|Publication number||US2846785 A|
|Publication date||Aug 12, 1958|
|Filing date||Feb 11, 1954|
|Priority date||Feb 11, 1954|
|Publication number||US 2846785 A, US 2846785A, US-A-2846785, US2846785 A, US2846785A|
|Inventors||Underwood Roy J|
|Original Assignee||Underwood Roy J|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (32), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1958 R. J. UNDERWOOD WHEELED SIDE-DUMPING 5000? Filed Feb. 11, 1954 Willi United States Patent Office 2,846,785 Patented Aug. 12, 1958 The present invention relates generally to wheeled scoops and the like and it relates more particularly to manually-operated wheeled snow shovels or scoops.
An object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved construction for a manually-operated wheeled scoop or shovel. Another object of the present invention is to provide a simple, inexpensive and easy to operate wheeled scoop or shovel which will enable the user to transfer relatively large amounts of snow or other bulky material with a minimum of effort. A further ob- }ect of the present i vention is to provide manually-on erated wheeled scoop or the like which can be quickly and easily adjusted to provide varying angles of attack and varying mechanical advantage. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a simple and inexpensive wheeled undercarriage which can be quickly and easily attached to the shaft of an ordinary snow shovel or the like so as to convert the shovel into an efficient and easy to operate wheeled scoop.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention are apparent in the following detailed description, ap
pended claims and accompanying drawings.
It is a matter of common knowledge that, following every sizeable snowfall, many people die of, and many others are injured by, over-exertion resulting from the unaccustomed chore of clearing sidewalks and the like by use of the ordinary snow shovel. That is, the strain of bending and lifting large amounts of snow with the conventional hand shovel frequently results in back injuries and damage to the heart, especially in the case of city dwellers who ordinarily do very little in the way of manual labor.
According to the present invention, there has been developed a new and improved construction for a manually operated snow shovel, wherein the shovel is provided with a novel wheeled undercarriage converting it to a scoop so that the user can, with but a fraction of the effort otherwise required, roll the instrument into a snowbank or the like for loading, thereafter tilt the shovel upward to elevate the scoop portion, subsequently wheel or swing the shovel to one side, and finally rotate the shovel about its longitudinal axis to dump the load off either end of the scoop portion.
The present invention further contemplates an improved manually-operated wheeled scoop construction wherein the undercarriage can be shifted axially along the shaft to vary the angle of attack of the scoop portion and also to vary the mechanical advantage achieved during tilting of the instrument.
The present invention further contemplates a simple and inexpensive wheeled undercarriage which can be quickly and easily attached to the shaft of an ordinary snow shovel or the like so as to convert it into a wheeled scoop. As part of the aforesaid wheeled undercarriage, I may provide novel quick-attachable bearing means for use on shovels having shafts of non-circular cross-section.
For the purpose of illustrating the invention, there are shown in the accompanying drawings forms thereof which are presently preferred, it being understood, however, that this invention is not limited to the precise arrangements and instrumentalities shown.
Referring to the accompanying drawings in which like reference characters indicate like parts throughout:
Figure 1 is a perspective view showing one embodiment of the present invention as it appears in use.
Figure 2 is a side view, partly in elevation and partly in longitudinal cross-section, showing the embodiment of Fig. 1.
Figure 3 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the present invention wherein a separate wheeled undercarriage is detachably connected to an ordinary snow shovel or the like.
Figure 4 is a fragmentary enlarged longitudinal crosssection view taken generally along the line 4-4 of Fig. 3.
Figure 5 is a transverse cross-sectional view taken generally along the line 5-5 of Fig. 4.
Figure 6 is an exploded perspective view showing the elements of the quick-attachable bearing forming part of the embodiment of Figs. 3-5.
Figure 7 is a transverse crosssectional view, generally like that of Fig. 5, but showing a modified embodiment used on a shovel having a shaft of non-circular cross-section.
Figure 8 is a side elevational view of another form of detachable wheeled undercarriage construction.
Figure 9 is a transverse cross-sectional view like those of Figs. 5 and 7 but showing another embodiment of the present invention.
