US 2841059 A
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G. A. WISWELL TRAFFIC SAFETY BARS July 1, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 31, l9 53 y 1958 G. A. wnswzu. 2,841,059
.TRAFFIC SAFETY BARS Filed July 51, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. GRANT A- W/SWELL BY 7W7W W ATTORNEYS United States Patent ice e TRAFFIC SAFETY BARS Grant A. Wiswell, Burlingame, Calif. Application July 31, 1953, Serial No. 371,449 6 Claims. c1. 94- 1.s
This invention relates to new and useful improvements in traffic safety bars.
The present invention relates to a traflic bar which may be installed on the pavement of a roadway to supplement and, in some cases, to supersede the concrete islands, curbs, and other raised'roadway areas employed in modern traffic control. The purposes of such areas are to channelize the flow of vehicles, to divide flow of traflic, and to separate lanes of trathc; to provide islands and crosswalks for pedestrians; to protect signs, signals and barriers from collision; to provide emergency or temporary channelization of traffic; to mark and channelize bays for parking lots; and for numerous other purposes.
The present invention relates to a rugged, economical, highly visible and safe traffic bar which may be attached to the pavement by means of spikes or pins and alsoby an adhesive with its principal axis parallel to the direction of flow of traflic. The bars are arranged to be linked together in continuous chain fashion or used individually, depending upon the requirements of the particular installation. The surfaces of the bar are such as to reflect light from the headlights of an approaching vehicle to warn the vehicle operator of approaching danger. For such purpose the instant device may be painted with a reflex reflective substance which will condense and reflect the light of the oncoming headlights back to the source.
One of the most important advantages of the instant invention is the fact that the central body and laterally extending tins of the device present a jagged appearance, which gives the driver of the vehicle approaching it the impression that serious damage will result if the tires contact the traffic bar; whereas actually, the construction of the tratfic bar is such that it will not injure the tires.
Another advantage of the present invention is the. fact that the fins, which give the impression of potential damage to the tires, actually increase the safety factor of the traflic bar. In conventional trafiic bars, one of the inherent hazards is the fact that vehicles may carom or skid off and collide with traflic in adjacent lanes. An-
other disadvantage of existing traffic bars is the fact that once the Wheel of the vehicle has passed over the bar it is difiicult for the driver to restore the wheel to the proper side. Thus conventional traffic bars may increase rather than prevent accidents. The raised central body portion of the bar and transverse ribs or fins facilitate the crossing by vehicle tires at any angle,.with a noticeable and disagreeable jarring but not with a deflection of the steering wheel.
Another object and advantage of the invention. is the fact that the traffic bars may be made to interlock with adjacent traflic bars so that the bars may be joined to gether to form a continuous pattern or chain. For such purpose the opposite ends of the traflic bar are formed for interlocking purposes in that a projection at one end is raised above the level of the pavement while a projection at the other is at pavement level; thus the raised projection of one bar may fitover the depressed projec l atented July 1, 1958 tion of an adjacent bar. A spike or other fastening means passes through aligned apertures on the overlapped projections and holds the bars together. An advantage of such linkage is that if a spike should be dislodged, the other spikes employed in the chain hold the bars in position. The end bars of a chain may be finished off by inserting washers under the end of the raised end projection at one end of the pattern and by placing a washer on top of the end projection of the depressed end of the pattern.
Still another advantage of the present invention is the fact that the bar and the ribs which project outwardly from the central body are formed with surfaces which are substantially vertical. Such surfaces tend to reflect light back toward the oncoming vehicle, thus presenting adequate warning of the approaching hazard. It will be understood, further, that the surfaces of the bar may be painted with a light-reflecting paint which gives additional visibility in warning the operator of the approachin g vehicle.
The substantially right-angle surfaces of the fins and central body not only present a large area of illuminated surface substantially at right-angle to the drivers line 7 of vision but in addition, prevent low-angle glare of headlights coming in the opposite direction from interfering with the drivers vision. Such low angle glare from opposite direction lights is reflected back to its original source.
Another feature of the invention is the fact that the central body intermediate the ribs is grooved out at the bottom so that water and wind may flow under the bar. This prevents water from collecting alongside where it would be a hazard in the event of freezing weather, and
r also a flow of water tends to flush away dirt which may collect. In addition, the grooves provide space for the passage of wind under the bar which functions to blow away dust. The steep slopes of the body and fins likewise deter the collection of dust around the bar.
