US 2825221 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 4, 1958 J. J. BRQUK 2,825,221
WALL EMBODYING MASONRY PANELS Filed 1390.18, 1952i f 2 sheets-sheet 1 V Hffmn/fyf WALL EMBODYING MASONRY PANELS Joseph John Brouk, St. Louis, Mo. Application December 18,1952, Serial No. 326,726
1 Claim. (Cl. 72-17) This invention relates to masonry panels and walls embodying same, and more particularly to an improved construction of panels for building purposes, and the walls into which such panels are incorporated, the panels being of an improved light-Weight waterproof and nailable character, possessing high thermal insulation properties and characterized by low shrinkage. The principles of the present improvements may be utilized in connection with various actual or simulated masonry walls in which the masonry units are preassembled prior to erection of or at least separately from the building or other structure. Since the improvements will usually be applied in a wall of brick or simulated brick, terminology in reference to brick is usedy herein, but without restriction in describing typical embodiments.
This applicant is aware that certain panels have heretofore been proposed, in which a number of brick are cast in a matrix in panel form, to approximate in appearance, conventional brick walls. Such panels have, however, not met with high favor in the building trades because of excessive weight of the individual panels with consequent high transportation and handling costs, and with difficulty and great expense in actual erection. Further recognized ditiiculties include high water absorption, low effective thermal insulation, high labor costs, and excessive shrinkage in formation of the panels as Well as in the walls constituted thereby. It is accordingly a general and principal object of the present invention to obviate the several short-comings heretofore experienced in the production, erection and usage of multiple brick panels of the types heretofore known.
A further important and general objective realized by the present improvements, consists in the production of a highly ornamental panel made in simulation of a brick wall and containing actual or simulated brick units, yet which may be securely and permanently assembled into the wall by the use of driven metal elements, such as wire nails. j
Yet another object of the current improvements is attained in an improved panel having the properties referred to in preceding objects, in combination with nailablestud elements which may consist of nail-receiving metal studding, vand which with still further advantages, may be incorporated into a complete wall providing both outside and inside kfinish surfaces, which isY light in weight, permanent, highly resistant to passage of moisture through the wall either by direct impact or by capillarity, and which is characterized by high thermal insulating values.
1 A rfurther highlyr valuable object of the present irn- ,provements' is attained in a panel as well as in complete walls' utilizing such panels, and of such `character n Athat the panels may be quickly and easily tailored and trimmed to other than original dimensions; may be quickly andeasily adapted to corners, and which 'are possessed `of greater flexibility and resilience than usual cement panels and` slabs, all with the advantages of Y* substantial reduction in weight, improved physical nited States PatentO- 2,825,22l nPatented Mar. 4, 1958 protperties, and much lower erection and transportation cos s. t
The foregoing and numerous other objects and advantages of the invention will appear from the following detailed description of a commercial type of panel, considered alone, or as a component of the improved complete wall structure, particularly when the description to follow is considered in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which: Y
Fig. 1 is a top or plan view of a typical panel containing present improvements as saine would appear when laid up in an open pan type of mold, the cast panel being serially broken away at different depths to illustrate various portions thereof;
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view of the panel in the mold, as taken along line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a slightly enlarged fragmentary sectional view through a portion of the cast panel in the mold, this view being located by line 3-3 of Fig. l;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary vertical section through a corner of the mold pan containing the cast panel, and located by line 4--4 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of a portion of a complete building wall, marginally broken away, to indicate the appearance of a plurality of the panels to constitute the outer portion of the wall;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary section taken depthwise through the structure of Fig. 5, in a vertical plane depthwise of the wall, also showing a portion of the footing and anchorage of the wall thereto, Fig. 6 being located by line 6-6 of Fig. 5; Y
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary enlarged View in a horizontal plane through the finished wall showing attachment of the panel and other elementsV to metal studding, and
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary horizontal section depthwise of the wall as located by line 8-8 of Fig. 5.