Referring now to the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2, I may provide a snow shovel including an elongated cylindrical shaft 20, which may be of tubular metal or the like, having a curved open-ended scoop portion 22 mounted at one end thereof. The scoop portion may be of relatively light-weight aluminum alloy or other appropriate material having a reenforcing strip 24 of wearing resisting steel or the like mounted along its lowermost ground-contacting forward edge. The scoop portion 22 may also have a number of transversely-spaced arcuate strengthening ribs 26 formed therein. as best indicated in Fig. l.
A bicycle-type handle 28 with grips on both sides of the center is removably mounted at the other end of the shaft 20. The handle 28 includes a collar 30 which fits over the end of the shaft 20 and is provided with a pair of diametrically spaced threaded openings to receive a threaded locking-bolt 32, which is adapted to extend through aligned holes in the tubular shaft 20. It is evident that, with the locking bolt 32 in position, as indicated in Fig. 1, the handle 28 is locked to the shaft against axial or rotary displacement.
The shovel of Figs. 1 and 2 also includes an undercarriage, indicated generally by the reference character 34 and including a pair of wheels 36 mounted on an ante 32. A tubular sleeve 40 is supported upon the axle 33 by front and rear pairs of vertical members 42 and 44. That is, the sleeve 40 is disposed generally at right angles to the axle 38 with the vertical supporting members 44 extending downwardly, in laterally-diverging relationship, from the rear end of the sleeve to the ends of the axle. The front vertical supporting members 42 extend downwardly in laterally-diverging relationship from the front end of the sleeve 40 to the ends of the axle 38; the front supporting members 42 converging downwardly toward the rear supporting members 44, as best shown in Fig. 2.
The sleeve 40 is adapted to fit over the cylindrical shaft 20 in rotatable relationship therewith, so that the shaft can be turned freely relative to the undercarriage, as will be more fully described hereinbelow.
A pair of locking-rings 46 is mounted upon the shaft 20, at the opposite ends of the sleeve 4! the lockingrings 46 being provided with wing-screws 48 which can be tightened against the shaft so as to secure the loci;- ing rings against axial displacement along the shaft. The locking-rings 46 are disposed in end-to-end relationship with the sleeve the abutting annular end walls of the locking-rings and the sleeve being smooth so as to permit free axial rotation of the shaft 20 and the loclting rings 46 relative to the sleeve 40. while preventing axial displacement thereof.
In order to mount the undercarriage 34 and the loch ing-rings 46 upon the shaft 20, the handle 28 is first removed from the end of the shaft [by removing the locking-bolt 32), after which the front lockingning. til? sleeve 40, and the rear locking'ring are slipped over the shaft. in that order. after which the handle 23 is replaced.
It is apparent that the locking-rings can be secured at various positions along the shaft 20 so as to change the angle of attack of the scoop portion 22. the angle of inclination of the shaft 20 relative to the ground. and the mechanical advantage achieved during the tilting operation.
Thus. it is obvious that, if the locking-rings 46 and sleeve 40 are disposed relatively closer to the scoop portion than shown in Fig. 2, the angle of inclination of the shaft and the angle of attack of the scoop portion will be increased, as also will be the mechanical advantage achieved when the handle is depressed to tilt the shaft to horizontal position, thereby raising the filled scoop up off the ground (since the scoop portion is thereby positioned relatively closer to. and the handle is posi tioned relatively farther away from, the wheels 36, which represent the pivot point or fulcrum of the lever mechanism). By thus placing the locking-rings and sleeve closer to the scoop portion, the user can lift greater loads with less effort. although greater vertical arcuatc movement of the handle will he needed.
On the other hand. by positioning the locking-rings and sleeve farther away from the scoop portion then shown in Fig. 2, the angle of inclination of the shaft and angle of attack of the scoop portion, as well as the mechanical advantage achieved during tilting, are correspondingly lowered. in the latter position, somew a greater force is required to lift the loaded scoop portion. However, this reduces the extent of vertical arcu ate movement required at the handle and also places the handle closer to the ground.
