Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2851385 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 9, 1958
Filing dateApr 3, 1952
Priority dateApr 3, 1952
Also published asDE977586C
Publication numberUS 2851385 A, US 2851385A, US-A-2851385, US2851385 A, US2851385A
InventorsNewhard Jr Nelson James, Spruance Jr Frank Palin
Original AssigneeAmchem Prod
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process and composition for coating aluminum surfaces
US 2851385 A
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

nited States PatentO "lce PROCESS AND COMPOSITION FOR COATING ALUMINUM SURFACES Frank Palin Spruance, Jr., Ambler, and Nelson James Newhard, Jr., Oreland, Pa., assignors to Amchem Products, Inc., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application April 3, 1952 Serial No. 280,364

2 Claims. (Cl. 1486.2)

This invention relates to the art of producing a chemically bonded chromate conversion coating on surfaces of aluminum or alloys thereof in which aluminum is the principal or predominant ingredient.

The principal object of the invention is to render aluminum surfaces highly resistant to corrosion regardless of whether or not the coated surface is subsequently given a finish of paint, lacquer, enamel, japan or the like.

Herefore, it has been known that the durability and corrosion resistance of aluminum surfaces even under abnormally severe corrosive conditions can be improved by forming thereon a chemically bonded chi-ornate conversion coating by subjecting them to the action of an aqueous acid solution of hexavalent chromium and fluorine-bearing compounds, such as hydrofluoric acid, hydrofiuosilicic acid, fluoboric acid and their soluble salts. Specific examples of such processes are described in United States Patents Nos. 2,276,353 and 2,507,956, and such processes are now very generally known to those skilled in this art as chromate conversion coverings.

The present invention is based upon the discovery that the corrosion resistance which can be imparted to surfaces of aluminum by treatments of the character just described can be still further enhanced if there be added to the baths which are employed in producing the coat-# ing ions of metal from the class consisting of zirconium, titanium and tin. Moreover, the use of such metal additions to coating baths of the character described makes it possible to operate the baths at considerably lower temperatures than has heretofore been customary. Indeed, with our invention, it is even possible to produce coatings at room temperature or lower. By room temperature is meant average living temperature, which is in the neighborhood of 72 F.

The form in which the dissolved zirconium, titanium or tin is introduced into the coating bath appears to make little or no difference so long as the composition of the solution is not otherwise adversely disturbed. For example, these metals should not be introduced along with reducing agents which would cause a loss of hexavalent chromium by the reduction thereof to trivalent chromium. We have found it very desirable to introduce the metals as fluozirconic acid, fluotitanic acid, fluostannic acid or soluble salts of such acids, etc. Indeed, as an actual matter of fact, their introduction as fluorine acids is highly desirable because when so introduced they serve as a source of fluorine.

There is no minimum limit for concentration of the metals in the operating bath because an improvement is achieved even when using only very small amounts. Furthermore, as far as we can ascertain, excess amounts appear to do no harm but, generally speaking, in the interest of economy, we prefer to use from 0.1 to 7.0 grams of the metal per liter of operating bath.

By way of specific example we cite the following:

2,851,385. Patented Sept. 9, 1958 2 Formula No. 1

G. Chromic d 1 6 Potassium zirconium fluoride 2.5 Ammonium borofluoridenr 7.6

Water to make 1 liter.

Other representative bath formulae which can be employed with our invention are as follows:

Formula N 0. 2

Chromic acid- 1 I a a.. v 8.4 Potassium zirconium fluoride 3.5 Boric acid 6.3 Ammonium bifluoride 4.0 Water to make 1 liter.

F orm ula No. 3

G. Chromic acid 8 Hydrofluoric acid 2.5 23% titanium trichloride 3.2 Water to make 1 liter.

4.5 ml. of 48% acid.

Formula N0. 4

Ammonium bifluoride 2.7 Chromic acid 6 Stannic chloride (SnC1 4.4 Water to make 1 liter.