Referring now by characters of reference to the drawing and rst to Fig. l, the cast panels usually constituting the outside wall elements, are or may be conveniently formed in a flat receptacle such as indicated by the metal mold pan MP consisting of a shallow, metal, opentop receptacle, the walls of which are outwardly tapered to provide draft and facilitating release of the cast panels from the pan. In the formation of the individual panels according to present preference, the bottom of the mold pan MP is coated with a heavy mineral oil to prevent unwanted bonding or sticking of the matrix to the metal of the mold. Over the coated bottom MPB are laid in uniformly spaced relation and preferably in predetermined pattern, a plurality of brick units, of full or fractional face dimensions, and indicated at 10. The spacing between the units 10 approximates the Width of the usual mortar joints of a conventional brick wall. It is preferred that the units 10 have face dimensions identical` reasonable flexibility. For this purpose mesh of a type designated as 2" x 2, is usually employed, and is indicated at 11 (Fig. l), After the mesh 11 is in place, the material to constitute the matrix or body of the panel is poured in place up to a level flush with the top margins of the pan MP, permitted to set, and upon at least substantial completion of setting, is removed .from the pan for further 3 curing or setting if needed, thence to storage or shipment.
Many of the improved properties of the present panel are realized by the use of Vawspeialhlighbweight nailable concrete which sets to form the matrix orv'body 'of'fthe panel unit, the matrix being indicated at 12. lThis `Coincrete matrix includes in a proportion.oflapproxiinately 282 lbs. of Portland cement, l2 cu. ftfof aggregate of a weight of the order of 842 lbs. `per cufftgalsofadded water to produce the desired consistency o'fmix'tofacilitate thorough'hydration and easy processingprior toand at the time of introduction of the mix to the mold. T he v aggregate is by greaterpreference. of an elxpandedrnineral typey and byY Still 4further preisrsaeonsisfs Of'ref.- lite, this being a thermally expanded mineral derived-by heat-treating a natural product fora length of'tirne under such temperatures as to result in some dehydration, and in expansion of, the raw mineral to several -timesits original volume. Other ingredients maybe added to the mix, as desired or as specified for particular purposes. It i is pointed out, however, that proportions of perlite and Portland or perhaps othercements, possess a high ini herent moisture proofing character, when cast as de scribed. Also, because of the'highly porous, `llocoulent and light weight character of thisaggregateQ-there results a slab or panel unit which Vhas a high resistanceto spalling and cracking even under hammer blow gimpacts, and may be readily cut to 4provide panels of reduced or special dimensions, and whichinherently possessesA a high thermal insulation value or converselyI expressed, a` low heat conductivity. It will be understood, howeveigas d istinctly contemplated that added waterproofingingredients, several of which are well known in the building trades, may be either incorporated in the mix, or if-desited, may be. applied tothe surface orisurfaces of the finished panel. Obviously otheringredients, usually in low proportions, may ber added for special effects, such as tinting or other particularly desired effects, all without affecting the essential properties of thefinished panel and particularly the highly waterproof, insulating and nailable characteristics.
Brief reference was heretofore made to the desirability of providing certain marginal recesses in the finished panel. These are, as will now be obvious from Figs. l and 5, utilized for the reception of tie brick or key brick for structural interconnection of marginally adjacent panels when erected in the wall. A low cost expedient for this purpose consists in introducing pieces of wood such as indicated at 20 `to the mold, prior to pouring the matrix. When the panel is removed from the `mold pan, the rdummy pieces 20 are readily removed leaving accurately defined brick or half brick receiving recesses in the frontal faces of the margins of the unit. Thus, when adjacent panels are erected margin to margin in the wall, separate elements 13 are fitted into the spaces left by the dummies 20, `are mortar-ed in place with a mix similar to or identical with that constituting thebody 12. of the panel, thus resulting in an indistinguishable marginal interlocking effect. It should Abe noted as a preference that the cavities caused tovremain` in the margins of the cast panels are confined to the `surface portions of the panel so that exact depthwise placement of the key brick units is automatically provided f or in the finished wall.
Many of the properties of the panel to which the description thus far has been limited, maybe carried into a complete wall providing finished inside and outside surfaces such a wall possessing high insulatingand moisture resistant properties, and being of a character such'as to insure low heat loss through the wall.
