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Publication numberUS2830300 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 15, 1958
Filing dateMay 9, 1957
Priority dateMay 9, 1957
Publication numberUS 2830300 A, US 2830300A, US-A-2830300, US2830300 A, US2830300A
InventorsMarcus Schwartz
Original AssigneeS & S Ind Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 2830300 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 15, 1958 M. SCHWARTZ 2,830,300

BONING Filed May 9, 1957 FIG. 9


FIG. 3

INVENTOR. Marcus Schwarfz ATTORNEY United States Patent 9 BUNING Marcus Schwartz, Flushing, N. Y., assignor to S. & S.

Industries, Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation Application May 9, 1957, Serial No. sss,as7.

1 Claim. 01. 2-257 This invention relates to boning which is generally used in ladies garments for stiffening and/or shaping.

Broadly, it is an object of the invention to provide terminals for boning for garments, namely, brassieres, girdles, corsets and the like, which have a desired and predetermined degree of flexibility and through which a machine sewing needle can pass rapidly and easily without breakage.

More particularly, it is an object of the invention to attach to one or both ends of a garment boning consisting of wire, fiat steel, or the like, a flexible plastic terminal preferably of polyethylene, or the like, through which a machine sewing needle can pass without loss of speed or breakage so that such terminals will extend the com plete length of the pocket in which the garment stay is housed.

At the present time, garment boning is made of spiral or bent wire or flat steel containing metal caps or tips to avoid sharp ends on the boning. Such caps, tipsor terminals have several marked disadvantages. The boning so tipped extends only between the upper stitching lines which are usually or /2" from each end of the garment. This boning length is now determined because the lines. of stiching which run parallel to the ends must not pass over the boning since the machine sewing needle would break. Thus, the portion of the garment between the ends of the boning and the garment, having no support, rolls or curls over causing discomfort to the wearer and in time, tearing of the garment at each end of the boning pocket. The end of the boning is rigid and, therefore, hard to theskin of the wearer. The boning shifts somewhat in the'boning pocket since the width of the pocket is not always the same width as the boning.

I have, therefore, provided plastic terminals or tips for garment boning which are made so that the boning is practically the full length of the boning pocket, that is from the very top of the garment to the opposite end, and through which the machine sewing needle can easily and rapidly pass so that not only is the garment boning anchored in the pocket by the sewing thread but production is accelerated. Furthermore, the terminals or tips have a desirable degree of flexibility which permits movement of the body without discomfort while the garment is supported to the very ends by the boning. It has been also found that the ends of the boning pockets are not as readily worn and susceptible to tearing as is the case with boning which has metal terminals or tips.

The garment industry as a whole has been continuously seeking improvements in boning and methods for tipping same. My invention is considered to be a distinct advance in the art. My tips or terminals provide a flexible, smooth and appropriately contoured plastic tip which is molded-on, or secured intimately to the boning ends, the tip extending beyond the end of the boning approximately /2" or whatever extension may be required to permit stitching through the tip thus sewing the boning and anchoring it directly within the garment.

Extensive analytical engineering and laboratory test f 9 1.- 3325 b en made todetermine the type of plastic, and a and lower r polyethylene to'be an optimum Patented Apr. 15, 1958 construction in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a greatly enlarged plan view of one end of one form of metal wire garment stay.

Fig. 2 is a side or edge view of the end of the stay as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is an enlarged plan view of one end of another form of metal wire garment stay.

Fig. 4 is an enlarged plan view of one end of a garment stay of flat, steel. V

Fig. 5 is a plastic garment stay terminal, partly broken away, which can he slipped onto the end of a wire or fiat steel garment stay and attached thereto.

Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken through line 6-6 of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7 is a plan view of a portion of the inside of a garment, showing the upper end of a garment stay presently in use, and showing the end extending to the stitch ing line, the garment stay pocket being partly broken away. i

Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken through line 8--8 of Fig. 7.

Fig. 9 is a plan View of a portion of the inside of a garment, showing the upper end of the improved instant taken through line 10-10 .ends of which are generallycapped or tipped with rigid metal terminals 21, shown in Fig. 7. Garment boning such as shown, is inserted in pockets or terminals 22 formed in the garment by parallel lines of stitching 23. The edges 24 of the garment are formed by turning back the fabric upon itself and stitching a line of stitching 25 parallel to the outer edge, generally about one-half inch from the edge. Garments, such as brassieres, girdles, corsets, and the like, which employ the use of boning, are sewn in large production and time is a big factor in this competitive trade. At the present time, the type of garment boning capped by tips 21, as shown in Fig. 7, are of a length to extend between the upper and lower rows of stitching 25, leaving a soft, bendable or foldable portion of the garment between the stitching 25 and the outer edge 24. This soft portion, if on a brassiere or girdle, will curl and bend, as shown in Fig. 8, making: it uncomfortable for the wearer and failing to provide the necessary support at the upper and lower portions of the garment. The reason for not extending the boning shown in Figs. 7 and 8 to the very ends of the garment is that the sewing machine needle would break if it struck the metal cap or terminal 21 or the wire it) in making stitching line 25. I have, therefore, provided an improved cap tip, or terminal 26, made of a soft, flexible plastic, such as polyethylene or like material which can be easily pierced by a sewing machine needle without breaking and provide additional desirable characteristics for use in garments of the type heretofore mentioned.