For an older person, desiring to exert a minimum of physical effort. it is preferab e to have the sleeve so set in forward position. On the other hand, where the person using the shore. is re a ively short or is relati ely young so that slight addition-ll phyiscal exertion is rnimportant, it may be preferable to position the sleeve somewhat nearer the rear end of the shaft, since the speed of operation can be thereby increased (inasmuch as shorter and quicker movements of the handle sullir: for the up and down tilting of the scoop).
To operate the shovel of Figs. 1 and 2, the user first places the device in the position shown in Fig. 2 wherein the reinforcing strip 24 of the scoop portion 22 resl, against the pavement or road surface to be cleared, with the shaft 20 extending upwardly and rearwardly at an angle which may be about 30 degrees to degrees from the horizontal.
The user then pushes forwardly upon the handle 23 s that the device rolls forward on the wheels 36; the forward edge of the scoop portion sliding along the ground and scooping up a load of snow or the like it: the process.
The user then bears downward upon the handle 22; so as to tilt the shaft (clockwise in Fig. 2) about the wheels.
thereby raising the scoop portion off the ground and bringing the shaft 29 to an angle more nearly apn oxi mating (but not necessarily reaching) the horizontal.
With the scoop portion in elevated position, the user then pushes or turns the device upon the wheels 36 so as to swing the scoop portion away from the cleared urea.
Finally. by turning the handle. 28 with both hands, as he would do in steering a bicycle for example, the user causes axial rotation of the shaft 20 (and the lockingris 46) relative to the sleeve 46 whereby the load of snow is dumped from either end of the scoop portion 22 in. the manner truncated in Fig. l.
ithilc the rotation of about 96 degrees (which turns the scoop portion from generally horizontal to generally vertical position) is ordinarily adequate to cause complete dumping of the load of snow, it is possible to rotate the shaft through a full 360 degrees so that, if desired, the dumping can be effected by a rotation of up to 18f) degrees.
indeed, it is also possible simply to rotate the shaft through the full 360 degrees so as to cause dumping followed by return to the original upright position in a single continuous movement.
The user then turns the handle to restore the scoop portion to horizontal position and swings the device back to the sidewalk, lowers the scoop portion back to the ground and repeats the procedure.
From the foregoing it is evident. that, instead of having to bend and lift a load of snow up off the ground (as is necessary with a conventional snow shovel) the user of my novel wheeled scoop construction has only to exert It relatively slight forward push and a relatively slight downward push in order to operate the device. Since the downward force on the handle can be attained, in large part, by the weight of the body, applied through the arms, there is no great physical exertion involved and danger of injury to the back or strain on the heart.
In Figs. 3 5, there is shown another embodiment of my invention wherein an ordinary snow shovel, having a handle permanently affixed thereto, can be converted into a wheeled scoop in accordance with the present invention.
In Fig. 3, there is shown a conventional shovel of the type most commonly manufactured and sold today and having a solid wood shaft 50, of circular cross-section. having a scoop portion 52 mounted at one end thereof and a conventional handle 54 permanently mounted at the other end thereof.
Since the handle 54 is permanently affixed to the shaft 50, it is impractical for the owner of such a shovel to remove it in order to install a tubular sleeve of the type shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
Accordingly, I provide a separate undercarriage 56 having wheels 58, an axle 60 and front and rear vertical supporting members 62'and 64 like those of the l lnll' carriage 34 described above.
However, instead of a tubular sleeve, the undercarriage 56 of Fig. 3 is a split-sleeve with a bottom section 66 (to which the vertical supporting members 62 and 64 are affixed) and a top section 63; the sleeve sec tion 66 and 68 being connected, along one side, by a hinge-pin 70.
Along the opposite side, the sleeve sections 66 and 68 are provided with abutting shoulders. The shoulder of the top sleeve section 68 carries a downwardly directed wing-screw 72 which can be detachably engaged within a threaded hole in the shoulder of the bottom sleeve sec-- tion.
As best illustrated in Fig. 4, the sleeve sections 66 and 68 are provided with recessed cylindrical inner bearing surfaces 74 and 76 respectively; central annular grooves 78 and 80 being provided therein.
In order to prevent undue wear upon the wood shaft 50, I provide a split hearing which can be detachably affixed to the shaft so as to fit inside the sleeve sections.
