 7 and finally to the window open position shown in full lines in Figure 4. The
swinging motion of the primary arms 26R and 26L towards window open position has the effect of retracting the tips MR1": and 26LE from engagement with; the 1 upper surface 103 of the clips 100R and ltitlL respec tively, and the window 110 is accordingly entirely free of such engagement of clips when the opening movement through the position'shown in Figure-5 to the dotted 'liiie position shown in Figure 4 the tips 26RE and 26LE again will engage the surfaces llldof the clips and'draw'the window home solidly as the operating lever 23'24 is moved in the direction of arrow 2l12,-to the closed position shown in dotted lines in Figure 4. It will. be noted from an. examination of Figure 2 that as the window swings to the fully opened position shownin full lines that the lever arms 26R28R and. 26L28L-are slightly bowed upwardly but thisis permitted by the inherent resiliency of the materials. The tip end 26RE- will be slightly downward from the bowed position of the link 28R but will still be sufficiently elevated so that as the window frame moves-from the position shown in Figure 6 to the position shown in Figure 5, the tip will be slightly above and overlie the level of the. surface 103 and will thereafter be guided-in by that surface in moving to the fully closedposition of the window.
Referring to Figure 8, in this figure there is shown a slightly modified form of the invention which isidentical in allparticulars to thatpreviously describedexcept that the link 30 is replaced by one which is longer in the direction'. of window width. This greater length link is shown at 130 in Figure 8, and is provided-with two slots 131R and 131L which engage with-twoproperly located clips generally designated 32R and 32L fastened to the free-swinging side 10B of the sash. By providing such extended link 130, the force for moving the window openand closed is distributed at several spaced locations, i. e. the location of the clips 32R and 32L. This is an advantage and together with the retaining clips R and 100L, serves to distribute to-four points alongthe free edge of the window the restraining force for holding the window closed; It will be noted in respect to Figure 8 that the dimension of the links 28R and 28L is slightly less than the lengths of the dimension 135, which is the distance from the pivot 27R to the pivot 25R on which the primary arm 26R swings. A similar dimension obtains for the linkages-at the left side of the operator. Similarly the dimension 136 from the pivot 27R to the tip end 26KB is somewhat less than the corresponding dimension of the form shown in- Figure 4.
While we prefer, for greatest rigidity to provide left and right toggles 26R27R28R and 26L27L28L, simultaneously operated, it is perfectly feasible, particularly for narrow casement windows to dispense withone of them, using either the right or left, depending upon the hand of the window. Such forms may be regarded as illustrated for a right'hand, in Figures 6 and 7, it being understood that figures also serve as fragmentary illustrations of the form shown in Figures 'l-4. right-left (double) or right orv left (single) forms the interlocking action of the primary arm (26R or 26L) upon the clip (100R or 100L) is retained according to this invention.
It is apparent that many modifications and variations of. this invention as hereinbefore set forth may be made without. departing from thespirit and scope thereof. The specific embodiments described are given by way of example only and the invention is limited only by the terms of the appended claims.
We claim as our invention:
1. An operator for closing and'opening windows, covers, doors and the like closures which'are mounted for hinged swinging motion for moving said closure to its opemclosed and intermediate positions and in so do ingfor: translating a free-swinging edge of the closure In either the 7 slightly inside the plane of the opening to a second position approaching one generally normal to the plane of said opening, said closure being provided with a clip surface which extends into the opening when the closure is closed, said clip surface being positioned so as to be engaged by said arm as it is swung to its first position for drawing the closure to closed position, and a link connected by a toggle pivot to the arm and connected to a point on the closure which is remote from said clip surface for actuating the closure, said arm and link forming a toggle.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 further characterized in that said arm and link are pivotally connected as a toggle and are composed of material suflicently resilient to permit deflection of the arm and link toggle out of said normal plane.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 further characterized in that said arm is composed of a short arm piece extending from said frame pivot to said toggle pivot and a long arm piece extending from said frame pivot to and beyond said toggle pivot and terminating with a tip for engaging said clip surface.
4. The apparatus of claim 3 further characterized in that said link is laid between the short arm piece and the long arm piece at said toggle pivot.
