US 284110 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet l.
K. ZIPERNOWSKY & M. DERI.
DYNAMO ELEGTRG MACHINE. No. 284,llO. Patented Aug. 28, 1883..
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(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet K. ZIPBRNOWSKY e M. DB'RL y DYNAMC ELECTRIC MACHINE. No. 284,110. Patented Aug. 28, 1883.
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DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE.
N0. 284,110. Patented Aug. 28, 1883..`
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UNITED STATES KARL ZIPERNOVSKY AND PATENT OFFICE.'
MAXIMILIAN DERI, or EUDA-rEsfrH, AUSTRIA- HUNGARY.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 284,110, dated August 28, 1883.
Application filed November 23, 1882.
To all whom it may concern..-
Be it known that we, KARL ZIPERNowsKY and MAXIMILIAN DERI, subjects of the E1nperor of Austria-Hungary, residing at the city of Buda-Pesth, Empire of Austria-Hungary, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Dynamo-Electric Machines, of which the fbllowing is a specification.
This invention relates to au electrical machine combining the functions ot' a dynamomachine and a machine with alternating currents, since it generates alternating currents, and is so arranged as to be able to supply its inducing electro-magnets from its own current. Its object is by special methods to excite its own electro-Inagnets, according to requirements, with continuons or intermittently weaker currents flowing in the same direction, and by a peculiarly solid and effective construction of the induction apparatus, in which the currents are generated, and by a secure attachment of its several component parts to furnish a reliable and durable current-producer, which can be adopted for the various requirements of electric lighting. III order to further attain an entire security in the working, especially when incandescent lamps are introduced into the Inain circuit in parallel arc, a new manner of exciting the electro-y magnets by means of differential excitement is applied, which allows the energy of the current to be automatically 'increased in exactly or proximately that degree as thevarying number of incandescent lamps require.
It is also to be noticed in this invention that the working-current, which is at times very powerful, is led off from fixed lamps to the field-magnets without commutation, and that by the use of two commutators and two sets of helices around the field-magnets only the currents of one polarity are sent intermittingly through a shunt round the field-magnets,while the currents of the opposite polarity are shortcireuited in the commutator. The Inain or working current always remains an altern ating one.
III the drawings, Figure l is a vertical central section of the machine. Fig. 2 is an end view thereof, partly in section. Fig. 3 is a plan view of an induction-bobbin, parts being broken away. Fig. 4 is a vertical longitudi- (No model.)
nal section of the same. The remaining iigures are details, which will be hereinafter referred to.
Similar letters indicate correspondingparts.
The electro-magnets are prismatic iron cores placed radially upon the axle, and wound about with copper wire, as shown in Figs. l and 2, sodthat the space between the cores is most advantageously utilized. rlhe iron cores are re-enforced with the polar plates p, and are fastened to the prismatic hub a by means of screws passing from without through the polar `plates and through the whole body of the core, and are furthermore laterally strengthened and held by metal disks s, which disks are perforated or broken through for the admission of ventilating air and the prevention of Foucault currents, (currents generated by reason of proximity to a magnet.) The electro-magnets form, in connect-ion with the axle w, a rigid system, which may be rotated by means of the pulley t. The wire windings of the electro-magnets are connected behind or next to one another in a continuous series in such a manner that north and south poles must alternately be formed. An even number of magnetic poles is consequently necessary, while the number of induction-Dobbins, on the contrary, may be odd, without disturbing the 'production of utilizable alternating currents.