The construction of the bar is such as to provide great mechanical strength; thus considerable impact ill fail to damage it. The strength of the device and the manner of its attachment to the pavement are such that, when desirable, the device may be removed without damage and it may be subsequently reinstalled in the same or a difiierent location.
Further advantages of the invention reside in its low cost of manufacture and low cost of installation.
An advantage of the ease and rapidity of installation of the device isthe fact that the time required for installation is short, thereby minimizing the obstruction of tratlic necessary to accomplish installation.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a tra'iiic bar constructed in accordance with this invention.
Fig. 2 is a side elevation thereof.
Fig. 3 is a top plan view, showing one bar connected to a portion of an adjacent bar.
Fig. 4 is a bottom plan view of a bar.
Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional View taken substantially along the line 55 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken substantially along line 66 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 7 is an enlarged vertical section through the joint between one portion of the device and the adjacent part thereof.
Fig. 8 is a side elevation of portions of two connected *bars.
' Fig. 9 is a vertical longitudinal midsection through a modfied bar.
Fig. 10 is an enlarged vertical section through a joint between two adjacent bars.
Fig. 1 1 is a schematic plan of a typical traffic intersection illustrating use of the device.
The traffic bar which is the subject of this invention is intended for installation in a roadway which may be surfaced either with cement or asphalt or any other appropriate substance. It is designed for use either singly or in multiples, depending upon the requirements of a particular installation. The roadway on which the device may be installed is frequently formed with a crown 11 or curvature designed to shed water and accordingly the instant device is arranged to be installed either at right angles to the crown or at any other angle with respect thereto.
The traflic bar is formed with a raised central body 12 of any convenient length, such as approximately 18 inches, and of a height of approximately 178 to 2% inches. The bar is a single piece of cast material which may be iron, aluminum or plastic. It is rugged and substantially thick in section to withstand the impact of severe trafiic loads.
Central body portion 12 is formed with a transverse curvature 13, the curvature, however, being relatively steep so that the lower portion of the body is substantially perpendicular. At spaced intervals along the body are transversely projecting fins 14 or legs which extend outwardly a distance of approximately twice the width of the central portion thereof; these ribs curve downwardly arcuately transverse to the body at a less abrupt curvature than the sides of the body. Viewed in plan, the ribs are narrow and have substantially vertical transverse walls 16 which merge with the body in fillets 17. The bottom portion of the fins widen out transversely in pads 18. The corners of pads 18 are rounded. The number and spacing of the fins 14 are optional, but as shown in the accompanying drawings, a desirable arrangement is to cast one fin 14 near each end of the bar with three equally spaced fins intermediate the ends. The undersides of the pads are preferably formed with pits 15 (see Fig. 4) for the purpose of improving adhesion with an adhesive applied on the surface of the roadway.
It will be apparent from the foregoing description of the external structure of the trafiic bar that the bar presents a plurality of substantial vertical surfaces which comprise the center body 12 and the transverse fins 14. The appearance of the traffic bar thus is such as to cause apprehension on the part of the driver that the tires of the vehicle, if they come in contact with the trafiic bar, will be seriously damaged by jagged edges. This is primarily a psychological factor tending to deter close approach to the trafiic bar. Actually, the edges, while appearing hazardously sharp, are not sufliciently sharp to cause damage to a tire. On the other hand, the fins and vertical body provide traction which enables the tire of the vehicle to cross and recross the traffic bar without causing the driver to lose control of the vehicle. This feature of the bar is advantageous in that it prevents the vehicle from caroming or skidding when it comes in contact with the bar, and further, in the event the wheel crosses the bar, makes it relatively easy for the oprator to restore the automobile into proper position.
In addition, the relatively vertical surfaces presented by the body and the fins reflect light from headlights back to the source, thereby warning the operator of a vehicle of the danger lying ahead.
The bottom edge of the central body portion of the bar intermediate the fins is grooved out. The grooves 21 enable water and air to circulate under the bar. Therefore the passage of water under the bar flushes dirt which may have collected adjacent to the bar. The passage of wind through the grooves blows dust and debris which may otherwise collect alongside the bars.
It is to be understood that the bar is painted with a light-reflecting paint or may be surfaced with tape of the type which is reflex reflective and condenses and reflects light back to its source.
r 4 The interior of the bar is substantially hollow in that the thickness of the walls is cut down to reduce the weight as well 'as the expense of the device. Forrigidity and to prevent the device from being crushed by the weight of a vehicle passing over the bar, internal ribs 22 projecting down from the top may be formed underlying the fins 1-4 which project transversely, (see Fig. 9).
Particularly when the device is to be used on a crowned road, the pads 18 underlying the fins toward the central portion of the device may be elevated with respect to the end pads, the center pads being substantially more elevated than the intermediate pads, (see Fig. 2). This enables the device to fit on a contour of a crowned roadway with all the pads in contact with the roadway surface.
In many instances it is desirable to join one traflic bar to another adjacent traffic bar, to form a pattern or chain. The bars may-be parallel to each other or at an angle up to 70 with respect to each other (see Fig. 3). One of the features of this invention is the fact that the permissible angular adjustment between adjacent traffic bars is very great.
To facilitate attachment of one bar to another, a depressed, rounded end projection 26 is formed at one end of the bar, extending parallel to the axis of the bar, the bottom portion of the projection being level with the bottom surface of the pad 18 on the end fin nearest said end. At the opposite end of the bar an elevated, rounded projection 27 is formed extending parallel to the axis of the bar, and the bottom surface of this end projection being elevated with respect to the bottom surface of the endmost pad a distance equal to the thickness of the depressed projection 26 on the opposite end. Apertures 28 and 29 are formed in the two end projections, 26 and 27. When two adjacent bars are joined together, the raised projection 27 of one fits on top of the depressed projection 26 of the other and the apertures 28 and 29 in the two projections are in alignment (see Fig. 7). Thus a single spike, 31 stud, cement nail or drive-screw may pass through the apertures in the two projections and hold the ends of the two bars together and secured to the pavement 10.
Desirably, as shown particularly in Fig. 7, a grommet 32 may be installed around the spike 31. The aperture 29 in the elevated endpiece 27 may be tapered downwardly inwardly and the aperture 28 in the depressed end portion 26 may be tapered upwardly inwardly and the grommet 32 formed in corresponding shape to fit the two apertures. This arrangement facilitates interlocking of the two traffic bars and yet permits wide variation in the angular adjustment between the bars.
The grommet 32 may be composed of natural rubber or synthetic rubber, such as neoprene. The purpose of the grommet is to cushion the movement of the marker or bar against the stud 31 or nail and thus diminish the likelihood of the stud or nail being dislodged from the pavement. The grommet also serves to maintain pressure against the units on the ground when the bars are being cemented to the pavement since adhesive is partially pressure-sensitive.
Thus the bars are most desirably formed with one end portion 27 elevated and the other end portion 27 depressed. However, in order to finish 011 the ends of the pattern, when such an arrangement is employed, desirably an enlarged fiat disc or washer 34 is slipped under the elevated portion 27 :at one end, which receives the grommet 32 and spike 31, and which would otherwise be used if additional bars are desired to be added to that end. Further, the design of the washer 34 fitting under the elevated end merges with the rounded curvation of the projection adjacent the end, and thus finishes oflf the appearance of the pattern. On the opposite end a smaller diameter washer 33 is placed on the top of the depressed end portion 26 of the bar, said washer also being apertured to receive the grommet 32 and spike 31 which would normally be employed if a further bar were to be utilized for continuation of the pattern. The small diameter washer 33 results in a uniform appearance which matches the ends of the traific bar insofar as visual appearance is concerned.
As shown in Fig. two adjacent bars may be joined together by rivets which do not penetrate the pavement 10. Thus a rivet 36 may pass through apertures in overlapped projections 26 and 27 of adjacent bars. The enlarged head 37 of the rivet retains one end in place and the opposite end is formed after assembly in a head 38 which fills a countersunk portion formed in the underside of projection 26. Nuts and bolts and other suitable fastening means may be substituted for rivet 36.
It is not necessary that the bars be linked in chains. Individual bars may be placed in position on the pavement. As shown in Fig. 9, end projections 41 may be cast on either end of the bar, each projection being identical and having its lower surface level with the lower surface of the pads 18. Aperture 42 may be made in projections 41 for the passage of means for fastening the device to the pavement.