Various tests were made to determine the best plastic material for needle penetration. eter hardened, sharp needle, unthreaded, test results show choice. This is undoubt By using a .050 diam-.

edly a result of the combination of softness of material and low coeflicient of friction values. The tests were made on a Dillon Tensometer equipped with a special proportional beam.

PENETRATION LOADS [Sheet thickness, .Cll*all tests.]

Material Szgnple Load Reo. quired, lbs. M

Average lbs 0. 38

Average lbs 0. 86

1 2 3 2 2.; Acetate 3 2.

Average lbs Several plastics can be selected which will satisfy the general requirements, but laboratory and application tests show that a low density polyethylene is most applicable. This is a semi-rigid type of polyethylene produced by polymerization using an oxygen catalyst at high pressures and temperatures. Characteristics of low density polyethylene is the very low inherent coefficient of friction and the fact that it is chemically inert and does not react or degenerate in the presence of mineral or aliphatic acids, soaps, detergents, aqueous salt solutions, or similar compounds. thus making it highly resistantto water absorption and, therefore, dimensionally stable under all normal conditions of usage. The following is the characteristic range of principal physical properties of the low density polyethylene group:

Density (S. G.) 0.91-0.93 Hardness-Shore 40-50 Stiffness modulusp. s. i 10,000-25,000 Tensile strengthp. s. i a 1500-2000 Elongation-percent 200-550 Heat resistance F 212 A specific grade has been selected within the group spread above mentioned, that is soft enough to completely avoid any abrading action against the cloth of the garment. It is also sufficiently flexible to permit the tip extension to be repeatedly at 90 to the axis of the boning without mechanical rupture or fatigue and without taking a set in the direction of banding.

The currently used steel boning with a characteristic crimpcd metal cap inherently causes one of two possible detrimental effects; one, if the garment designer arranges for the boning to extend to the outline edge of the garment, or completely fill the cloth tunnel or pocket for support purposes, it will require interruptions in sewing of the garment as each seam crosses a bone, whereas my plastic tip with tab extension permits continuous seaming, or stitching and in the aggregate, permit important cost savings by reduction of labor input. The cost of interruption of sewing is important enough to cause some designers to use a shorter piece of boning than normally necessary so that it will not extend to end of garment or into seam line. This permits unsupported edges of garment to roll or curl in actual wear. The use of a plastic sewing tip or tab will permit the designer to obtain full length support without a cost penalty; and two, the other basic difiiculty currently experienced .is a function of It is also very low in fluid permeability, 1

, a 4 subsequent shrinkage of the garment fabric. For proper fit the boning comes to the garment edge ortunnel end, but, after the garment has been washed several times, the fabric shrinks but the boning with a metal cap does not and consequently high end stresses are imposed on the metal boning unit causing the end of the boning to break through the garment. This is, obviously, destructive to the garment and, it protrusion is on the inside of the gar ment it can be painful and injurious to' the wearer. With my plastic boning, however, when end pressures are applied, the plastic material is such that it cannot abrade or pierce the fabric.

To prove this fact engineering tests were performed to determine the abrasion on cloth of my plastic tip and a boning with a metal tip. Holding the boning in vertical position, the tip in contactwith a thin fabric, 1.5 lbs. loading on the tip and the boning being moved back and forth in contact with the thin fabric, one traverse in either straight line direction was tabulated as a cycle with the following results:

Metal Cap Polyethylene No evidence of fabric failure after 500 cycles. The plastic wears slightly instead of fabric failure. I

Referring to Fig. 1, the terminal or cap 26 of flexible plastic is preferably molded directly onto each end of Wire 20 so that a good portion, possibly one-half or a little less, attaches itself to the wire 20 with the upper tips as compared with the conventional metal ends. The

comparison gave a direct measure of the relative reactive forces, imposed in actual use, which tend to force the ends of boning through the garment material to cause abrasion and ultimate fabric failure as well as pressure upon the body of the wearer. The tests were made on a Dillon Tensometer equipped with a special proportional beam.

TEST DATA from which it is apparent that the resistance of the metal capped boning is several times higher than that of the polyethylene tips.

It should be noted that the lower portion 28 of terminal or tip 26 bows outwardly or is convex on opposed sides creating a Wider cross-sectional area than the upper portion 27,. thus providing a greater degree of rigidity from about its center portion to its inner or attached end than from its center portion to its outer or free end. The lower portion 28 is also strengthened by the upper end of the wire 20 fortifying the strength and rigidity of the lower portion 28. The upper extreme end 27 of terminal or tip 26 is rounded both laterally and endwise, as seen in Figs. 1 and 2 at numerals 29, 30, respectively, for greater ease and comfort to the wearer of the garment. The opposed faces of terminal 26 slope gradually laterally and longitudinally towards the outer edges, as shown in Figs. 2 and 6.

