US 2836877 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 3, 1958 HANNAH/AN V 2,836,87
EMBALMING APPARATUS Filed Nov. 22, 1954 INVENTOR.
WILLlAM HANMAHAN BY ET??? 5 EYS 2,835,8'5? Patented June 3, 195% 2,836,877 EMBALMING APPARATUS William F. Hannahan, Springfield, Ohio, assignor to The Champion Company, Springfield, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application November 22, 1954, Serial No. 470,413 2 Claims. (Cl. 27-24) This invention relates to embalming apparatus, particularly an aspirating system for removing body fluids from a corpse during embalming operations.
In order to properly embalm a corpse while preparing it for funeral purposes, it is necessary to remove the blood and tissue liquids from the blood-vascular system and the blood and other body fluids from the body cavities. For this aspirating operation of body fluids from the cavities, a trocar or other embalming instrument is commonly inserted into the body cavities and connected to a source of suction or vacuum to withdraw the body fluids. For example, this suction may be obtained by a device commonly referred to as a hydro-aspirator, which includes a venturi through which a stream of water under pressure is directed, and a chamber communicating with the throat or low pressure area of the venturi which is in turn connected to the trocar, thus supplying the necessary suction for the aspiration. The hydroaspirator is provided at its water inlet with a suitable adapter for connecting to an ordinary household water tap, and thus the supply of water under relatively high pressure for actuating the hydro-aspirator is obtained directly from the household water supply.
The principal objection to this commonly used system is that the corpse is in effect connected directly to the water system, and should a sudden decrease in pressure occur within the household water system, reverse flow or back siphoning through the hydro-aspirator into the water system could occur. Consequently there is a possibility that body fluids could be drawn into the household water system. Obviously such an occurrence is highly undesirable, and the present invention is directed to a system for replacing the hydro-aspirator and its necessary direct connection to the water supply system.
A principal object of the present invention is to provide an aspirating system for embalming which will provide a constant source of high vacuum for withdrawing the body fluids, without danger of contaminating the household water supply by use of a hydro-aspirator.
Another object of this invention is to provide such an aspirating system utilizing a rotary positive-displacement type pump to maintain a high vacuum for the trocar and wherein the pump is packed and lubricated by a small supply of water fed constantly to the pump inlet.
A further object of the invention is to provide such an aspirating system wherein the body fluids are withdrawn from the corpse directly through the pump, and the water utilized as packing fluid acts to purge the pump of any small pieces of tissue or the like which might be drawn into the trocar, is disposed of along with the body fluids.
An additional object of this invention is to provide such an aspirating system wherein the supply of water for packing the pump may be obtained from the household water system, but wherein means are provided for positively preventing back siphoning from the pump into the household water system.
Additional objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description, the accompanying drawing and the appended claims.
In the drawing Fig. 1 illustrates an embalming aspirating system embodying the present invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken along line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged front elevational view of the aspirating pump seen in Fig. l, with a portion of the pump cover plate broken away to reveal the inner construction of the pump;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged view partly in section and partly in elevation of the water attachment seen in Fig. l; and
Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of a modified type of pump arrangement which may be incorporated in the system of Fig. 1, with part of the pump cover plate broken away to show the internal pump construction.
Referring to the drawing, which illustrates a preferred embodiment of the invention, the aspirating system includies a pump indicated generally at 10 and driven by a suitable motor 11. Pump 10 is provided with an inlet 12 which is connected to a suction tube 13 for drawing body fluids from a corpse through a trocar or like device indicated generally at 14, and the outlet 15 is connected to a flush bowl shown generally at 16 by suitable means such as flexible tubing 17. The flush bowl is connected directly to the sewage system to dispose of the body fluids. in localities where drainage of the body fluids into the sewage system is not permissible a suitable disposal jar may be used to collect the fluids issuing from the end of flexible tubing 17. The pump also is provided with an inlet tube 20 opening internally of the pump into the main pump inlet 12 as shown at 21 in Fig. 3. This inlet tube is connected by suitable flexible tubing 23 to a back-siponing prevention device indicated generally at 25 in Fig. l as connected to a water tap or faucet 26, which may be any tap in an ordinary household water supply system, and suspended above any suitable drain, for example flush bowl 16.