It is best, if the space permits, to take the number oi" induction-bobbins equal to that of the magnetic poles, or, if two current-circuits are to be separately led off, twice as great as the number of the latter. The alternation of current is, however, governed by the number of magnetic poles. rlhe induction -cylinder-that is, that part of the machine in which the alternating working-currents are generated-is constructed as follows:
Fig. 3 shows the core of an induction-bobbin. It consists of a cast iron plate, a, curved to form the segment of a circle, so that a number of them may be fitted together tol form the cylinder surrounding the field-magnets. On this plate are cast thin ribs a3, projecting inwardly, running across the plate, and connected to each other only through their common base-plate, a. Plate a and its ribs are able to rapidly change their magnetic condition by reason of their peculiar form and careful IOO annealing. The larger spaces between the ribs are filled with wooden block s or cushions 71., for the purpose of fastening. To form these cores into bobbins, perforated sheet-metal plates or strips b b4 b5 are screwedonto the faces over the ribs @extending beyond them, and between the projecting edges of these plates b If* b5 and plate a the ceiling-space is formed, so that the wire is thus coiled round the ribs and between the projecting edges ofthe upper plate and the lower interrupted plates,` aslshown in plan in Fig. `3 and in section in Fig. 4. These plates b b* b5 consist of strips separated from each other, in order not to form a continuous conductor, so that no currents can be induced in them, and these plates are attached to the bobbin-cores, as also to the wooden blocks k, wedged in between the bobbins, thus guarding against vibrations, which would otherwise cause an undesirable noise of the machine. The bobbins are either wound about with insulated copper wire, or oblong stamped copper plates o, slit openat one part, (the same being shown in Fig. 7 in plan view and end view,) are passed over the same, and the plates soldered together at the ends, so as to form a spiral continuous conductor, the separate plates being insulated from one another by asbestus or other paper.A A suitable number of these bobbins is formed into a drum or cylinder, and their conductors are combined, either in succession (diagram Fig. 5) or in parallel series, (diagram Fig. 6,) so as to form one or more circuits. After the induction-cylinder has been securely enveloped in paper, a series of wooden rings, r, arev placed upon it, these rings r corresponding with the wooden cushions of the bobbin-core, and similar wooden rings, r, are placed around the edges ofthe induction-cylinder. The intervals cl between the wooden rings r are filled out either with peripherally-wound thin iron wires or with thin iron rings magnetically insulated and having their narrow edges set uppermost. The induction-cylinder is then fastened to the frame L of the machine by means of traverses T, to whiehthe wooden cushions h are fastened by screws passing through the wooden rings r, thus hindering the deformation and peripheral displacement of the cylinder or of the several bobbins. It -is to be noticed that the cast-iron core of the induction-bobbin is not an indis-v pensable part'of the same, but is only intended to increase the inductive effect.. Said core can be made of wood, porcelain, and other indifferentbodiesu The arrangement of the current-exciting and current-conducting partsA is as follows: The alternating current, arising in the inductioncylinder, branches off on leaving the contactscrews c a2, Fig. 10, passing into the resistances 102 and to the brushes b b2, from whence it can reach the electro-magnet coils by means ofthe commutator. (Shown in Fig. 8 in vertical central section, in transverse section, andk in plan -view developed on a plane.) The drawings show the combination of the parts of thek commutator. The sectors sf and s2 at the periphery of the commutatorv are at the sides alternately combined with the rings r r2,- while the smaller intermediate sectors, s, remaininsulated from both. These latter sectors are alternately either screwed to the ringshaped insulated pieces u and u, or the central ring-shaped piece, u2, and every sector (s s` and s2 s2) is connected to form a conductor; but the diainetrically opposite sectors are separated or insulated from one another. The intermediate sectors, si, thus break the contact between the brushes and electro-magnet coils at the moment when the change of current takes place in the machine. The remaining sectors, s s2, whose number corresponds to the number of the magnetic poles, change the contact with the diametrically-placed brushes b b2, so that the branch current must turn in the same direction. rlhe resistances of the electro-magnet coils are so chosen that the strength of thel shunted currents passing in the same direction corrresponds to the desired magnetization.
A modiiied mannerof arrangement is shown in Fig. 11. In this case'the object is to shunt the magnetizing-current, which is to iiow in one direction only in a portion of the circuit between a connecting-screw and the workng-resistances, -without hindering the further course of the alternating current. The alternating current passes from the connectinghaving the opposite direction, on the other hand, are led on in short circuit through connected parts ofthe commutator without reaching the electro-magnet wire. In the commutator, short circuit and interruption change as often as the direction of current in the machine. By the application of two current-circuits, which are alternately and severally shunted, a continuous magnetization can alsobe accomplished.
The construction of the commutator is seen in Fig. 9. The commutator is, in the direction of its width, divided into three parts, of which the middle one contains as many insulated sectors 8 s2 as there are magnetic poles, while the other parts form unbroken contact-rings r2. A brush, b, rubs against one of the rings r or rfi-that is, against one end of the electro-magnet coil, while the other brush, b2, must alternately touch the sectors s and $2- that is, first one and then the other end of the coil. Consequently lthe current between the contact-brushes is at one time on short circuit, and then it is sent through the coil of the electro-magnets. The branch current, and with it the magnetic intensity of the poles, can be reg- IOO IIO
ulated by means of the changeable resistance w; or, to utilize the energy ofthe current more economically, a constant utilizable resistance may be put in place of the resistance w.