VOne example of such a Wallis best shown by Figs. 5, 6 andr7, Figs. 5 and 6 showing a conventional concrete footingCFin which, at predetermined center spacings, are located a number ofranch'or bolts AB. These may be extended into suitable plate members'shown asachannels, and indicated at CM. Into the-channel members of the brick panels l Y `of the concrete tillers QL and the plaster layer PL, these are set a suitable number, at predetermined spacings, of nail-receiving steel stud elements S. Nail-receiving beam sections of this type are per se, heretofore known in the trade, being sold under the trade name of Stransteel and perhaps others. The steel studding shown is characterized by spaced web members W providing therebetween nail receiving slots. The nail opening NS permits, with holding deformation and interlocking effect, the reception of a `wirenail `or thelike WN or other suitable driven metal fasteners. Thus erection of the plurality of wallforming panels involves, by reason of the nailable character of the matrix 12, the driving of nails through certain of the mortar jointsof each panel, along the lines defined by the studs S, it being noted that care has been taken to select such a size of wire mesh and so to locate the wires 11 thereof in the mold, that for the most part these wires fall out of line and away from registry with the mortar joints of the panel. Driving of the nails WN ispreferably carried to a degree such that the nail heads are recessed somewhatl below aflufshy relation with the outer `portion of the mortar` joint, the resulting countervsink or cavity outwardly of the head and indicated at 22 being sealed with mortar or concrete matching that appearing in the mortar lines,'and thus avoidingany marring of appearance or` possible rust ystreakingl effects.
` lt isvo'f course entirely feasible to employ the brick panell units by'application thereof externally to existing buildings, even over weatherboarding or directly to wood sheathing, or, when desired, to wood studding elements. When the panels are mounted by nails or driven metal fasteners, the only requisite Vas to'the support, is that it include nail-receiving and -retention portions.
o, I n theV caseeofY new buildings the choice of studding andinnerfinishwill be dictated by various requirements of appearance, imposedloading, and other factors. In rnany cases howevcr, a highly'desirable and novel wall structure utilizes a lath'of metal ML which may be attached for example, byA nails WN extended through the lath and into the nailseats NS of the metal studs, the wire lath `forming a support forl a layer of plaster PL which, in fullest embodiment of the several possible combinations, may consist of a usual plaster mix, except it contains a substantial proportion of an expanded mineral, herein referred to as an aggregate', and by particular pret'- erence, the use of perlite as such aggregate in a proportion substantially that of thesandor other inert ingredients `usually utilized.
As the complete wall has been thus far described, there will exist a space between each of the adjacent vertical studding elements. Such air space' affords a fair degree of thermal insulation. However,;the load bearing capacity of` the .wall may be materially enhanced, and also its insulating characteristics, by the use of a concrete layer CL serving as a filler between the vertical stud elements.
'The tiller material may consist of a concretemix of the Islight draw Vor taper, as by upwardv and outward slope of the side walls Iof the mold pan MP. This provision results in a slight deviation from a right angular relation of the marginal edges of cach panel, and the face thereof, thusresuIting. in a mortar joint 23fthe sectional form of which will'appear from Figs. 7 'and '8. These joints,
where same occur in positions toA be frontally visible, will 4atthe time of erection of the panels on the job, be filled with a concretel orv mortar` matching in ,appearance that utilized in kthe matrix 12,and between `the Vbrick units 10,
thus renclei-ing.virtuallyI invisible any lines of demarcationjbetweenadjcnt llliels.` i
VIn addition tothe uu'sallyhigh insulation properties several elements are characterized by a high resistance to moisture absorption. ln addition, it is important to note that particularly the brick panels, but to a high degree also the concrete CL and the plaster layer PL, are characterized by a degree of flexibility or elasticity greatly in excess of the degree to which these properties exist in concrete mixes conventionally utilized for building purposes. The flexible character of these wall elements conduces to many advantages in that they are thereby rendered much less subject to cracking tendencies due to minor settling effects of the building. This factor is still further enhanced by the low shrinkage of the panels and other elements containing the light weight aggregate. Furthermore, it will appear as highly advantageous that this unusual degree of flexibility enables the adaptation of the brick panels to slight aplanar inequalities of the supporting wall structure. For example, when the panels are applied to an old wall, it is often the case that for many reasons, the sheathing of the various parts of the wall may not lie exactly in a true common plane. The llexibility of the present panels as the outer facing enables nevertheless a close supporting contact at all points between the panels and the support rearwardly thereof.
