US 2839062 A
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June 17, 195 8 JORDAN 7 2,839,062
PNEUMATIC TOURNIQUET CUFF Filed June 23, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 22d 56 4 INVENTOR. DA v/p M. do RDAN ATTORNEY June 17, 1958 D. M. JORDAN 2,839,062
PNEUMATIC TOURNIQUET CUFF Filed June 23, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 50 w X 52' 8 V. .56 v v w 4o I 44 w 6 33 z, x \i INVENTOR. DA /17 M. doRDAN FITTORNEP' United States Patent PNEUMATIC TOURNIQUET CUFF David M. Jordan, North Attleboro, Mass., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Kidde Manufacturing Co., Inc, Bloomfield, N. 1., a corporation of New Jersey Application June 23, 1953, Serial No. 363,581
9 Claims. (Cl. 128-327) This invention relates to a pneumatic tourniquet end for preventing the flow of blood through bodily extremities. and pertains more specifically to a light weight, portable, inflatable tourniquet having a self-contained source of pneumatic pressure and adapted to be readily selfapplied.
One object of the invention is to provide a pneumatic tourniquet cuff having a reinforcing member permanently biased in a generally cylindrical or coiled configuration to facilitate self-application of the cuff.
Another object is to provide a pneumatic tourniquet cuff having a coiled spring backing member adapted to be readily spread open for application to an arm or a leg, and which, because of its configuration, firmly grips the arm or leg to hold the cuff in place while it is being permanently clamped or fastened.
A further object is to provide a tourniquet cuff of the type described, having a flexible strap which may be wrapped around the cult when in place to limit radial expansion of the cuff upon inflation.
Still another object is to provide a tourniquet cuff of the type described having an elongated rigid support member extending transversely across the cuff providing lateral rigidity for a portion of the cuff and serving to carry both fastening means for a cinching strap and infiating means for the cuff.
Still another object is to provide a cuff of the type described in combination 'with a light weight, portable inflating device, which is readily adapted for simple manual control of repeated inflation and deflation of the cuff.
Other and further objects will be apparent from the drawings and from the description which follows.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a plan view of the cuff of the present invention in combination with inflating means therefor;
Fig. 2 is an isometric view showing the device applied to an arm; v
Fig. 3 is a vertical section taken along the line 33 of Fig. 1 showing the ends of the cuff sprung apart to abutting positions;
Fig. 3a is a view similar to Fig. 3 showing the ends of the cuff in their normal overlapping position;
Fig. 4 is a vertical section partly broken away taken along the line 44 of Fig. 1, showing the construction of the inflating means; and
' Fig. 5 is a vertical section taken along the line 55 of Fig. 1, showing the valve arrangement.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings, the pneumatic end includes a flexible, expansible, inflatable bladder 11 provided with a single communicating passage 12 serving as inlet and outlet. Lying closely adjacent the outer surface of bladder 11 is a stifiresilient reinforcing o'rbacking member 13 in the form of a sheet permanently biased to a generally cylindrical or coiled spring configuration, as best seen in Fig. 3a. Backing member 13 is substantially co-extensive in area with the-area of the outer surface of bladder 11, and may be made of any Patented June 17, 1958 suitable stiff resilient material such as spring metal or a suitable plastic material. Sheet polyethylene has been found to be admirably suited for this purpose since it has suflicient resiliency so that it may readily be opened out when the cult is being applied, yet possesses sufiicient strength and stiffness so that it grips the arm or leg securely while the strap which will be hereinafter described, is being secured in place.
Bladder 11 and reinforcing member 13 are assembled together within an outer sleeve or envelope 14 of woven textile fabric or other similar material, which is relatively inextensible and which serves to prevent excessive expansion of bladder 11 when inflated. Secured to the outer face of this assembly is a flexible, substantially nonextensible strap 15 having a free end 16 adapted to be cinched or wrapped around the assembly, as shown in Fig. 2, to limit radial expansion of the assembly when it is applied to the arm or leg and bladder 11 is inflated and to confine it so that inflation of the bladder will apply pressure to the arm or leg to stop the flow of blood therethrough.
