US 2832339 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 29, 1958 s. J. sARNor-F ErAL HYPODERMIC INJECTOR 5 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Sept. 2, 1953 TANLEYJARNOF/'T DA wo M PTr/S?.
BY mag-(q TTNEK.
3 Sheets-Sheet 2 April 29, 1958 s. J. sARNoFF ETAL HYPoDERMrc INJEcToR Filed Sept. 2, 1955 April 29, 1958 s. J. sARNoFF HAL HYPODERMIC INJECTOR 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Sept. 2, 1953 llvc .am .m M 6 Nn T e E/ N A n Vw R h5 o m l r JP T (om av y A I. EM MD Y A mm WM# N 50W /IA s .WWWMWWH HIHIMMIW s dov IIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIII mv 1| @Mllllllll IIIIII mMllIllH f y l f l l f f l f l f f l f l .f f NW N@ Gm. y
2,832,339 Patented Apr'. 2i?, li
Sitaniey ll. Sarnen?, Easton, Mass., and David Ml.. Potter, Plainfield, l lu il., assignors to Potter Pharmaceutical Corporation, Union, N. ti., a corporation of New Liersey Appiication September 2, i953, Serial No. 378,022
9 (El. 128W-Zig) This invention relates to hypodermic syringes, and
more particularly to a hypodermic syringe having a re* tractile needle which can spring with substantial speed and force from a sheathed to an unsheathed position simultaneously ejecting huid therethrough.
One of the objects of the present invention is to provide a novel hypodermic needle device for containing a preselected charge of medicament, which device can be easily carried on the person of the user with the needle thereof in a sheathed condition, the device being quickly and easily useable by disengaging a safety lock and pressing one extremity of the device against the portion of the body which is to receive the medicament, the needle rapidly and automatically springing outwardly from such extremity.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a novel and inexpensive hypodermic injector device which is well adapted for use, for example, by soldiers in the field who, when wounded, may rapidly and easily selfinject medicament into their bodies, through their clothing if necessary.
A further object is to provide a novel injector device of this character which can be used with great ease and without the need for skill, all that is required being the pressing of one extremity of the device against the region which is to receive the medicament.
The invention in one aspect thereof is constituted by a hypodermic syringe needle device having a main frame which may be in the form of a rigid hollow tube. A small vial or cartridge of medicine is positioned within the tube adjacent an extremity thereof. the cartridge, in its initial position, is a hypodermic needle toone extremity of which is secured a needle piston which is axially shiftable within the cartridge. The opposite extremity of the needle is in alignment with a suitable I.
opening in the vial through which it may be thrust. The opening is sealed by` a puncturable or pierceable Theextremity of the needle, however, in its initial position does not Vprotrude from the seal and thus is fully withdrawn within the cartridge. Means are provided for urging the aforementioned piston axially of the cartridge and hence thrusting the needle through the seal and out the aforementioned extremity of the tube simultaneously causing the medicament therein to spurt from the end of the hollow needle, there being suitable communication provided between the chamber containing the medicament and the passage through the needle. The aforementioned piston urging means includes a coil spring which is releasably lool-:able in a compressed condition. The means for releasably locking the coil spring in such condition in turn includes a shaft, which is embraced by such spring, one end of the shaft engaging one end of the spring, e. g. via a spring piston secured to the shaft.y and the other end `of the shaft being releasably securable by suitable detent means to the outer or hand end of the tube (as opposed to the inner or needle end thereof).
Vtithdrawn within The detent means are releasable in response to pressure exerted thereupon.
T he above and further objects and novel features of the invention will more fully appear from the following detailed description when the same is read in connection with the accompanying drawings. It is to be expressly understood, however, the drawings are for the purpose of illustration only and are not intended as a definition of the limits of the invention, reference for this latter purpose being had primarily to the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Pig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view,l with certain parts not shown in section, of one form of device embodying the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view, partly in section and with parts broken away, of the righthand portion of the device shown in Fig. 1, but in a different operating position, namely, with a safety lock disengaged therefrom;
Fig. 2a is an end view of a trifurcated shaft used in the device of Fig. 2;
3 is also a fragmentary view of the: same portion of the device as shown in Fig. 2 but with the parts thereof in a still different operating position;
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view, partly in section and with parts broken away, showingthe extremity of the apparatus from which the needle protrudes, the parts of the device being in an operating position intermediate between that at the outset and that at the termination of the operation;
Fig. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view, partly in section and with parts broken away, showing the parts of the apparatus after the termination of one cycle of operation;
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of a needle secured to a modified form of needle piston cr needle hub which may be employed in the present invention;
Fig. 7 is a longitudinal fragmentary view, partly in section and with parts broken away, of a modified form of the invention;
Fig. 8 is a longitudinal sectional view, partly in section and with parts broken away, showing a further modification of the invention; and
Fig. 9 is a sectional View taken substantially on line 9-9 of Fig. 8.