It should be further noted as of particular advantage, that the fabricated panels or units may be quickly and readily severed along predetermined lines, so as to adapt them to irregular wall areas, or to bring them to smaller dimensions at the end of an applied course of row of the panels. Thus severance of the brick units may be readily effected by usual masonry practice. Heavy duty wire cutters or steel hack saws are employed to sever the wires 11 of the mesh layer, and the matrix 12 is readily saw-cut along the predetermined line of severance, all without highly skilled or specialized labor.
The manner of forming up the individual panels consisting of the brick units and the layer 12 extended between the units to constitute the mortar joint portions, will have been apparent from the preceding description. In the erection of a complete wall as described, the usual order of events will consist of the pouring and setting of the concrete foundation CF with the anchor bolts AB suitably spaced, and with the channeled plates secured to the top of the footing as shown. The vertical studding elements, if of metal as shown, will be set in place and if desired, welded or bolted to the channel plate members and suitably tied at their upper ends to assure parallelism through the period of building the wall. The concrete filler between the studs as indicated at CL7 may be applied from either side of the Wall, or as usually preferred, may be poured from above after application of the panels to the studs, and after attachment of the metal lath ML, but before the application of the plaster layer PL. When this order of steps is followed, it will have appeared that the setting of the fillers CL will serve to bond together as virtually a monolithic unit, the inner and outer face portions of the wall so that the outer panel, the inner plastic layer and the ller portion CL will completely embed the studding elements. Such a wall possesses a high loading capacity.
It will of course be understood that any of the structurally useful and feasible subcombnations of the elements PL, CL, and the panels, may be utilized without necessarily embodying all of the major parts of the Wall as described in detail.
The phrase simulated brick as frequently used herein, is selected due to the preference for brick of reduced thickness. The units 10 may however consist of tired clay or of any other desired ceramic material, including either natural or simulated stone units.
Although the invention has been referred to by particularized reference to certain examples, the detail of description should -be understood solely in an instructive,
rather than in any limiting sense, numerous variants be-V ing possible within the fair scope of the claim hereunto appended.
I claim as my invention:
In a wall, a concrete footing, a plurality of vertical metal stud members spaced apart and arranged along an intermediate plane depthwise of the wall, the stud members each characterized by a nail-receiving and engaging slot enabling nails to be driven into the stud members, a plurality of spaced panels located in marginal adjacence substantially in a vertical plane adjacent the stud members, the panels being attached to said stud members, each of said spaced panels including a pattern arrangement of simulated brick units substantially uniformly spaced apart in simulation of mortar joints between the ybrick units, and a matrix in which the simulated brick units are set, the matrix consisting of a concrete containing a Portland cement and a substantial proportion of perlite, and of a mix such that nails may be driven through the panel into the metal stud members, the matrix of each panel being substantially in the form and outline of a rectangular slab, opposite margins of the panel being characterized by recesses, the recesses being in opposed relation in adjacent panels with each recess conlined to the marginal surface region of its respective panel, a brick unit secured in said opposed recesses and interlocking the adjacent panels with substantial uniformity of appearance of the frontal region of the wall, a flexible wire reenforcing mesh in the matrix of each of the panels and located rearwardly of the simulated brick units thereof, with the wires of said mesh substantially out of register with the mortar joints of the panel, whereby to facilitate the driving of nails through the panel, a plurality of nails extending through the panels and into the nail-receiving slots of the metal stud members, with the heads of the nails driven to a countersunk relation and concealed in the mortar joint regions Where driven, and expanded metal lath adjacent the inside faces of the stud members, driven metal elements engaging said lath and extended into the nail slots in the stud members, a concrete ller between adjacent stud members and between the lath and said matrix, the concrete ller consisting of a Portland cement mix with a substantial amount of perlite as an aggregate, the concrete filler being bonded to the stud members, lath and matrix, and a plaster layer engaging and supported by the expanded metal lath, the plaster layer being characterized by a substantial proportion of perlite.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES Journal of the American Concrete Institute, p. 1949.