Extending transversely across the outer face of the assembly is an elongated rigid support member 17, which may suitably be made from sheet metal or other similar material. Support member 17 is secured to cuff 10 by means of threads 18, 18 passing through holes 19, 19 in the support member and serves to provide lateral rigidity for a portion of the cuif. In addition, it carries a plurality of outwardly extending barbs or teeth 20, which may be integral with the support member, adapted to releasably engage the free end 16 of cinching strap 15 as it is wrapped about the assembly. Inasmuch as the strap 15 is preferably long enough so as to permit several turns of the strap to be made about the assembly, a supplementary fastening means is provided at the end of the strap in the form of a metal plate 21 carrying a plurality of inwardly extending barbs 22 for engaging the next lower wrap of the strap. Supplemental fastening means 21 prevents the free end of the strap from becoming disengaged from the assemblyand possibly interfering with other operations; in addition it reinforces the action of barbs 2t) and provides additional assurance that the strap will not become disengaged while the cuff is in use. It will be seen from the foregoing description that the cuff may readily be applied by a person to him-- self and cinched in place using only one hand, a very desirable feature. Furthermore, the tourniquet cuff of the present invention may be used in a single size which is adapted for use on arms and legs which vary greatly in size; in the case of small arms, such as childrens arms, the ends of the cuff may overlap as shown in Fig. 3a; inthe case of large arms or legs the cuff is effective even though its ends may be spaced apart by a considerable gap since the strap will bridge the gap and will be pressed against the flesh by inflation of the bladder.
Support member 17 has in addition a laterally projecting extremity 22a which serves as a support for inflating means 23.
The inflating means generally includes a cartridge con-, taining a suitable gas such as carbon dioxide, under pressure, a pressure regulating means to reduce the high pressure of the gas within the cartridge to 6 to 9 lbs. per square inch, for example, which is required in the bladder 11, together with a safety or relief valve and a manually operated three-way control valve. 7
Referring now to Figs. 4 and 5 of the drawings, cartridge 25 is mounted within a container or housing 26, threaded on a nipple 27 projecting laterally from lower main housing 28. Threaded within nipple 27 is a sleeve 29 carrying a spike 31 for piercing the end of cartridge 25. Spike 31 is provided with an axial channel 32 to permit flow of gas from the cartridge into the pressure regulator device through channel 33. Cartridge 25 is sealed to sleeve 29 by means of O-ring 34, and sleeve 29 is sealed to the main housing by a similar O-ring 35.
. The pressure regulating device shown in the drawing (.Fig. 4) isiof the diaphragm type and includes a nozzle member 40 sealed to housing 28 by means of O-ring 41 and provided with an axial passageway 42 terminating at its upper end in a small orifice 43. Threaded upon nozzle member 40 is an adjusting nut 4 upon which is seatedpressure adjusting spring 45. Adjusting nut 44 is provided with a knurled edge to facilitate adjustment.
Slidab'ly mounted upon the upper end of nozzle member 40 and sealed thereto by means of O-ring 46, is an assembly including seat holder 50, diaphragm reinforcing plate 51, and lock nut 52 which is threaded upon the outside of seat holder 50 adjacent its lower end. A flexible gas-impervious diaphragm 53 rests upon diaphragm supporting plate 51 and is sealed to a flange projecting from seat holder 50 by means of gasket 54 against which it is compressed by means of seat holder nut 52.
i The margin of diaphragm 53 is similarly secured betweenthe lower portion of main housing 28 and upper portion 56 of'the' main housing by means of gasket 57 and clamppassageways 6t), and with a nozzle seat 61 of a suitable resilient material, such as rubber or rubbery plastic material: The lower end of the passageway 42 within nozzle member 40 is suitably provided with a filter 62 of Wire mesh 'or any other suitable material.