Thus, as best indicated in Fig. 6, the split bearing includes a pair of arcuate sections 81 and 82 having central annular grooves 84 and 86 respectively; the groove 84 in the bearing section 81 having a threaded hole 88 formed therein.
A C-shaped clip spring 90, having a threaded hole 92, is adapted to fit within the central grooves 84 and 86 of the bearing sections 81 and 82; a small threaded screw 94 being adapted to be tightened within the holes 92 and 88 so as to lock the sections 81 and 82 together about the shaft 50.
It is obvious that the bearing sections can be placed at any desired point along the shaft 50.
Once the bearing sections have been positioned upon the shaft 50, the undercarriage 56 is connected to the shaft by first opening the top sleeve section 68 and then closing it over the bearing sections and locking it to the bottom sleeve section 66 by means of the wing-screw 72.
As best indicated in Fig. 4, the central grooves 78 and 80 in the bearing surfaces 74 and 76 are in line with the grooves 84 and 86 and accommodate the protruding end of the screw 94 so as to permit free axial rotation of the bearing sections 81 and 82 within the recessed bearing surfaces 74 and 76 of the sleeve sections 66 and 68.
It is obvious that, by releasing the wing-screw 72 and opening the top sleeve section 68, the fastening screw 94 is exposed so that it can be loosened to permit axial shifting of the bearing sections along the shaft or com plete removal of the bearing sections from the shaft, when it is desired to use the shovel without the undercarriage or for storage.
It can be seen that, with the bearing sections fastened securely in place upon the shaft, they serve to prevent relative axial movement of the shaft and undercarriage, while permitting free axial rotation thereof.
I prefer to make the inner bearing surfaces 74 and 76 of the split-sleeve sections 66 and 68 somewhat larger. in radius of curvature, than the shaft 50 of the shovel. In this way, a single size splitsleeve can be adapted to fit a number of different diameter shovel shafts by the simple expedient of providing interchangeable split hearing sections, all having identical external bearing surfaces (corresponding to the surfaces 74 and 76} but having inner surfaces of different curvature and/or configuration corresponding to different types of shovel shafts. In other words, it is necessary merely to select the set of bearing sections corresponding, in inside configuration, to the shovel shaft, and to mount them upon the shaft prior to positioning the split sleeve thereupon.
In Fig. 7 there is shown a modified form of the embodiment of Figs. 36 intended for use where the shovel has a shaft 96 of square (or any other norvcircular) cross-sectional configuration held. by set screw an. in this embodiment, the split bearing sections 98 and 190 are modified so that their inner surfaces correspond in shape to the configuration of the shaft while their outer surfaces still provide cylindrical bearing surfaces for the sleeve sections 66 and 68.
In other words, the bearing sections 98 and 100 now provide cylindrical bearing surfaces upon an otherwise non-cylindrical shaft 96.
In Fig. 8 there is shown still another embodiment of the present invention wherein a pair of generally C-shaped split-ring locking collars 192 having tightening bolts 1434 are adapted to be fitted over, and locked to the cylindrical Shaft of a snow shovel (whizh may be either the shovel of Fig. 2 er the shcvcl of Fig. 3} so as 1: pr.- vide end stops for the hinge sleeve sections 188 and Hi] 0f the wheeled undercarriage. The sleeve sections 108 and 110 are adapted to be detachably connected by a wing-screw 112 and otherwise resemble the sleeve sections 66 and 68 described above, except that inner hearing surfaces 114 and 116 are no longer recessed. That is, the bearing surfaces 114 and 116 may contact directly with the cylindrical shaft 106,- axial displacement being prevented by the external locking collars 102 in a manner analogous to that of the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2.
Since the locking collars and the sleeve are of split construction, they can be opened and fitted upon the shaft, without having to be slipped over from one end thereof, and, therefore, they can be used with a shovel having a permanently afllxed handle.
By loosening the bolts 104, it is possible to place the locking collars 102 and the hinge sleeve at any desired point along the shaft 106 so as to change the angle of inclination and mechanical advantage as described in connection with the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2.