In using the boning with terminal 26, the garment pocket 22, and the boning therein, extends to practically the very ends of the garment pocket, that is to edges 24 so that the upper portion 27 also lies within the border space between stitching 25 and edge 24. Thus, the sewing machine needle sews right through the soft, flexible plastic without losing speed or breaking of the needle. Not only is the boning held within the garment pocket itself but its terminals 26 are also fixed in lateral immovable position by stitching 25 passing therethrough. This also applies to the opposed terminals 26.

Fig. 3 shows the same terminals 26 shown in Figs. 1 and 2, except that said terminals are molded thereon on opposed ends upon a spiral flattened wire, known in the industry, instead of the serpentine wire 20 shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 also shows the same opposed terminals shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, except that such terminals are molded upon fiat steel stays, also known in the industry.

Figs. 5 and 6 show a modified terminal 31 which is of approximately the same configuration as that shown in Figs. 1 and 2, except that there is a channel 32 in the lower portion, approximately one-half the length of the terminal for the purpose of receiving the ends of the stay, whether it be bent wire or flat steel. Terminal 31 may be attached to the wire or flat steel by a suitable adhesive placed in channel 32 or by the application of heat and pressure.

Another feature of my plastic cap or terminal is the permanence of the plastic cap attachment which makes separation from the boning an impossibility. In the case of crimped metal caps, these can separate and move away from the boning end within the garment tunnel thus exposing the dangerous raw cut boning ends.

It is obvious that various changes and modifications may be made in the details of construction and arrangement of form and parts without departing from the general spirit of the invention.

1 claim:

A garment boning comprising an elongated relatively wide and flat flexible metallic member having a terminal at one end thereof, said terminal being of resilient plastic material readily pierceable by a sewing machine needle, said terminal being of substantial width and length and having opposed side faces and a marginal edge, the inner portion of said terminal embracing and being attached to said one end of said metallic member and contributing a substantial degree of rigidity and strength thereto, the outer portion of said terminal extending beyond said end of the metallic member and being free and flexible under body pressure, and said opposite side faces of the terminal being convex.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,276,700 Kleeman Aug. 20, 1918 1,297,742 Shorrock Mar. 18, 1919 1,459,518 Seley June 19, 1923 2,459,001 Murray et al. Jan. 11, 1949 2,469,722 Gowen May 10, 1949 2,517,217 Laub Aug. 1, 1950 2,728,500 Guilford Dec. 27, 1955 I FOREIGN PATENTS 740,633 Great Britain Nov. 16, 1955 1,035,785 France Apr. 22, 1953

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1276700 *Mar 12, 1917Aug 20, 1918Felix KleemannCorset and like stiffener.
US1297742 *Nov 14, 1917Mar 18, 1919Arthur ShorrockCorset-stay.
US1459518 *Mar 27, 1922Jun 19, 1923George H BarlowCorset
US2459001 *Feb 24, 1947Jan 11, 1949Alley Gordon TCurtain rod guide
US2469722 *Jun 3, 1946May 10, 1949Gowen Jessie LCorset stay
US2517217 *Jun 23, 1948Aug 1, 1950Clay Laub HenryCurtain threading device for curtain rods
US2728500 *Nov 18, 1953Dec 27, 1955Guildford Joseph RDetachable shields for application to the end portions of channel shaped metal curtain rods
FR1035785A * Title not available
GB740633A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2908913 *Dec 4, 1958Oct 20, 1959Sobel Metal Products IncGarment bone
US2938215 *Dec 2, 1958May 31, 1960S & S Ind IncPlastic boning tips
US3032775 *Jul 16, 1959May 8, 1962Dominion Corset Co LtdBoning for foundation garments
US3799175 *May 9, 1973Mar 26, 1974Rowell RGarment frame
US6202221Dec 15, 1999Mar 20, 2001Higgins Supply Company, Inc.Flexible support stay
US6468130 *Jun 28, 2001Oct 22, 2002S&S Industries, Inc.Underwire for brassiere
US6526597Feb 12, 2002Mar 4, 2003Kevin D. ShepardWaistband stay for clothing
US20110185478 *Aug 4, 2011Embry (China) Garments Ltd.Extendable support frame for undergarment
DE1095224B *Jan 15, 1959Dec 22, 1960S & S Ind IncSchutzkappe aus Kunststoff zum Aufstecken auf einen flachen, elastischen Miederstab
WO2011083334A2Jan 7, 2011Jul 14, 2011Nigel CooleUnderwire
U.S. Classification2/257, 450/143, 2/258
International ClassificationA41C1/20, A41C1/00
Cooperative ClassificationA41C1/20
European ClassificationA41C1/20