In installation, the surface of the road 10, if asphalt, need not be especially prepared. If a concrete roadway is to receive the traffic bars, an adhesive 46 of an asphaltic nature is employed which cooperates with the spikes 31 in holding the bars against the pavement. The pitted pad surfaces 18 likewise cooperate with the adhesive in holding the bar on the pavement. Generally speaking, body 12 is installed parallel to the direction of flow of trafiic. Where two bars are to be joined together the rubber grommet 32 is inserted in the apertures 28 and 29 of the overlapping raised and depressed end portions 27 and 26 of the adjacent bars, and a spike 31 or screw is driven into the pavement. This screw holds the two ends together. The free ends of the bars are fitted with Washers 33 and 34 as has been described, and grommets and spikes employed at either opposite end. The adhesive 46 dries rapidly and hence traflic is interrupted for installation of the device for a relatively short period of time.
A typical traffic pattern is illustrated in Fig. 11. This shows a wide variety of different trafiic control situations in which the bars may be employed either individually or in chains. In the upper portion of Fig. 11 a left turn control is illustrated. An island 51 in the center of the highway tapers down to a point 52 with an outwardly spaced line of bars 53 defining a space 54 in which a vehicle may wait until it is possible to make a turn from the southbound to the eastbound line of traffic. This portion of the diagram illustrates a variety of uses of the trafi'ic bars 12.
In the lower part of Fig. 11 dilferent use of the traffic bars 12 is illustrated. Here an island 56 is defined in the center of the highway, the island being defined not by elevating the pavement (as is commonly done) but by putting a series of bars along each side 57, each bar disposed at an angle to the direction of trafiic movement. At the end of the island a chain 58 of bars 12 is used to form a semi-circle, the bars being connnected together to end as illustrated in Fig. 3, 7 and 8.
0n the left side of Fig. 11 the bars 12 are shown protecting a raised island 61. Thus bars at an angle are shown at 63 tapering oif to a point 62 by changing the angle of the bars to the direction of flow of traffic.
Another island 66 of different shape is shown in Fig. 11, protected at ends 67 and 68 by series of bars 12 placed in positions which will guide traific away from the island without damage such as might occur if the wheel of a vehicle struck the curb of such an island.
The foregoing examples are intended to be illustrative of the uses to which the bars 12 may be put, it being understood that the particular trafiic conditions at an intersection determine the use of the bars. One of the principal advantages of the present invention is the manner in which it lends itself to wide variation in usage.
Although I have described the present invention in some detail for purposes of illustration and example, it is understood that various changes and modifications may be practiced within the spirit of the invention and scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A traffic bar comprising a hollow, crowned elongated central body, apertured end projections at both ends of said body, and a plurality of transverse fins projecting outward from both sides of said body, each said fin curving downwardly from adjacent the top of said body in a narrow, straight-sided ridge having a greater curvature than said body, and a pad at the bottom of each fin extending back to the lower edge of said body.
2. A traffic bar according to claim 1 in which said fins and the top of said body are externally sharp and jagged, and in which said top and fins have surface areas which present substantially vertical, light-reflective surfaces.
3. A traflic bar according to claim 1 in which one end projection has its bottom surface approximately level with the bottom edge of said body and in which the opposite end projection has its bottom edge elevated above the level of the bottom surface of said body a distance approximately equal to the thickness of said first-mentioned end projection, whereby an end projection of one traffic bar may overlie the end projection of an adjacent traific bar.
4. A traffic bar according to claim 1 in which the lower edges of said body intermediate said fins are cut away in upward extending grooves.
5. A chain of trafiic bars comprising: a plurality of individual bars arranged to be positioned along the pavement, each said bar having a hollow crowned elongated central body, apertured end projections at both ends of said body, and a plurality of transverse fins project ing outwardly from both sides of said body, each said fin curving downwardly from adjacent the top of said body in a narrow ridge, each said end projection being relatively thin and having fiat, horizontal top and bottom surfaces, one end projection overlapping the end projection of the adjacent bar with their respective apertures aligned, and retaining means passing through said apertures and engagingthe pavement.
6. A chain according to claim 5 in which one endmost bar of said chain is formed with an elevated end projection and the other endmost bar of said chain is formed with a depressed end projection, and which further comprises a first washer under said first elevated endmost projection and a second washer over said depressed endmost projection and in which said retaining means includes fastening means passing through the apertures in said endmost projections and said washers.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS D. 172,324 Wiswell May 25, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 280,036 Great Britain Nov. 10, 1927 738,891 France Oct. 24, 1932