When a suitable water tap is unavailable, as when it is necessary to perform the embalming operations away from the customary place, it is possible to supply suitable quantities of water to inlet 12 by attaching one end of tubing 23 thereto and placing the other end of the tubing in a pan or pail of water supported slightly above the lever of the pump.
The back-siphoning prevention device 25 is shown in detail in Fig. 4 as including a bowl 30 suspended by a number of spacer bars or rods 31 from a connector ring 32 which has a central bore 33 opening above bowl 30. The upper portion of the bore 33 is threaded as indicated at 34 so as to be tightly received upon faucet 26, and an outlet tube 35 opens laterally into the bottom of bowl 30 for conducting water from the bowl to conduit 23.
Referring to Fig. 2, the pump 10 includes a body or housing 40 having a central substantially cylindrical chamber 42 opening on one side of the body and covered by a suitable plate 43 held in place on the body by a number of screws 44 and sealed thereto by a gasket 45. At the inner end of chamber 42 there is formed a recess 47 which is substantially closed by a neck portion 48 through which projects a shaft 50 driven by motor 11. A packing gland 51 is held in place surrounding shaft 50 within recess 47 and against neck portion 48 by a number of retainer rings 52. The pump body 46 is mounted on one end of motor 11 in surrounding relation to shaft 50 by any suitable means such as, for example, bolts (not shown) extending through boss 55 or neck 48 and clamping the pump body to the motor.
Within pump chamber 42 there is a vane type impeller comprising an integral member 66, preferably of molded synthetic material such as neoprene, and including a central hub 61 (Fig. 3) having a plurality of flexible blades 62 extending radially therefrom and terminating in rounded end portions 63 which frictionally engage the inner Walls of chamber 42. The impeller 60 is shown in Figs. 2 and 3 as connected to. motor shaft 50 by a cylindrical sleeve 65 molded within the impeller and carrying a cross pin 66 which fits within the slotted end 67 of shaft 50.
V The pump also includes a segment 79 which is held within chamber 42 by a screw 71 and has an arcuate upper surface '72 curved to engage the walls of chamber 42 and extending between the opening 74 of inlet 12 and the opening 75 of outlet 15. A lower cam surface 76 on segment 70 extends transversely of pump chamber 42 between the inlet and the outlet, and as the pump impeller is rotated in the direction of the arrow in Fig. 3 the flexible vanes 62 are bent successively as their rounded outer portions 63 engage cam surface 76, thus reducing the volume between the curved or flexed vane and its following vane and forcing fluid trapped therebetween through outlet 15. In like manner, the vane preceding that one which is flexed passes across inlet opening 74, and since the volume between that vane and the following flexed vane has increased, the pressure therein has decreased, thus providing a suction at inlet 12.
In operation, the pump provides suction to tube 13 which is imparted to the trocar 14 to withdraw body fluid from the corpse, and these fluids are drawn into the pump and expelled therefrom through tube 17 to flush bowl 16. In order to prevent excessive wear of the impeller vanes against the pump chamber walls, and to pack the pump and produce a good seal between the vanes 62 and the walls of chamber 42, some additional fluid should be introduced to the pump. The body fluids themselves as drawn through the pump will provide some of this required lubrication and packing, but since the flow of body fluids from the corpse through the pump is not constant, these fluids alone are insufi'icient to lubricate and pack the pump. Therefore a constant supply of water is provided from bowl 30 to inlet tube 20 and this water is drawn through inlet opening 74, mixed with the body fiuids'being drawn through the pump, and expelled into the flush bowl.