Formula No. 5

G. Diammoniumsilicofluoride (NHqJgslFs 14 Chromic acid--- 10 Zirconium nitrate Zr(NO .5H O 12 Water to make 1 liter.

If desired, mixtures of the metals may be used. For instance, in Formula No. 4 as given above the amount of stannic chloride used may be reduced by means of additions of titanium trichloride or of zirconium nitrate or both.

In carrying out our improved process the surface to be coated should first be cleaned. The cleaning, which forms no part of the present invention, may be carried out by conventional methods. For instance, grease and dirt may be removed by dipping into a mild silicate alkali bath or by the use of an emulsion of a grease solvent. The clean work, either wet or dry, may be treated with a solution of the character described, such for example as the solutions of the formulae given above.

The treatment may be given by immersing the surface to be coated in the solution, by flowing or spraying the solution on the work or by any other convenient technique in which the solution is allowed to act upon the work. For example, if the solution of Formula No. 1 is used in a dip installation, it may be heated to approxi mately F. and the clean work immersed in it for approximately 30 seconds to 2 minutes. Upon rem-oval from the solution the article may be rinsed with clean water and dried and afterwards painted, if desired. Sometimes the rinsing may be done with a dilute solution of Formula No. 1, after which the article may be dried and then painted. Or, if the piece is not to be painted, it may simply be removed from the solution and dried.

As mentioned above, our invention makes it possible to operate with baths at considerably lower temperatures than has been possible heretofore. For instance, in prior practice coating baths of silico-fluoride and chromic acid have been used hot,fi. e., at or near the boiling point. With our solutions thisis not necessary, although some slight increase in temperature may be employed if desired because of the greater rapidity of the resulting actioiif Nevertheless, and by way 'of-specific example, Form'ulfNo. 5 as given above will produce excellent corrosion resistant coatings if the cleaned article is immersed in the bath for a period of 1 to 2 minutes at a temperature not exceeding 80 F. Subject to minor variations the formulas of the other examples will yield comparable results as to temperature and time of treatment needed to produce good coatings. This is a marked and very valuable advantage of our invention.

We claim:

1. In the art of producing a chromate conversion coating on surfaces of aluminum and alloys thereof in which aluminum is the predominant ingredient by treating the surface with an aqueous acid bath of the type which consists essentially of hexavalent chromium and fluorine in proportions capable of producing such a coating; the method which comprises including in the bath, as an addition agent, metal ions from the group consisting of zirconium, titanium and stannic tin in a quantity sufficient References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,939,421 Tosterud Dec. 12, 1933 1,957,354 Prier May 1, 1934 2,276,353 Thompson Mar. 7, 1942 2,312,855 Thompson Mar. 2, 1943 2,348,698 Thompson May 9, 1944 2,357,219 Mott Aug. 29, 1944 FOREIGN PATENTS 546,466 Germany Mar. 12, 1932

