|Publication number||US2835596 A|
|Publication date||May 20, 1958|
|Filing date||Jul 15, 1954|
|Priority date||Jul 15, 1954|
|Publication number||US 2835596 A, US 2835596A, US-A-2835596, US2835596 A, US2835596A|
|Inventors||Kaufman Charles W|
|Original Assignee||Kraft Foods Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (13), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 20, 1958 c. w. KAUFMAN 2,835,596 PACKAGING OF MARSH/[ALLOWS Filed July 15, 1954 United States Patent PACKAGING 0F MARSHMALLOWS Charles W. Kaufman, Gleuview, Ill., assignor to Kraft Foods Company, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Delaware Application July 15, 1954, Serial No. 443,596 g 1 Claim. (Cl. 99-180) The present invention relates generally to marshmallows and more particularly to the packaging of marshmallows.
As is well known, marshmallows are a relatively soft product and, when subjected to pressure, they stick together. As a result, they have provided a substantial packaging problem. In an effort to prevent pressurizing of the marshmallows, and sticking, the marshmallows have been packaged in rigid wall boxes. While this type of packagingtends to prevent pressurizing and sticking of the marshmallows, it is quite expensive to accomplish and requires substantial packaging equipment.
Sticking of marshmallows may also be reduced by reducing the moisture content of the product but, when such reduction in moisture is affected, the marshmallows lose their desired softness. Since softness of marshmallows is associated with freshness, reduction of moisture is to be avoided, and indeed, higher moisture contents are desired.
In the past, marshmallows have been packaged in various films, as for example cellophane, because of the economy and for the reason that the use. of transparent materials with display of the product has certain sales advantages. However, such packaging has required special care in shipping and displaying of the product and has frequently resulted in deforming and sticking of the marshmallows.
A principal object of this invention is the provision of improved means for packaging marshmallows, which means are simple and economical, and which means permits substantial handling of the packaged marshmallows without damage to the marshmallows. A further object of the invention is the provision of packaging means which makes possible packaging of high moisture marshmallows without substantial sticking of the marshmallows. As will become more apparent hereinafter, these and other objects of the invention are accomplished by packaging the marshmallows in a flexible, non-stretchable, substantially gas impermeable material which is sealed so as to prevent egress of air, the material enclosing a volume substantially in excess of the volume occupied by the marshmallows.
In the practice of the invention, a plurality of marshmallows are placed in a bag, which bag should be made of a material which is substantially gas impermeable and relatively non-stretchable. The material may comprise such materials as polyvinyl films, polyvinylidine chloride films, polyethylene films. The bag is proportioned to loosely fit around the marshmallows and is sealed in such a way that air is entrapped within the bag, the amount of entrapped air is proportional to the amount of pressure of which the bag is subjected in shipment and display. At a minimum, there should be enough air in the bag to permit the marshmallows to be free-flowing so that during packaging, handling and shipment of the bags, the marshmallows can move away from a point of pressure and transfer any applied pressure withoutv squeezing the marshmallows.
When marshmallows are packaged in the foregoing manner, the bags can be and have been subjected to those pressures which are encountered in packaging, shipping, and handling without causing the marshmallows to substantially stick together or become deformed. Furthermore, the bags may be displayed in relatively high stacks which has not been possible heretofore without applying the stacking pressure to the marshmallows. In addition, the features of the invention permit display of the marshmallows in bins with random distribution without substantial damage to the product. Such display of marshmallows is of substantial advantage to the merchandiser and is made possible, without substantial product damage through the features of the invention.
Moreover, the features of the invention make possible economies in shipping costs. In this connection, compartmented cartons are not required to protect the individual bags and larger numbers of bags may be placed in the shipping cartons. In addition, lighter weight cartons may be used for shipping since the boxed bags can be used to reinforce the carton instead of the cartons being required to withstand all of-the shipping pressures.
As above indicated, when marshmallows have increased amounts ofmoisture, they are fresher and have improved body characteristics, but they also tend to become more sticky. By means of the present invention, high moisture marshmallows may be packaged in flexible bags and shipped and merchandized without substantial sticking or deforming of the marshmallows.
The accompanying drawing illustrates the present invention, and in the drawings:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of the package of the invention;
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view along the longitudinal center line of the package of the invention, no pressure being applied;
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2, except that it illustrates the effect of applying a pressure onto one face I of the package of the invention, as when the packages are Figure 4 is a cross-sectional View along the transverse center line of the package, showing the eifect of application of pressure to one end of the package; and
Figure 5 is a view in perspective of a plurality of [116 bags in a shipping carton.
As illustrated in Figure 1, the package of the invention comprises a tubular section 8 composed of a flexible, gas impermeable film material, preferably transparent for display purposes, the section being sealed at one end along the heat sealing line 11 to provide a bag it A plurality of marshmallows 12 is included within the bag it) in ran dom relation. The volume of the bag 18, as has been indicated, is larger than the volume of the marshmallows 12. The bag is also sealed along another line 16 longitudinally spaced from the sealing line 11.