In Fig. 9 there is shown another embodiment of the present invention which generally resembles the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2, except that the shaft 2il-a is now square in cross-section. in order to provide a cylindrical bearing surface for the sleeve 40, I provide an intermediate adapter sleeve 118 having a square central opening (corresponding to the square cross-section of the shaft and a cylindrical outer bearing surface corresponding to the cylindrical inner surface of the sleeve 40.
In this embodiment. the locking-rings (not shown) would also have central openings of s uare cross-section corresponding to the configuration of the shaft.
The manner of installation is similar to that described hereinabove in connection with the embodiment of Figs.
i and 2.
Thus, after the handle has been removed from the shaft, the first locking ring is slipped onto the shaft, after which the adapter sleeve 118 and the bearing sleeve 40 are slipped into place. Thereafter, the second lockingring is slipped onto the shaft and the two locking-rings are tightened in place.
Finally, the handle is re-offixed to the shaft and the coop is ready for use.
The present invention may be embodied in other spc cific forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof and, accordingly. reference should be made to the appended claims. rather than to the foregoing specification, as indicating the scope of the invention.
Having thus described my invention, 1 claim as new and desire to protect by Letters Patent:
l. A manually operable scoop for handling snow or the like comprising an undercarriage having a pair of laterally spaced wheels and a bearing sleeve supported above and generally half way hem-eon said wheels, the axis of the sleeve being generally at right angles to the axis of the whee s. a shaft extending through said sleeve and axially rotatable relative thereto, said shaft carrying a scoop poo tion at one end, and quick-adjustable means mounted upon said shaft for locking said shaft against axial movement relative to said sleeve while permitting free relative rotation. said lockilng means permitting ready shifting of the sleeve along the shaft, whereby the angle of attack of the scoop portion as well as the mechanical advantage can be varied.
2. A manually operable scoop for handling snow or the like comprising an undercarriage having a pair of laterally spaced wheels and a bearing sleeve supported above and generally half way between said wheels, the axis of the sleeve being generally at right angles to the axis of the wheels, a shaft extending through said sleeve and axially rotatable relative thereto, said shaft carrying a handle at one end and a scoop portion at its other end, said handle being generally horizontally disposed and heiug constructed and arranged first to raise the scoop portion off the ground while balancing it in generally horizontal position and subsequently to rotate the shaft so as to tilt the scoop portion to non-horizontal dumping position, and quick-adjustable means constructed and arranged to be fixedly mounted upon said shaft in any one of a plurality of longitudinally disposed positions for releasably locking said shaft against axial movement relative to said sleeve while permitting free relative rotation,
whereby the angle of attack of the scoop portion as Well as the mechanical advantage can be varied.
3. A construction according to claim 2 wherein the locking means comprise a pair of collars adapted to fit over said shaft. at either end of said sleeve, each of said collars having a screw for tightening it upon the shaft 4. A construction according to claim 3 wherein the locking collars comprise rings. each having a set screw adapted to be tightened against the shaft.
5. A construction according to claim 3 wherein the locking collars comprise generally G-shaped clamps, each having a threaded locking bolt for tightening it against the shaft.
6. A construction according to claim 2 wherein the locking means comp-rise a member constructed and arranged to be fixedly mounted upon said shaft intermediate the ends of said sleeve so as to permit rotation of the shaft while pre Ling relative axial movement thereof.
7. A construction according to claim 2 wherein the handle is of the bicycle type with grips on both sides of the center so that both hands can be used to raise and balance the sec-op portion, and the handle is detachable from the shift so iii to permit the hearing sleeve and the locking means to he slipped over the shaft from the handle end thereof.
8. A ccnstrcxti tLCOlLiit'tg to claim 2 wherein the bearing slcrvc is L sp itaslccvc construction with spreadably conuctim cation; and with means for detachably engaging s on vherc'oy the sleeve can be readily mounted upon. and removal from the shaft.
9. A construction according to claim 8 wherein generally C-shapcd locking: clumps are adapted to be fitted over the shaft. ct ei her cntl of the split sleeve. each clamp being provided h u fastening bolt to lock it securely against longit ml movement.