The two manners of arrangement just described may also be combined in a machine for the purpose of thereby accomplishing al1 automatic regulation of intensity of the current. This method is especially adapted to the case where the machine has to furnish lights on parallel are. As seen in Fig. 12, the electromagnet is wound about with two insulated coils, U and U2, each coil respectively connected with the commutator c and 02. The commutator ci' allows the alternating current from. coil U'l to periodically pass through it on short circuit, said comunita-toi.' being in contact with brushes Z/ bt in the manner shown in Fig. 9. From this commutator ci also passes a weaker shuntcu rrent, which, flowing through the conductor e, forms a eircuitwith the lampresistances. This current passes through conductors j" and g, through the induction-bobbins b, connected together by wire o, and thence through the con'lmutator c, which commutator is also in contact with brushes b b4. The line c fr indicates the axial line about which the commutators and electro -magnets revolve. The letter at designates the lamps. The cur- 'rent flowing through the commutator c passes in uniform direction into the thin coil U of the electro magnets. The currents flowing through the coils U U2 have always opposite directions; consequently only the difference of the two currents is effective in exciting the electro-magnets; but since, by increasing the resistance in the outer circuit, (i. e., by cutting off certain lamps,) the stronger ofthe two currents will be weakened, while the weaker one will be strengthened, the magnetic intensity of the poles will consequently increase or decrease in the same proportion as the number of lamps in the circuit increases or decreases. This method of regulation can also be effected if the magnetizing-coil Ul receives a constant current from an exterior source-for instance, from a d ynanio-machine while the shunt-current in the counter-coil U, which receives a uniform direction through the commutator c, serves for weakening, and consequently regulating, the magnetic intensity. In all cases where the magnetic excitement is to proceed from without, the commutators, Figs. S and 9, are so constructed that by means of suitable copperbrushcs a current can be led to the electro-magnets from without through the eontact-rings 1'/ fr'".
IVhat we claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. A seetorbobbin consisting of the segmental plate n, having the projecting ribs thereon, provided with the two or more interrupted plates b b4 b5, and surrounded by a conductor, substantially as described.
2. A'scctor-bobbin composed of a zigzagshaped core, a, provided with wooden blocks 7L, .for the retention of plates Z), said core being surrounded by a conductor, substantially as and for the purpose described.
3. An induction-cylinder composed of wo0den rings r and conductor or iron wire d, and of sector-bobbinshaving their cores provided with wooden cushions 71 said sector-bobbins being connected to the wooden rings r, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
4. A sector-bobbin having a core, a, provided with wooden blocks h lr, and metal plates b, attached to said cores c and to said wooden blocks h k, thus securely fastening the said plates b, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
5. A commutator consisting of rings fr' r2 a u2 a3, sectors s si, communicating with Said rings o" r2 and sectors s, which serves to break the circuit between sectors s and si, communicating with said rings a a"7 ai, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
6. In an electric machine, .the combination, with the imluctiou-bobbins, of the 1ield-mag nets provided with a coil, U2, wound in one direction for the primary current, and a coil, U, wound in the opposite direction for the regulatino-current, ofthe short-circuitin g commutator et, communicating with coil U2 and commutator c, communicating with coil L", whereby a current of one polarity only is sent from commutator c'l and an alternating cur rent from commutator c', and whereby t-hc intensity of the current is automatically regulated.
7. In an electric machine, the combination, with the coils of the inductionnlmbbin, of the field-magnets providedavith a coil, U2, wound in one direction for the primary current, and avcoil, U, wound inthe opposite direction for the regulating-current, of the short-eircuiting commutator (.2, communicating with coil U2, and commutator c, communicating with coil U, whereby a current of one polarity only is sent from commutator 0* through the coils of the inductiolrbobbins, and from commutator c a continuous current, and whereby the intensity of the current is automatically regulated.
In testimony whereof we have signed our names to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
KARL ZIPERNOIVSKY. MAXIMILIAN DEFI.
Titnessesz ZILLI ZYPENTEUL, HENRY STERNE.