During the sealing of the bag, care is taken to incorporate air in the bag, which air is retained after complete sealing of the ends of the bag. As mentioned previously, the volume of the bag 10 is substantially greater than the volume occupied by the marshmallows 12 but when no pressure is applied the marshmallows may be so distributed that the bag 10 rests on the product, as illustrated in Figure 2. When, however, pressure is applied to one face of the bag, as illustrated schematically by the arrows 18 in Figure 3 and as may be the case when the bags are stacked, the marshmallows are distributed away from the point of pressure and an air cushion absorbs and distributes the pressure so that the individual marshmallows are not pressed together. It will be apparent that so long as the pressure applied to the bag is not in excess of one which will rupture the bag or compress the air, the air cushion will be effective to resist substantial pressures without transmitting the effect of the pressure to the marshmallows contained, in the bag.
In Figure 5, there is illustrated a relatively light-weight cardboard carton 19 having the usual side flaps 21 and 22 as well as end flaps 23 and 24. A plurality of the bags 10 are enclosed within the carton 19 for shipping, with all of the walls of the carton 19 being incontact with at least some of the bags it The air cushion provided within each of the bags 10 thus effectively reinforces the carton 19, thereby permitting the use of lighter shipping cartons. Furthermore, it is not essential that the bags be stacked in any particular arrangement, as the bags can be disposed randomly in the container 19 and still achieve the beneficial results mentioned. It has been found, however, that the bags should be placed in the cartons with the longest dimension of the bag extending vertically so as to minimize the pressure on the bag (as shown in Figure In other words, if the bags are piled in the carton, the bottom bags are subjected to greater pressure and this should be avoided, if possible.
As a specific example of the invention, 35 marshmallows having a size of about, 1% inches in diameter and about 1 inch high were introduced into a bag made from a polyvinyl chloride-polyvinyl acetate copolymer film. The bag was fabricated from a tubular section 8 of film having a diameter of approximately 5 inches, the section 8 being 8 inches long. One end of the tube was heat sealed and, after the marshmallows were placed into the bag, the bag was heat sealed at the other end along a line in close proximity to the end of the bag. Sealing was accomplished Without collapsing the bag substantially so as to entrap the air within the bag.
The dimensions of the bag was so related tothe volume occupied by the marshmallows within the bag such that the marshmallows were freely movable within the bag. It has been determined that the volume of the sealed bag 10 should be at least two times the volume of the marshmallows.
When a five pound uniformly distributed pressure was if applied to the one face of the bag, the weight was supported by the cushion of air trapped in the bag, and there was no substantial sticking of the marshmallows to one another. On the other hand, when a commercially available bag of marshmallows enclosed in cellophane was subjected to such pressure, substantially all of the marshmallows stuck together.
A plurality of the packages of the invention were randomly distributed in a bin, 25 bags being placed in a bin and being stacked about six high. There was no substantial sticking of the marshmallows in any of the bags.
It has been found that it may be desirable to somewhat flatten the bags before sealing so that the bags may be more easily piled. In other words, if the bags are sealed while in cylindrical shape, the geometrical form of maximum volume, the bags are diflicult to stack in relatively high piles for display purposes. However, care should be taken in flattening the bags, prior to sealing,
so that too much air is not excluded and the desirable features of the invention are not enjoyed.
It will be appreciated that various sized marshmallows may be bagged and that the ratio of volume of the bag to volume of marshmallows, above specified, will not apply for all sizes of marshmallows. However, since marshmallows are substantially uniform in size, as marketed, the above specified volume ratio is generally applicable.
It will be seen from the foregoing that a substantial improvement in the packaging of marshmallows has been provided. As a result of this improvement, marshmallows may be easily and economically packaged, and may be shipped and displayed with greater facility but with minimum sticking and deforming of the product.
The various features of this invention which are believed to be new are set forth in the following claim.
A method for packaging marshmallows comprising the steps of placing a quantity of free .flowing marshmallows in a bag made from a substantially gas impermeable and flexible material, said bag having a maximum volume substantially in excess of the volume of said quantity of marshmallows thereby allowing free fiow of marshmallows in said bag, maintaining said bag distended by in- References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,542,206 Nichols Feb. 20, 1951 2,604,244 Tripp July 22, 1952 2,623,826 Grinstead Dec. 30, 1952 OTHER REFERENCES The Manufacturing Chemist, October 1953, page 41.
Refrigerating Engineering, February 1954, pp. to 48 inclusive.
Modern Packaging, April 1954, pp. 80, 81, 82, 83 and 176, article entitled Saran-Coated Cellophane.
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|U.S. Classification||53/403, 426/112, 206/522, 426/410|
|International Classification||B65D81/20, B65D85/60|
|Cooperative Classification||B65D81/2061, B65D85/60|
|European Classification||B65D81/20D2, B65D85/60|