US 2835258 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 20, 1958 G. F. NOEL 83 MEANS FOR COLD PERMANENT WAVING OF HAIR Filed April 18, 1956 [NVEN TOR. 650962 F. A/OEZ United States Patent MEANS FOR COLD PERMANENT WAVING OF HAIR George F. Noel, South Euclid, Ohio Application April 18, 1956, Serial No. 579,082
4 Claims. (Cl. 132-33) This invention relates to hair curlers used in the cold permanent waving of hair, and more particularly to an improved liquid dispensing hair curler.
In the art of cold permanent waving of hair, strands of hair are wound tightly into a coil on a mandrel and thereafter are moistened successively by well known hair softening and setting solutions. Various methods for moistening the hair coil have been proposed including the use of a perforate mandrel through which the waving solutions are forced so that the solutions pass radially outwardly from the mandrel. One of the difficulties of such a curler is the considerable pressure that is required to force solutions through the mandrel. This occurs because the more tightly wound and closely spaced strands of the hair coil are adjacent the mandrel periphery and these strands tend to block the mandrel apertures and effectively impede fluid flow through them. Another problem inherent in this system of moistening the hair coil is the difficulty of effecting complete penetration of the coil with the waving agent since the tightlywound densely packed strands against the mandrel serve to block the flow of the liquid to the outer parts of the coil and'thus prevent uniform wetting of the entire coil which is essential to the cold waving process.
A general object of my invention is the provision of a liquid dispensing hair curler which promotes thorough wetting of the hair coil with a minimum of pressure in the dispensing system. Another object is the provision of a curler with which the cold permanent waving process may be carried out without wetting the fingers of the operator. A more specific object is the provision of a hair curler which applies the waving agents initially to the exterior parts of the hair coil and thus facilitates thorough penetration from the outside to the inside of the coil. A further object is the provision of a liquid dispensing hair curler which is quickly detachably connectable to different containers of waving agents without disturbing the position of the curler on the users head. Still another object is the provision of a liquid dispensing curler which is economical to manufacture, efiicient in use, and simple to operate.
These and other objects of my invention will become apparent from the following description of a preferred embodiment thereof, reference being bad to the accompanying drawings in which:
Figure l is an elevation partly in section of a hair curler embodying my invention.
Figure 2 is an end view of the curler taken on the line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is an enlarged transverse section of the curler showing the hair coil in broken line, the section being taken on line 3-3 of Figure l.
Figure 4 is an enlarged section of a modified form of inlet valve construction for the curler.
2,835,258 Patented May 20, 1958 curler comprising a generally U-shaped frame 10 and a mandrel 12 on which a coil C of hair is wound as shown in Figure 3. Mandrel 12 is rotatably supported on frame 10 by a mandrel extension piece 14 which is swivelly mounted between depending integral ears Hand 17 of the frame by means of spherical enlargement 18 on the outer end of the extension which fits partially within opposed circular openings '19 in the ears. The opposite end of mandrel 12 is radially slotted as at 20 and is adapted to be engaged and locked by rib 21 on an adjacent depending frame leg 22 when the mandrel is swung into the operative position parallel to and adjacent the body of the frame as shown in solid line in Figure 1. When the mandrel is swung away from the frame to the position shown in broken line in Figure 1, hair may be wound on the mandrel by rotation of the mandrel about its axis and relative to the cars 16 and 17, this universal movement of the mandrel being afforded by the ball and socket connection. The curler construction described thus far is well-known and does not, per se, constitute a part of my invention.
In order to permit application of the waving solutions directly to a coil C of hair strands wound on mandrel 12 which is locked in the operative position described above, the elongated body of frame 10 preferably is made in the form of a barrel, and has a longitudinal central channel or bore 26, closed at one end 28, the right end as viewed in Figure 1, and which extends substantially the length of the frame to an inlet port 30 in a projection 31 on the opposite end of the frame. In order to dispense waving solutions from channel 26 to the coil of hair on the mandrel, a plurality of longitudinally spaced apertures 33 are formed preferably in a row in the inside portion of the frame wall proximate to the mandrel, the row of apertures extending the full length of the man-drel and each aperture intersecting the channel 26. The size and spacing of apertures 33 are such as to cause uniform distribution of the waving agents over the entire length of the hair coil on the mandrel.
The waving solution is applied to the hair coil through the curler barrel by suitable dispensing apparatus comprising a jar or container 35 illustrated schematically in Figure 1. The solution is pumped fro-m the jar by a squeeze bulb 36 through flexible tube 37, the end of which fits snugly into port 39 in the frame extension 31. In order to limit the depth of insertion of tube 37 into channel 26, the latter is countersunk and the internal shoulder 39 formed thereby provides an abutment for the end of the tube. A bevelled lip 40 on port 30 facilitates connection of tube 37 to channel 26. The solution from jar 35 passes through tube 37, through the entire length of channel 26 in the barrel of the curler, and finally issues from the several apertures 33 into the coil of hair on the mandrel. It is to be'noted that a snug fit between the end of flexible tube 37 and the interior of the frame projection 31 is vsufficient to provide an efficient seal since a minimum of back pressure in the liquid is encountered as a result of the unblocked dispensing apertures 30.
A closure plug 42 preferably is hinged at 43 on the curlerextension 31 adjacent the mouth of port 30 to close the end of channel 26 to prevent any drainage of waving solution from port 30 when the tube is withdrawn. An outwardly extending tab 44 on plug 42 facilitates lifting of the plug to open the recess for connection of the tube 30 to the port.