10. A constru tion according to claim 8 wherein the plit slecve scctiare provided with recessed inner hearing s' rfnccs uni wherein a hearing member is constructed and arranged to be reniovably titted upon the shaft i co l r l. 'ntship with the aforesaid inner bearing surf so .tt mit rotation of the shaft while preventing relative usiul movement thereof.
ll. A manual "able scoop for handling snow or the like com" un undercarriage having a pair of laterally sp. is and a bearing sleeve supported above and g ,v hull way between said wheels. the axis of tilt! sleet be ng; generally at right angles to the axis of the wheels. a sh l't extending through said sleeve and axially rotatablc relative thereto. said shaft carrying :1 handle at one end an... scoop portion at its other end. quiclt-adiu table rnc ns constructed and arranged to be fixedly mounted upon said shaft in any one of a plurality of longitudin tlly r." iluced position for releasably locking said shaft against a i movement relative to said shaft while pcrmittin" free relative rotation, said bearing sleeve heing of splitlccvt: construction with spreadably connected section: and with means for detachably engaging aid sections. \v crchv the sleeve can be readily mounted upon. and removed from. the shaft. said split sleeve sections bsing provided with recessed inner bearing surfaces, and :1 bearing member constructed and arranged to be remova l it ed l'l -Itl lv; shaft in enacting relationshi with the :ifor:- it! inner bearing surfaces so as to permit rotation o he dr ft while preventing relative axial move ment thereof, fiilltl bearing member comprising a pair of split bet t nv tiions end a generally C-shaped connecting member coustrvctcd and arranged to be detachably afiixcd there i; so as to Camp said nearing sections securely against the Sllfl it.
12. A construction according to claim ll wherein the [til iii
bearing sections are provided with aligned grooves adapted to receive the C-shaped connecting member in generally recessed relationship.
13. A construction according to claim 12 wherein the Cshaped connecting member is provided with a threaded set screw and wherein the inner bearing surfaces of the split sleeve are provided with aligned annular grooves constructed and arranged to provide necessary clearance for the set screw.
l i. ruction according to claim 8 wherein the diat't is cl generally non-circular cross-sectional conatien and wherein a bearing member is constructed and arranged to be mounted upon said shaft and to pro vide cylindrical, outer bearing surfaces for co-action with swirl shevc.
15 A construction according to claim 14 wherein the hearing member comprises a pair of bearing sections and an interconnecting member constructed and arranged to clamp them securely to the shaft.
i6. A construction according to claim 2 wherein the shaft is of non-circular crossscctional configuration and wherein an adapter sleeve having 1. central opening corre sponding to the configuration of the shaft is adapted to he titted over the shaft. said adapter sleeve having a cylindrical outer bearing surface constructed and arranged to provide a rotatable fit with the sleeve.
[7. For use in converting a snow shovel or the like. having a straight shaft. a permanently attached scoop portion at one coal and a handle pcrtion at the other end. to it wheeled scoop, an undercarriage attachment compris ing a frame. a pair of laterally spaced wheels rotatably mounted on said frame. and a bearing sleeve mounted a the top of Stlll frame generally halfway between said wheels. the axis of the sleeve being generally at right angles to the axis of the Wheels, lid sleeve being constructed and arranged to be fitted over the shaft of the shovel and to support the shovel with the handle in normally horizontal position and with said shaft held freely in rotatable but longitudinally fixed relationship in any one of a plurality of longitudinally displaced po itions. whereby the angle of attack of the scoop portion as v cll as the mechanical advantage can be varied.
18. A construction according to claim .7 wherein separate means are provided for locking said sleeve in rotat able but longitudinally fixed relationship to the shaft in any one of a plurality of longitudinally displaced positions.
19. A construction according to claim 17 wherein the sleeve is of split construction with a pair of spreadn lc sleeve sections and means for releasably locking the sec ticns about the shaft of the shovel.
20. A construction according to claim I! wherein the sleeve is of generally tlbtllttr construction and is constructed and arranged to be slipped over the shaft of the shovel from one end thereof.
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|U.S. Classification||37/270, 294/54.5|