Referring to the drawings in greater detail, the injector device comprises a main frame 1t) of tubular configuration and preferably circular in cross section. Thus the main frame in the form shown is, for example, a cylinder. Within such tube it) there is contained a vial 11, usually of glass, which in turn contains a charge of medicament l2. Within the vial (or container) 11 there is positioned (Fig. l) in its initial operating position a hollow needle and piston device, shown generally at 13. When such r piston is thrust axially to the left, as viewed in Fig. 1,
the needle is thrust out of the end of the tube 10 and delivers the medicament through a hollow passage 14 (Fig. 4) therein via an opening 15 and via the orifice i6 at the outer extremity thereof. The needle and piston means aforementioned constitute in detail a hollow needle i7 and a piston 1S to which the needle is secured at the center thereof. The vial or container of medicament, as is well shown in Fig. 4, is provided with an opening at i9 through which the needle i7 may be thrust, such opening 19 being normally sealed by a suitable frangible or puncturable seal, such as a rubber stopper 20, having an annular collar portion Zita for encircling a vial neel; 21 which surrounds the aforementioned passage 19, said seal 20 also having a membrane, as at 20h, which seals the aforementioned opening 19 except, of course, when the needle 17 is thrust therethrough, as shown in Fig. 4 and as will be explained hereinafter.
assenso The vial 11 thus is sealed at the lefthand extremity n thereof (Figs. l and 4) by the seal 2@ and at the righthand extremity thereof by a suitable resilient disc member 22, for example, of rubber, which prevents contamination of the contents of the vial 11 and cooperates with the needle piston 18 in sealing the Vial 11.
Novel means are provided for driving the needle i7 axially from its withdrawn position, as shown in Fig. l, to its extended position, as shown in Fig. 5, as will now be described. Such meansl are provided to enable a person unskilled in the use of hypodermic s; devices easily to administer medicament thereby either to himself or to another person. The novel driving or thrusting means for the needle 17, its piston 18, and the disc member 22 are constituted by a spring piston 23 having a vshaft 24 rigidly secured thereto, the righthand extremity of which shaft, as viewed in Fig. l, extends through a suitable opening in the hand extremity Mia of the tube 10, such hand extremity a being designated in distinction to the needle extremity at 10b. The righthand extremity (Fig. l) of the shaft 2/3 is provided with suitable releasable detent means which are generally shown at which will be described hereinafter. Surrounding the spring piston shaft 24 is the aforementioned helical driving spring 26 which, in the form shown in Fig. l, is coin-- pressed (or in a distorted condition) due to the fact that the device is in a cocked condition and prepared for release when the detent means 25 are in turn released.
Referring now to Figs. 2 and 2a, the detent means 25 are formed by Splitting the righthand extremity of the shaft 24 throughout a substantial portion of the length thereof and removing some of the metal thereby to provide slots 25a, 25b and 25C and, for example, trifurcating such righthand extremity of the shaft. The releasable detent 25 comprises, in the form shown, a divided frusto conical portion 27 which, but for the slots 25a, 25h and 2SC, would be full frusto conical figure. However, such slots divide the frusto conical form into three portions which are normally separated, as shown in Fig. 2a. A base, as at 27', of the frusto conical portion 27 engages an inwardly extending collar 28 which may be rigidly secured to the main tube 10. I have found it desirable to provide a separate cylindrical housing, as at 29, for the cornpressed spring 26, such housing 29 being in the shape of an elongated inner sleeve which tits within the main tube 10, the aforementioned inwardly extending collar 2S being a part thereof and positioned at the outer extremity of the device, as at 10a above mentioned.
The spring housing 29 is equal in outer diameter to the outer diameter of the vial 11 and, of course, the outer diameter of the spring piston 23 is selected in order that it may move with ease axially within the vial 11. Thus the spring piston 23 is substantially equal in outer diameter to that of the needle piston 18.
However, the spring housing 2@ may be dispensed with, if desired. Nevertheless, it has been found desirable to employ same in order to provide a sub-unit within which the spring 26 may be compressed between the spring piston 23 and the collar 28 and there held by means of the detent 25. Thus the driving means for thrusting the needle outwardly may be separately assembled and placed in a cocked or energized condition prepared for assembly with the other parts of the device.
Reverting to Figs. 2 and 3, means are provided 'for actuating the detent device and releasing same comprising a `complementary frusto conical surface, as at 30, formed in an inwardly extending collar 31 of an outer sleeve 32, the latter also being of elongated configuration and ernbracingr substantially the entire length of the tube 16.
However, the sleeve 32 need not be of such length but may be shorter. Preferably sleeve 32 should not be of such a length that it prevents a portion of the tube 10 `from protruding therefrom, as is well shown in Fig. 1.
The inner diameter ofthe sleeve 32 is substantially equal.
4 to the outer diameter of the tube 10 and may be retained slidably in the position shown in Figi l by a friction fit which is suiciently loose to permit easy relative movement of the tube 10 and sleeve 32.
Suitable safety lock means are provided for preventing a. release of the detent means 25 until it is desired to actuate the hypodermic injector, such means, in the form shown, comprising a pin 33 having head 34, which pin holds in a spread condition the frusto conical segments 27a, 27b and 27e (Fig. 2), thereby preventing the release of the shaft 24 under spring pressure and hence preventing the extending of the spring 26. Thus there is formed axially of the shaft 24 within its righthand portion (Figs. 1-3) a passageway 25D (Figs. 2a and 3) for receiving the pin 33. The pin 33 has a tapered extremity, as at 335/, for assisting in inserting same into such longitudinally extending passage 25d. So long as pin 33 is in position, as shown in Fig. l, the detent cannot be released and the parts are held in the condition shown in such figure. However, when it is desired to actuate the device, the pin 33 is withdrawn, as shown in Fig. 2, thereby making it possible to bring together the frusto conical segments 27a, 27b and 27C, as shown in Fig. 3, under the influence of pressure from the complementary frusto conical surface 30. This, of course, is brought about by grasping the sleeve 32, placing the needle extremity 10b of the device against the body and pressing axially toward the body, thereby urging together: the inwardly extending collar 28 and the inwardly extending collar 31. When the segments 27a, 27b and 27C are squeezed together the shaft 24, together with the spring piston and the spring 26, are released from their locked or cocked position. Referring to Fig 4, the spring piston 23, the needle piston 18 and the disc 22 are shown in an in termediate position in the outward travel of the needle 17. It will be seen that a fluid within the vial 11 will be urged under the pressures existing therein, as caused by the spring 26, to ow through the opening 15, the longitudinal passage 14 within thev needle, and thence through the outer orifice 16 of the needle.
If desired, there may be positioned, as is well LShown in Fig. 4, a retaining Washer 20c in the lefthand or needle extremity of the tube 10 to assist in holding in position the seal 2t). Ultimately the needle piston 18 and lits cooperating parts reach the position shown in Fig. 5 wherein the full charge of medicament has been expelled through the needle 17. Thereafter the device may be reactuated with a fresh charge of medicament therein by disengaging the parts thereof, that is, by removing the sleeve 32, disengaging the spring housing 29 from the device and then removing the `spring 26, its spring piston 23 and shaft 24. Thereafter the empty vial 11 may be removed, together with its needle and piston device 13, a fresh vial inserted and the Vspring device is recocked and replaced. As is shown -in Figs. l, 2 and 3, a short inwardly extending collar 10c is provided for engaging the righthand extremity of the spring housing 29 and holding same in position. However, if desired, such short inwardly extending collar 10c may be dispensed with, thereby enabling rapid disassembly of the parts of the device for refilling and resetting.
Referring now to the modification shown in Figs. 6 and 7, we have found it desirable, in one form of the invention, to eliminate the opening 15 (Fig. 4) and to provide a needle 35 having an outer `orifice 36 at the point and an inner orifice 37 at the inner extremity thereof, such inner orifice being in communication with the chamber containing the medicament via grooves 38 and 39 formed respectively in the periphery and rear surface of needle hub 4t) which may be formed of plastic or metal.
- The rear extremity of the needle 35 is secured, as by a assenso friction lit. However, the recess 40a of such diameter does not extend throughout the full thickness of the needle hub 40 (as measured from the front face 40b to bottom face 33a of the groove 38). The depth of the recess 40a may be, for example, about three-quarters of the aforementioned thickness. Such recess is in alignment with a passage fille of smaller diameter thereby providing a shoulder at ddd for the support and transmission of thrust to the needle 35. The passage 40e is in com munication with the intersection of the aforementioned grooves 3S and 39'.
As shown ,in Fig. 7, the needle 35 and the grooved needle hub or piston iti is employed within a vial 41 which is similar to vial 11 aforementioned. The vial 41 has a neck 42 having a suitable orice therein which lits snugly around the shaft of needle 3:? with suiiicient clearance to permit easy longitudinal movement of such needle. The outlet oriiice in the neck 42 is closed by a rubber or rubber-like stopper 43 analogous to the aforementioned rubher stopper Ztl. It desired, the point of needled (before actuation) may be partly buried in the stopper d3 but, of course, must not fully penetrate the stopper until the driving spring is released. The stopper is held in alignment with an orifice 44 formed in the outer end of tubular main frame 45.
Furthermore, as an alternative to the abovedescribed resilient disc .member ZZ which has substantially parallel front and rear faces, l have found it desirable to ernploy a resilient member 46 (shown in section in Fig. 7),
the front face 47 `of which is dished or formed in a g concave coniiguration. The advantage of such concave face 47 resides in the fact that when the piston 23 moves to the left during the operation of the device, a superior seal is formed at the forward peripheral edges of the disc d6 by virtue of the fluid within the vial flowing into the concavity and urging outwardly the forward annular lip-like portion dan. Furthermore, such concavity assists in providing a free and unobstructed communica tion to an orifice diie at the end of the passage 40e.
We have found it desirable, in` order to avoid initially ldelaying the ejectionof the needle, upon the release of t-he drivingy mechanism, to have the vial initially iilled with gas to the extent of about one-third of lits volume. Such gas may, for example, he air. in view of the fact that the total volume of the vial employed in this invention normally is very low and is of the order of a few cubic centimeters or less, the employment of such gaseous content within the vial is not considered detrimental or dangerous. Such gas permits immediate ejection of the needle by enabling the point of the needle to penetrate the stopper prior to the compressing of the liquid in the vial. lf such vial were completely iilled with a non-compressible liquid, the ejection of the needle might be delayed .during the period when the point of the needle is being thrust through the rubber stopper by the needle driving s.
rihere is s )own in Fig. 8 an alternative form of detent means which, instead of employing the slotted and centrally bored shaft construction of Figs. 2 and 3 (25, 27), employs a spring piston shaft 48 from which a longitudinally extending portion is removed from the righthand extremity' thereof (Fig. S) thereby leaving `a relativelyr narrow linger of substantially semi-circular cross section and having near its righthand extremity a semi-circular groove 59 which is positioned for engaging the margin :il cf an inwardly extending collar 52 analogous to the aforementioned collar 2S. Thus the finger 49 occupies, for 1 le, less than one-half of opening 53 (Fig. 9). The remainder of the opening is occupied by a pin 54 of 4compl/ementary cross sectionalishape, for example, substantially semi-circular, which extends longitudinally along the fuger portion (i9 and which is provided with a head similar to the head 3ft. The removal of the pin makes it possible for a bevelled or tapered end surface :i6 to engage a complementary frustoconical surface 57 formed in the outer sleeve 53 to rese the detent means;
What is claimed is:
l. in a hypodermic syringe device, a vial for uid having a puncturable sealed opening, a hypoderrnic needle witl'idrawn therein in alignment with such sealed opening, a needle piston within said vial, said needle being driv ably secured to such needle piston and drivable through such sealed opening in response to pressure acting upon said needle piston, a frame for holding such vial, said frame mounting a driving spring positioned for urging said needle piston outwardly, and means for releasably holding said driving spring in a compressed condion.
2. ln a hypodermic syringe device, a container for iiuid medicament, a hypodermic needle within said container' in alignment with an opening therein, a needle piston connected to such needle, the latter having a passage therethrough in communication with the` interior of said container, a syringe frame for mounting said container, said frame also mounting a driving spring for said needle piston, and means for releasably holding said driving spring in distorted condition.
3. ln an injector device, the combination comprising: a container having a seal at one extremity thereof and also having therein a needle normally in a Withdrawn condition therein, a needle piston secured thereto, there being interposed between said seal and said needle piston a charge of duid, a coil spring within said container for urging said needle piston axially of the container thereby to thrust outwardly therefrom said needle, and means for releasably holding in compressed condition said spring and including an axially extending shaft having means at one extremity thereof for engaging one extremity of said spring means, the opposite extremity of said spring means engaging an inwardly turned collar upon said container, said shaft protruding from an opposite extremity of said container, releasahle detentmeans secured to such shaft at such extremity thereof, and means for actuating said detent means including a sleeve for embracing said container, said sleeve having an inwardly turned collar having a surface for cooperating with said releasable detent means to actuate same and thus release said spring.