In operation, the dry hair to be cold waved is applied to several curlers, the bands of hair strands being wound into coils C on the curlermandrels 12 which thereafter are locked adjacent the perforate undersides of frames 10 with the outer strands of the hair close to or pressed against the frames. Plug 42 on one of the curlers is then removed from port 30 and the end of tube 37 is inserted into the port and into abutment with shoulder 39. The operator then successively squeezes bulb 36 to pump the hair softening solution from jar 35 through tube 3'! and into channel 26 in the frame, and the solution squirts through apertures 33 into the adjacent parts of the hair coil. The diameter of barrel channel 26 preferably is in the order of to g and since the liquid storing capacity of the channel is correspondingly small, the liquid flows substantially directly from feed tube 37 and out of apertures 33 in the form of jets with each pumping action of the operator. When a suflicicnt quantity of solution has been pumped to desirably moisten the entire coil of hair on the first curler, tube 37 is withdrawn from port 30, plug 42. is reinserted therein, and the operation is repeated at each of the remaining curlers until all the respective hair coils have been thoroughly moistened. After an appropriate interval in accordance with accepted practice, a jar containing a neutralizing solution is connected to the tube and the above procedure is repeated until the several coils are thoroughly treated with the second solution. When the hair has set, the curlers are removed.
A minimum of pumping pressure is required to direct the waving solutions through the barrel of the curler and into the hair coil because the hair strands on the exterior of the coil and adjacent apertures 33 are spaced apart sufficient to avoid substantial blocking of the apertures. Referring to Figure 3, the density of the hair is a maximum at the interior part C of the coil adjacent mandrel l2, and is minimum at the exterior part C" because of the packing elfect of the outer layers of hair in the coil on the inner layers. Consequently the hair strands in the layers adjacent the mandrel are compressed by the band-like pressure of the tensioned outer layers, the strands which comprise the exterior layer of the coil being not so tightly compressed together. Since the outermost strands are the least densely packed in the coil, there is correspondingly little resistance to the flow of solution from apertures 33 and correspondingly increased receptivity of hair to penetration by the solution from the outside to the inside of the coil. As solution passes through apertures 33 from channel 26, it flows readily into and around the spaced outer strands and readily is absorbed by and penetrates into the interior of the coil until the latter is thoroughly moistened. Full penetration of the entire coil is further facilitated by reason of the velocity of the solution as it squirts from the several apertures into the coil. As a further aid to complete moistening of the hair coil, it is preferred that the curler be fastened on the hair with frame located above the mandrel so that the solution may flow by gravity around and into the coil.
In Figure 4- is illustrated a modified form of tube connector wherein curler frame projection 31' on the curler frame is threaded to receive a check valve sleeve 50 having an inlet opening 51 for receiving a rigid nose piece 52 on the end of flexible feed tube 37. The interior of sleeve 50 contains a ball 54 which normally is pressed against opening 51 by coiled spring 55 which abuts against the face of projection 31. The ball closes opening 51 when the feed tube is disconnected from the curler frame and is pressed inwardly by the nose piece 4 52 of the tube to open channel 26 when the tube is connected. This automatically closing valve can be employed instead of plug 42 to seal the end of the channel when the tube is disconnected.
Modifications to and changes in the above described preferred embodiment of my invention may be made without departing from the precepts of my invention. Accordingly the scope of the patent is defined in the appended claims.
1. A hair curler comprising a frame member having end legs and an interconnecting barrel part, a mandrel on which a coil of hair is adapted to be wound, said mandrel being pivotally connected to one of said legs and detachably connectable to the other leg to extend parallel to and spaced from said barrel part, said barrel part having a channel therein, said channel being closed at one end and open at the other and extending at least the length of the mandrel through said barrel part, said barrel part having a plurality of longitudinally spaced apertures in the side of the barrel part proximate to said mandrel, said apertures communicating with said channel and the exterior of said barrel part, and means for injecting a hair waving solution into said channel and through said opening whereby to direct the solution through said apertures into the exterior of the coil of hair on the mandrel.
2. A hair earlier for use in cold permanent waving of hair comprising a mandrel on which a coil of hair is adapted to be Wound, a frame having an elongated barrel, support means depending from said barrel for supporting the ends of said mandrel with the axis of the mandrel substantially parallel to and spaced from said barrel, said barrel having a channel open at one end being at least coextensive with said mandrel and having a plurality of longitudinally spaced apertures which intersect said channel and open toward said mandrel, conduit means detachably connectable to said one end of said channel, means for supplying hair waving solution to said channel through said conduit whereby said solution passes out of said apertures into the exterior of the coil of hair on said mandrel.
3. A hair curler for use in the cold permanent waving of hair comprising an elongated barrel having a central channel extending therethrough and an inlet port communicating with said channel, mandrel means supported on said barrel with the axis of the mandrel extending parallel to said channel and with the periphery of the iandrel spaced from one side of the barrel, said barrel having a plurality of apertures formed in said one side thereof and communicating with said channel, and closure means for closing said inlet port.
4. The curler according to claim 3 in which said closure means comprises a normally closed check valve, and tube means connectible to said inlet port for injecting hair waving solution into said channel, said check valve being opened by said tube means when the tube means is connected to said barrel.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS