US 2841127 A
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F. S. EASTER COOLING SYSTEM July 1, 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet l y Filed Feb. 16, 1955 DNV: 5 MTN w www m 5W n N M T ICJ/TMA .T W/ 57 EPH Fm WD drh W m E July 1, 1958 v F. s. BAsTl-:R
COOLING SYSTEM 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 16, 1955 INVENTOR. /Ccec'r 5. 64575@ BY W'TTS, EDGEETO/ Mc/VENNY July 1, 1958 Filed Feb. 16, 1955 F. s. EASTER 2,841,127
COOLING SYSTEM 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 IN1/EN ToR. F0255? 5 [71:75 nie 2,841,127 COOLING SYSTEM Forest S. Bastei, Cleveland, Ohio, assignor to 'Ihe White lgitor Company, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of o Application February 16, 1955, Serial No. 488,589 7 Claims. (Cl. 12.3-41.1)
This invention relates to engine cooling systems and more particularly to a closed or pressure type cooling system.
`One of the primary objects of this invention is to provide a cooling system which vis simple in design and op eration and which reduces the most frequent causes of trouble in truck circulating systems.
A long-standing problem in the operation of a truck over the road is trouble in the engine cooling system resulting from the presence of dirt, scale and lime deposits. These accumulations are introduced into .the cooling system by frequent relling with Water which is sometimes chemically harmful and oftentimes dirty. These eiTects may be minimized by reducing the need for frequent refilling which reduces accordingly the `amount of uids entering the cooling system. By providing a pressure system having certain components, the need Afor frequent refilling is eliminated, thus reducing the over-all maintenance needed for the cooling system. The features which are included in my novel cooling system, the preferred embodiment which is disclosed herein, are eiective to accomplish this result and yet simple in structure and maintenance.
A check valve is provided in the connection from the surge tank to the water pump inlet which serves to prevent reverse flow from the engine to the surge .tank when large volume vapor pockets would otherwise form. How ever, the check valve does not restrict additional coolant from entering the circulation stream as needed. An air separator mounted at the engine outlet serves as a collecting point for the elimination of air and vapor bubbles which would :otherwise tend to travel through the cooling system. These two units functioning together enable the system to operate continuously on solid water, thereby eliminating cavitation and` flashing at the pump and maintaining a more uniform temperature in the engine under the most adverse conditions. j
One condition of operation which leads to a problem in maintaining the coolant in the system occurs when the vehicle is operated continually under heavy load conditions and then stopped immediately. A large amount ot' heat is built up in the engine and the stopping thereof does not give the cooling system Van adequate time to dissipate such heat. ln previously used cooling systems, the coolant would be vaporized in the engineandr a sudden increase in volume would force the coolant to overflow and it would be lost. The provision of the check valve preventing reverse flow t-o the surge tan-k results in a positive head pressure being maintained on the engine and prevents the ilow of large quantities of coolant into the surge tank and out ofthe overflow.
Accordingly, it is an important `object of this invention to provid-e a cooling system for an internal combustion engine in which the components function to maintain a constant supply of solid coolant in allV parts of the system. Y
Another important object of this invention is to provide a cooling system for an internal combustion engine hav ing means for removing the air bubbles and vapor from the coolant as it is discharged from the engine.
A still further important .object ofthis invention fis to provide a non-return valve between vthe discharge of the engine cooling jacket and .the top tank of the system.
'2,d1,127 ifatented July l, 1958 Another object of the invention is to provide a cooling system for an internal combustion engine which is vented to the top tank of the cooling system in suc-h a manner that all parts of the system will be filled with coolant at all times.
Other objects and advantages more or less ancillary Vto the foregoing, and the manner in which all the various objects are realized, will appear in the following description, which considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, sets forth the preferred embodiment of the invention.
In the drawings:
l is a side View of an engine and cooling system embodying my invention in which the circulation of the coolant is shown with the thermostat closed.
lFig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. l in which the circulation is shown with the thermostat open.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary top View showing in detail the components of the cooling system.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary perspective view of the air separator with parts out away for purposes of clarity; and
Fig. 5 is a schematic view showing the cooling system circuits.