5. The apparatus of claim 1 further characterized in that said actuator is a pivotally movable lever having a crank pin thereon movable between overcenter positions slightly more than 180 apart.
6. An operator for the closure of an opening such as a window, door or the like, wherein the closure is mounted for hinged swinging movement to and from a position in which it closes the opening, thru intermediate positions to an open position in which the closure is in a plane at an angle to the plane of the opening and during such movement translates a free-swinging edge of the closure, which is opposite the hinged edge, toward and away from a cooperating seating edge of the opening, comprising an operator frame adapted to be mounted inside the opening adjacent said seating edge, first and second arms each pivotally mounted on the operator frame for swinging movement to and from an open position where they are swung close to each other and extend outwardly thru the opening, to a closed position where the arms are swung away from each other and extend in opposite directions from said operator frame and adjacent and along the freeswinging edge of the closure inside the opening, detent surfaces on the inside of the closure located so as to be engaged by the ends of the arms as they swing from the open towards the closed position for drawing the freeswing edge of the closure firmly against the seating edge when the arms are brought to their closed position, an operator pivot connection adapted to be mounted on said freeswing edge first and second links each pivotally connected at one end to said operator pivot connection and pivotally connected at their other ends to the first and second arms respectively, and manually operable means on the operator frame and connected to said arms for simultaneously swinging said arms to and from said open and closed positions.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 further characterized in that said manual operator comprises a hand lever pivoted on the operator frame for movement for swinging movement to and fro thereon.
8. The apparatus of claim 6 further characterized in that said links are pivotally connected to said operator pivot connection at a central location along said free swinging edge.
9. The apparatus of claim-6 further characterized in that said links are separately pivotally connected to said operator pivot connection at a central location along said free-swinging edge.
10. The apparatus of claim 6 further characterized in that said links are separately pivotally connected to said operator pivot connection at spaced locations along said free-swinging edge.
11. The apparatus of claim 6 further characterized in that the pivotal connection between said links and said operator connection is separable for detaching the freeswinging edge therefrom.
12. The apparatus of claim 6 further characterized in that the arms and links are composed of material which is sufiiciently flexible to permit them to be deflected out of their plane of free swinging movement.
13. An operator for the closure of an opening such as a window, door or the like, wherein the closure is mounted for hinged swinging movement to and from a position in which it closes the opening, through intermediate positions to an open position in which the closure is in a plane at an angle to the plane of the opening and during such movement translates a free-swinging edge of the closure, which is opposite the hinged edge, toward and away from a cooperating seating edge of the opening, comprising an operator frame adapted to be mounted inside the opening adjacent said seating edge, first and second arms each pivotally mounted on the operator frame for swinging movement to and from an open position where they are swung close to each other and extend outwardly through the opening, to a closed position where the arms are swung away from each other and extend in opposite directions from said operator frame and adjacent and along thefree-swinging edge of the closure inside the opening, a pair of releasable connections adapted to be mounted in spaced relation in said free-swinging edge and a pair of links one connected to each connection and extending to one of the arms.
14. An operator for the closure of an opening such as a window, door or the like, wherein the closure is mounted for hinged swinging movement to and from a position in which it closes the opening, through intermediate positions to an open position in which the closure is in a plane at an angle to the plane of the opening and during such movement translates a free-swinging edge of the closure, which is opposite the hinged edge, toward and away from a cooperating seating edge of the opening, comprising an operator frame adapted to be mounted inside the opening adjacent said seating edge, first and second arms each pivotally mounted on the operator frame for swinging movement to and from an open position where they are swung close to each other and extend outwardly through the opening, to a closed position where the arms are swung away from each other and extend in opposite directions from said operator frame and adjacent and along the free-swinging edge of the closure inside the opening, means on the frame and connected with the arms for simultaneously swinging said arms to open and closed positions, a pair of links of equal length pivotally connected, one to each arm at points on said arms which are equal distances from the points of pivotal connection of said arms on said operator frame a bar extending along said free-swung edge and having spaced pivotal connections with the ends of said links and a pair of spaced connections between the bar and said free swung edge and each disposed adjacent one of said pivotal connections, whereby to identically move spaced portions of said free swung edge.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,013,608 Jacobs Sept. 3, 1935