In operation of the device, cartridge 25 is forced against spike 31as casing 26 is advanced on the threads of nipple 27 so as to puncture the end of the cartridge and release the high pressure gas, which then is free to pass through passageway 33, filter 62 and passageway 42 to orifice 43. Sinceat this point the pressure in the chamber above the diaphragm 53 is approximately atmospheric pressure, the high pressure gas in orifice 43 together with the pressure exerted by spring 45 willforce diaphragm 53 together with the attached seat holder 50 upwardly as seen in Fig. 4, so that the high pressure gas will be free to flow through orifice 43 and radial passageways 60 into the chamber above the diaphragm. As soon as the pressure in this chamber" reaches a point sufficiently high to force diaphragm 53 together with attached seat holder 50 down-.
45, which is controlled by adjusting screw 44. The latter may conveniently be adjusted from outside the housing through aperture 65, which also serves to maintain the gas in the chamber below diaphragm 53 at atmospheric pressure. v
Relief valve 68 (Fig. is provided to prevent buildup of excessive pressure, as for example when the device is in use in an airplane (non-pressurized) where outside or atmospheric pressure and hence the pressure in the airplane may vary considerably. The chamber above diaphragm 53 communicates through a suitable passageway (not shown) with chamber 70 of upper housing 56 withinwhich relief valve .68 is seated- The relief valve includes flexible diaphragm 71, which includes an integral bead at its outer margin, serving toseal the diaphragm .to the surrounding casing 56, and also a valve seat 73 withan axial passageway through its center. Valve seat73 is urged against the back wall of chamber 70 by means of adjusting spring 7.4 seated between valve seat 73 and adjusting plate 75, which in turn is adjustably secured to housing 56 by means of bol P s ing thro gh ber 82 is returned to the position shown in its center; In order to insure sealing of diaphragm 71 to the housing .56, a supplemental sealing pring 77 i 1m. vided, seated between adjusting plate 75 and gasket 78 mounted on the bead portion of diaphragm 71.
It will be seen that the relief valve prevents escape of gas entering chamber 70 to the atmosphere so long as the pressure does not exceed that required-to move diaphragm 71 against the total load provided by the pressure of the atmosphere against the outer face of diaphragm 71, together with the additional, load provided by spring 74, the compression of which may be adjusted by means of bolt 76. As soon as the pressure in chamber 70 exceeds the predetermined value, diaphragm 71 is moved away from the back face of housing 56, permitting the gas to escape to the atmosphere through the clearance between the central aperture in diaphragm 71 and bolt 76, thence through the gap between the margin of adjusting plate 75 and housing 56.
It will be seen from the foregoing description that the pressure regulator together withthe relief valve provide means for maintaining a substantially constant gas pressure supply, which may be adjusted to any desired value.
This constant pressure gas supply is conducted from chamber 70 through passageway 79, to the chamber 80 of the manually controlled valve, whence it is led through conduit 12 (Fig. l) to the bladder 11.
Inasmuch as the pressure in a tourniquet cannot be continued for an indefinite period of time without serious consequences, it is essential that the pressure in the tourniquet cufli be released at intervals to permit deflation of the cuif and free flow of blood for a short period of time, following which the cult is reinflated to prevent excessive loss of blood.
The three-way valve shown in the lower portion of Fig. 5 permits accomplishment of this objective in a simple and inexpensive manner. Within valve chamber 80 is slidably mounted valve member 82, which is sealed to the walls of the chamber by means of O-ring 83. Valve member 82 is constantly urged to the right, as shown in Fig. 5, by means of compression spring 84 seated between the valve member and the rear face of valve chamber 80. In this position the constant pressure gas supplied is permitted to pass freely through conduit 12 (Fig. 1) into the cutf. A plunger or pushbutton S5 is provided, by means of which valve member 82 may be urged to the left, as viewed in Fig. 5. 'When O-ring 83 passes the margin of conduit 12, further flow of gas into the cult is prevented, the cuff then being .vented through conduit 12 and through the clearance space between valve member 82 and the wall of the housing, thence past pushbutton 85 through the space between it and retaining ring member 86, which is threaded into the outer end of valve chamber 81. A shoulder 37 is pro- 'vided on pushbutton 85, which may be engaged under the margin of ring member 86 by tilting the pushbutton when it is in the depressed position (to the left as viewed in Fig. 5) to maintain valve member 82 in the desired position to permit deflation of the cuff.