Referring first to Fig. l, the preferred embodiment of my invention is shown in connection with an internal combustion engine designated by the numeral 10. The engine lll includes the usual cooling water passages l2 surrounding the cylinders le and connected with similar passages around the combustion chamber in the cylinder head lo. The radiator lil of ythe n and tube type is provided for cooling the water which is discharged from vthe engine in the heated condition.
A surge tank is mounted on the engine head above the 'level of the radiator i8 and provides an eX- pansion chamber for accommodating the variation in volume of the cooling water as it is heated and cooled. A fill pipe and cap 22 is provided on the tank 2d for adding Water to the system. The cap 22 is of the type `which seals the system until a pressure of about 31/2 to 41/2 pounds per square inch gage pressure is reached at which time the vvalve in the cap opens to relieve the pressure to the overlow 24. A vent line 2o connects the `op of the radiator it with the top of tank 2i? to provide for the air in the radiator to escape to the tank i) when the system is being lled.
A water pump 28 is mounted on the engine and driven by a belt 3d in the usual manner for inducing flow in the coolant circulation system. The inlet of the pump 28 is connected to a thermostat housing 32 as shown diagrammatcally in Fig. 5. The outlet of the pump 28 discharges directly into the engine cooling jackets, water being forced to all parts of the engine by the operation of the pump 28.
The cooled water from radiator 18 is conducted to the thermostat housing 32 through a flexible hose and pipe connection 34. A thermostatic valve 36 shown in full line in Fig. 5 closes a passage 33 to the flow of water when the temperature thereof is below a predetermined point. This condition occurs during the warm-up period of engine operation. An air separator itl is mounted on the head 16 and receives the heated water being discharged from the engine. A line connects the separator di) with the top of the radiator liti for conducting the heated water into the radiator when the thermostatic valve 36 has opened to the passage 3d. A by-pass 44 `conducts the cooling water to passage 46 in the thermostatic `'housing 32. When the thermostatic valve 36 is in the full line position, the cooling water may flow through to the pump inlet and into the engine without restriction. As the water in the system becomes heated, the thermostatic valve hrst moves to the dotted `line position 48 at which condition a portion ot the water ilows through. the
3 radiator 18 and the remainder of the cooling water ows through the by-pass 44 to the pump 28. In the dotted line position 50 of the valve 36 the passage 46 would be completely closed and all of the ow of the cooling water would be through the radiator 13, the connection 34, the passage 38, to the pump 28.
A line 52 interconnects the bottom of the surge tank to the inlet of the pump 2S for supplying additional water as required to maintain a constant supply to the pump 28. The hydraulic head pressure on the pump inlet is constant, it being the diiierence of the elevation of the pump inlet and the water level in the surge tank 20.
A check valve 54 is located in the line 52 and disposed to prevent flow away from the pump inlet which effectively prevents large quantities of coolant from being discharged into the surge tank 20 as a result of ashing in the cooling system.
The air separator is shown in detail in Fig. 4. An annular chamber 56 is formed in the head 16 and a tangential opening 58 is formed in the wall of chamber 56 to induce high velocity rotational ilow in the chamber 56 as the coolant enters into the chamber 56 from the cooling passages in the engine. A tangential discharge 60 conducts the water from the separator 40 to the line 42. A dome 62 forms a pocket for receiving air which tends to be forced out at the end of the vortex of the rotational flow pattern. A vent connection 64 is made to the vent line 26 from the upper part of the dome 62 to allow the air or vapor bubbles collected therein to flow into the top of the surge tank 20. Since the cooling water is at the highest temperature at this time the air bubbles in the water are the largest and most easily separated. Further, the vapor bubbles are removed from the main stream of the cooling water, thus assuring Solid water in the circulation system external of the engine.
When the engine is started in a cool condition, the pump 28 immediately begins circulating the coolant through the engine. Since the thermostatic valve 36 is closed, all of the cooling water will be recirculated without benefit of cooling by the radiator 18. When the temperature of the water has reached the predetermined temper-ature of approximately 175 F. the thermostatic valve 36 begins to open and divides the flow between the bypass 44 and the radiator 18. A continued rise in temperature operates the thermostatic valve 36 to increase the ow of cooling water through the radiator 18. When the temperature of approximately 195 F. has been reached the thermostatic valve closes the by-pass 44 and all of the coolant passes through the radiator 18. It is noted that due to the continuous circulation, the air separator 40 is functioning to remove the air and Vapor bubbles from the coolant as it is discharged from the engine.
When thevehicle is operated under adverse conditions for a considerable length of time and parked immediately, the overheated portions of the engine continue to heat the cooling water with the result that the temperature rises since there is no circulation through the radiator 18 being provided. As a result the water in the cooling jacket of the engine may be vaporized which tends to displace large volumes of coolant out of the engine 10. At this condition, the check vavle 54 prevents reverse ow of the cooling water through the line 52 to the surge tank 20 which would occur in the absence of the check valve 54. The check valve 54 further assures the presence of water at the inlet of the pump 28 thus preventing vapor locking and failure of the pump to discharge adequate quantities of cooling water as requiredv for cooling the engine.
Although the foregoing description is necessarily of a detailed character, in order that the invention may be completely set forth, it is to be understood that the specific terminology is not intended to be restrictive or confining, and that various rearrangements of parts and modifications of detail may be resorted to without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention as herein claimed.
l. A cooling system for an internal combustion engine comprising a radiator, pump means for circulating coolant through the engine and the radiator, a conduit connected to the top of said radiator, air separator means on said engine connected with said conduit, a tank above said air separator and connected thereto, conduit means connecting said tank to the inlet of the pump means, and a one way valve for preventing flow from said pump inlet to the tank.
2. A cooling system for an internal combustion engine comprising a pump, a radiator, surge tank and conduit means interconnecting said engine, pump, surge tank and said radiator to form a circuit, an air separator disposed in thc conduit means between the discharge of the engine and the top of the radiator, said air separator being vented to the top of the surge tank,and one way valve means in the conduit means interconnecting the surge tank with the pump for limiting ow toward the pump.
3. A cooling'system for an'internal combustion engine vcomprising a pump, a radiator, surge tank and conduit means interconnecting said engine, pump, surge tank and said radiator to form a circuit, an air separator disposed in the conduit means between the discharge of the engine and the top of the radiator, a vent connection bctween the air separator, the top of the radiator and the top of the surge tank, and one way valve means in the conduit interconnecting the surge tank with the pump for limiting ow toward the pump.
4. A cooling system for an internal combustion engine comprising a pump, a radiator, surge tank and conduit means interconnecting said engine, pump, surge tank, and said radiator to form a circuit, an air separator disposed in the conduit means between the discharge of the engine and the top of the radiator, a vent connection between the air separator, the top of the radiator and the top of the surge tank, one way valve means in the conduit interconnecting the surge tank with the pump for limiting ilow toward the pump, and thermostatic control means for providing circulation for the coolant without passing through the radiator.
5. In a cooling system for an internal combustion engine, a radiator, a pump, and a surge tank above said radiator and said pump, conduit means interconnecting the engine, radiator, surge tank and pump, a conduit between the inlet of the pump and the lower portion of the surge tank, and non-return valve means in the second named conduit for restricting the flow therein in a direction toward said pump inlet.
6. In a cooling system for an internal combustion engine, a radiator, a pump, and a surge tank above said radiator and said pump, conduit means interconnecting the engine, radiator, surge tank and pump, a conduit between the inlet of the pump and the lower portion of the surge tank, and a check valve in the second named conduit for restricting the ow therein in a direction toward said pump inlet.
7. In a cooling system for an internal combustion engine, a radiator, a pump, and a surge tank above said radiator and said pump, conduit means interconnecting the engine, radiator, surge tank and pump, a conduit between the inlet of the pump and the lower portion of the surge tank, non-return valve means in the second named conduit for restricting the flow therein in a ldirection toward said pump inlet and a vent connection between the top of said radiator and the top of said surge tank.
References Cited in the le of this patentv UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,710,268 Muir Apr. 23, 1929 1,829,757 Nottingham Nov. 3, 1931 2,147,993 Scheibe Feb. 21, 1939 2,578,568 Mayer et al. Dec. 11, 1951 2,590,754 Cline Mar. 25, 1952