It should be understood that the supply of water to inlet tube is at all times maintained at a rate lower than the maximum capacity of the pump so as not to fill the pump completely and prevent production of suflicient suction within tube 13 and the trocar attached thereto. This result is assured by the fact that the diameter of tube 20 is substantially less than the diameter of pump inlet 12, together with the fact that the water flowing from bowl through tube 23 is under atmospheric pressure only, due to the spaced suspension of the bowl below ring 32. Thus the'head on the water entering tube 20 never reaches suflicient magnitude to cause the flow through this tube in excess of the capacity of the pump, and any increase of pressure within bore 33, as by opening the waterv faucet considerably, will merely result in overflow of the water which cannot beaccommodated within bowl 30.
Should there be sudden drop of pressure within the household water supply during operation of this aspirating system, so as to reduce the pressure within tap 26' Fig. 5 illustrates another type of positive displacement pump which may be utilized in the system provided by this invention to draw the body fluids through thetrocar. In this modification a gear type pump of well-knownconstruction, and indicated generally at 88, is provided with an inlet connection 82 to which may be attached the suction tube 13, and an outlet 83 towhich tubing 17 may be connected. This pump incorporatesa pair of meshing gear members one of which is partially shown at 84, and
which are rotated in a Well known manner in the direction of the arrow as indicated in Fig. 5. A water supply tube 85 is attached to pump 89 in communication with inlet connection 82, and is adapted to be attached to the end of water supply tube 23 to provide a metered quantity of water for packing and lubricating pump 36 in the same manner as previously described in connection with pump it It will thus be seen that the present invention provides an aspirating system for embaiming which is highly efficient, which is simple to assemble, and which absolutely prevents any body fluids from being drawn back into the household Water supply system, even though the aspirating system is attached thereto. The water attachment, including bowl 359, tubing 23, and water inlet tubes 2% or 65, supplies a metered quantity of water to the pumps 10 or 8 for purposes of packing and lubricating the pumps in operation, and to purge the pump cavities of any bits of tissue or coagulated fluid or the like which may enter the pump and tend to clog the cavities thereof.
While the forms of apparatus herein described constitute preferred embodiments of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to these precise forms of apparatus, and that changes may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention which is defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. An aspirating system for embalming comprising a flexible vane type pump having an inlet and an outlet, drive means for said pump, a trocar, means connecting said inlet to said trocar to produce a suction therein for drawing body fluids through said pump for discharge through said outlet, a tube opening into said inlet for conducting packing fluid to said pump independently of aspirated fluid supplied through said trocar, a'connector ring adapted to engage a water faucet, and a bowl supported beneath said ring in spaced relation thereto for receiving water from the faucet, said bowl having, an outlet adjacent its bottom, means connecting said bowl outlet to said tube for supplying water thereto for mixture and discharge with said body fluids through said outlet, and means providing a restriction in the flow path between said bowl outlet and said pump inlet for maintaining said water supply at a rate less than the capacity of said pump to maintain effective suction on said inlet.
2. An aspirating system for embalming comprising a rotary positive displacement pump having an inlet and an outlet, drive means for said pump, a trocar, means connecting said inlet to said trocar to produce a suction therein for Withdrawing body fluids from a corpse through said pump, means for connecting said outlet to a disposal receptacle for collecting the fluid, a tube opening into said inlet for conducting water to said pump to pack and lubricate it during operation, means for supplying water to said tube for use as a packing fluid including a connector ring adapted to engage a water faucet, a bowl supported in spaced relation below said ring for receiving water from the faucet and preventing back flow from said pump to the faucet upon a reduction of the pressure therein below the pressure in said inlet, and an outlet in said bowl connected to said tube for supplying water to said pump inlet for lubricating and sealing purposes for mixture and discharge with said body fluids into said receptacle, and a portion of the flow path between said bowl and said pump inlet being restricted for maintaining said water supply at a rate less than the capacity of said pump to maintain effective suction on said inlet.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 657,440 McCaw Sept. 4, 1900 2,149,777 Kidwell Mar. 7, 1939 2,524,764 Burke Oct. 10, 1950 2,636,443 Rand Apr. 28, 1953