When deflation of the cufl? has been completed, and flow, of blood permitted for the desired period of time, reinflation of the cuff is accomplished simply by straightening the pushbutton 85 axially, whereupon valve mem- Fig; 5 by means of compression spring 84. 7
it will be apparent that although a specific embodiment of the invention has been described herein, nu-. merous variations and modifications are within the spirit and scope of the appended claims. The inflating means shown herein may be dispensed with, if desired, and the cuff may be inflated orally, or by any other suitable mechanical means.
1. A pneumatic torniquet comprising an assembly in-- cluding a stiff r silient acking member in he form of assaoea 5 a sheet of plastic material permanently biased to a generally cylindrical configuration, a flexible, expansible, infiatable bladder disposed adjacent the inner face of said backing member substantially throughout the extent of said inner face and a woven fabric sleeve loosely enclosing said backing member and said bladder, and secured to said assembly a flexible substantially inextensible strap having a free end adapted to be wrapped around said assembly while in use to limit radial expansion thereof, and an elongated rigid support member extending transversely across the outer face of said assembly and secured thereto, said support member including means for releasably holding a portion of the free end of the strap when it is wrapped around said assembly to limit radial expansion thereof.
2. A pneumatic tourniquet as defined in claim 1 comprising in addition inflating means for the bladder, said inflating means being carried by said support member.
3. A pneumatic tourniquet comprising an assembly including a stiff resilient backing member in the form of a sheet permanently biased to a generally cylindrical configuration, an expansible inflatable bladder disposed adjacent the inner face of said backing member and substantially coextensive in area therewith, and a textile fabric sleeve loosely enclosing said backing member and bladder, an elongated rigid metallic support member extending transversely across a narrow zone of the outer face of said assembly and secured thereto, said support member having a plurality of barbs extending outwardly therefrom, a flexible substantially inextensible strap secured to said assembly having a free end adapted to be wrapped around said assembly and to be releasably enga ed by said barbs to limit the radial expansion of said assembly during use.
4. A pneumatic tourniquet as defined in claim 3 wherein said support member has at least one extremity extending laterally beyond the margin of said assembly and includes means for inflating said bladder mounted on said extremity.
5. A pneumatic tourniquet as defined in claim 3 wherein the end of the strap remote from the assembly carries supplemental fastening means for releasably securing said free end to the underlying wraps of said strap during use of the tourniquet.
6. A pneumatic tourniquet comprising an assembly including a generally arcuate stiff resilient reinforcing sheet member formed with its free ends adjacent each other, a flexible inflatable expansible envelope disposed adjacent the inner face of said reinforcing member, a flexible substantially inextensible envelope loosely enclosing both said reinforcing member and expansible envelope, means for releasably confining said assembly while in use against substantial radial expansion thereof, an elongated rigid support member extending transversely across and scoured to said assembly, and inflating means for the inflatable envelope carried by said support member.
7. A pneumatic tourniquet comprising an assembly including a stiff resilient reinforcing member, a flexible inflatable expansible diaphragm forming a closed chamber adjacent one face of said reinforcing member, means for releasably confining said assembly in arcuate form While in use and for holding said assembly against substantial radial expansion thereof, and inflating means for the inflatable envelope rigidly mounted on said assembly.
8. A pneumatic tourniquet comprising an assembly including a stiif resilient backing member permanently biased to a generally cylindrical configuration, a flexible, expansible, inflatable bladder disposed adjacent the inner face of said bacleng member substantially throughout the extent of said inner face and a flexible substantially inextensible sleeve loosely enclosing said backing member and said bladder, a flexible substantially inextensible strap secured to said assembly and being sufficiently long to be wrapped around said assembly while in use, and an elongated rigid member extending across the outer face of said assembly and secured thereto, said last mentioned member including means for releasably holding a portion of said strap when it is wrapped around said assembly to limit radial expansion thereof.
9. A pneumatic tourniquet as defined in claim 8, wherein said strap has a free end provided with fastening means for releasably securing said free end to a portion of said strap about which it is wrapped.
Buschenfeldt June 30, 1936 Foley Dec. 12, 1950