4. In apparatus of the class described, a container of elongated configuration having therein a vial of uid, such vial having at one extremity a puncturable seal and also containing therein a needle having a passageway longitudinally therethrough, such needle being positioned for being thrust through an opening in one extremity of such vial and for puncturing said seal, a needle piston secured to the opposite extremity of said needle, the latter i having an opening for placing in communication the chamber within said vial and said longitudinal needle passage, spring means within said container for urging said needle piston in a direction to thrust said needle out of said container and through said seal, means for holding said spring means in a distorted condition comprising a spring piston having a shaft secured thereto, one extremity of which is secured to the spring piston and the other extremity of which extends through an opening in one extremity of said container, releasable detent means secured to the extremity of said shaft which protrades through such opening, and a sleeve embracing said container, said sleeve having cam means secured thereto for actuating said releasable detent means in response to movement of said sleeve relative to said container whereby said spring is released causing said spring piston to urge .said needle piston axially of the container thereby to thrust said needle out of said container and eject the charge in said vial through said needle.
5. A needle injector device having in combination: a container having a pierceable seal at one extremity thereof for sealing against the passage of a fluid; a hollow needle; a piston within said container with which said needle is operatively connected, said needle being normally fully withdrawn within said container, the point thereof drected toward said seal; a spring for urging said piston towards said seal; means for releasably holding said spring in a distorted condition; a sleeve embracing said container throughout a substantial portion of the length thereof, said sleeve having an opening in the base thereof; and a removable pin extending through such opening, said pin cooperating with said releasable holding means for preventing actuation thereof while so positioned 6. In a hypodermic syringe in combination: a cylinder having a piston therein; resilient means urging such piston towards one extremity thereof; means for releasably holding said piston in a cocked position wherein said resilient means are distorted, and wherein there remains in one region of such cylinder a medicament chamber; a hypodermic needle withdrawn Within said cylinder in said region and drivably associated with said piston, there being suitable sealing means at one extremity of such cylinder for sealing medicament therein, such sealing means being pierceable by said needle, the latter being drivable out of said cylinder under the action of said resilient means when the latter is released; a sleeve embracing said cylinder; and means connected to said sleeve for releasing said piston from its cocked position in response to relative movement of said sleeve and cylinder.
7. A needle injector device having in combination: a tubular container having a pierceable seal at one extremity thereof for sealing against the passage of fluid; a needle having a longitudinal passage therethrough in communication with the base extremity thereof; a needle hub within said container conformed to move therein as a piston, said needle hub having a passage formed therein which is in communication with said base extremity of the needle and with the interior of said vial, such needle being normally substantially fully withdrawn within said container in such a position that -said seal is unpenetrated by the needle, the point of such needle being pointed toward said seal; a spring for urging said hub toward said seal; and means for releasably holding said spring in a distorted condition.
8. A device in accordance with claim 7 wherein said means for releasably holding said spring in a distorted condition includes ay spring piston having a shaft secured thereto which is so releasably held; and a resilient washer interposed between said spring piston and said needle hub, said washer having a concave front face next adjacent the rear face of said needle hub.
9. In a hypodermic syringe device, a vial for containing a fluid medicament, said vial having a seal portion which is puncturable to produce an opening therein, a hypcdcrmic needle within said vial and positioned in alignment with such puncturable seal portion, said hypodermic needle having a passage therethrough in communication with the medicament containing region of said vial, a piston member secured to said needle for driving the latter through said seal portion in response to pressure acting upon such member, a frame for holding such vial, means for eifecting pressure upon said piston member for urging same toward such puncturable seal portion thereby to drive said needle therethrough and immediately aftersuch driving through of said needle to force such iluid through such passage, and means for actuating said pressure effecting means.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 159,192 Leiter Ian. 26, 1875 542,957 Ferguson July 16, 1895 y 2,168,437 Buercklin Aug. 8, i939 2,322,245 Lockhart June 22, 1943 2,348,337 Francis May 9, 1944 2,489,600 Tydings et al Nov. 29, 1949 2,679,843 May June l, 1954 2,693,186 Riker et al. Nov. 2, 1954 2,696,212 Dunmre Dec. 7, 1954 2,704,072 Sarnoi Mar. 15, 1955 FOREIGN PATENTS 5,440 Great Britain Mar. 6, 1909 685,178 Great Britain Dec. 31, 1952