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1939421 *May 26, 1932Dec 12, 1933Aluminum Co Of AmericaCoating
US1957354 *Apr 26, 1932May 1, 1934Pierre PrierProcess of protecting light metals against corrosion
US2276353 *Sep 28, 1935Mar 17, 1942Parker Rust Proof CoProcess of coating
US2312855 *Sep 7, 1940Mar 2, 1943Parker Rust Proof CoMethod of coating aluminum
US2348698 *Aug 3, 1940May 9, 1944Parker Rust Proof CoMethod of roller coating
US2357219 *Jan 10, 1942Aug 29, 1944Joseph P MoranCorrosion-resistant ferrous alloys
DE546466C *Feb 26, 1929Mar 12, 1932Otto Sprenger PatentverwertungVerfahren zur Herstellung von Manganoxyde enthaltenden UEberzuegen auf Aluminium, Magnesium und ihren Legierungen
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2957784 *Sep 18, 1958Oct 25, 1960Wolverine Fabricating & Mfg CoGasket material and method of producing the same
US3018211 *Jan 26, 1959Jan 23, 1962Purex Corp LtdComposition and process for brightening aluminum and its alloys
US3066055 *Nov 10, 1958Nov 27, 1962Purex Corp LtdProcess and composition for producing aluminum surface conversion coatings
US3113051 *Sep 29, 1961Dec 3, 1963Purex Corp LtdProcess and composition for producing aluminum surface conversion coatings
US3159509 *Nov 27, 1961Dec 1, 1964Okuno Chemical Industry CompanChromate process
US3380858 *Nov 10, 1964Apr 30, 1968Hooker Chemical CorpChromate coating composition for aluminum and process
US3494839 *Jan 23, 1967Feb 10, 1970Amchem ProdMethod of sealing chromic acid anodized aluminum surfaces
US4063969 *Feb 9, 1976Dec 20, 1977Oxy Metal Industries CorporationCorrosion resistance
US4111722 *Feb 9, 1976Sep 5, 1978Oxy Metal Industries CorporationTannin treatment of aluminum with a fluoride cleaner
US4971636 *Jun 21, 1989Nov 20, 1990Nkk CorporationChromate coatings, phosphate caoatings on steels
US5123978 *Mar 19, 1991Jun 23, 1992The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyCorrosion resistant chromate conversion coatings for heat-treated aluminum alloys
US5401334 *May 4, 1993Mar 28, 1995Titeflex CorporationChromate conversion coating
US5531841 *Nov 4, 1994Jul 2, 1996Titeflex CorporationApplying chromate conversion coating and aluminum foil and fluoropolymer
US5547906 *Jul 13, 1994Aug 20, 1996Badehi; PierreMethods for producing integrated circuit devices
US5702759 *Jun 7, 1995Dec 30, 1997Henkel CorporationRepairing damage on metal surface
US5716759 *Sep 1, 1994Feb 10, 1998Shellcase Ltd.Illuminating the substrate surface at a non-perpendicular angle through a mask
US6010263 *Sep 22, 1997Jan 4, 2000Henkel CorporationApplicator for flowable materials
US6040235 *Jan 10, 1995Mar 21, 2000Shellcase Ltd.Methods and apparatus for producing integrated circuit devices
US6048921 *Aug 12, 1997Apr 11, 2000Henkel CorporationMethod for applying conversion coating with wick applicator
US6117707 *Jul 29, 1996Sep 12, 2000Shellcase Ltd.Methods of producing integrated circuit devices
US6646289Feb 3, 1999Nov 11, 2003Shellcase Ltd.optronic integrally packaged die.
US6777767Nov 29, 2000Aug 17, 2004Shellcase Ltd.Methods for producing packaged integrated circuit devices & packaged integrated circuit devices produced thereby
US6972480Jun 16, 2003Dec 6, 2005Shellcase Ltd.Methods and apparatus for packaging integrated circuit devices
US7033664Oct 22, 2002Apr 25, 2006Tessera Technologies Hungary KftMethods for producing packaged integrated circuit devices and packaged integrated circuit devices produced thereby
US7144745Aug 7, 2001Dec 5, 2006Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Methods for producing packaged integrated circuit devices and packaged integrated circuit devices produced
US7157742Mar 11, 2003Jan 2, 2007Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Integrated circuit device
US7192796Jul 2, 2004Mar 20, 2007Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Methods and apparatus for packaging integrated circuit devices
US7224056Sep 24, 2004May 29, 2007Tessera, Inc.Back-face and edge interconnects for lidded package
US7265440May 10, 2005Sep 4, 2007Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Methods and apparatus for packaging integrated circuit devices
US7408249Dec 19, 2001Aug 5, 2008Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Packaged integrated circuits and methods of producing thereof
US7479398Aug 21, 2007Jan 20, 2009Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Methods and apparatus for packaging integrated circuit devices
US7495341Jan 30, 2007Feb 24, 2009Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Methods and apparatus for packaging integrated circuit devices
US7566853Dec 23, 2005Jul 28, 2009Tessera, Inc.Image sensor employing a plurality of photodetector arrays and/or rear-illuminated architecture
US7566955Aug 28, 2002Jul 28, 2009Tessera, Inc.High-frequency chip packages
US7642629Aug 13, 2007Jan 5, 2010Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Methods and apparatus for packaging integrated circuit devices
US7781240Oct 26, 2006Aug 24, 2010Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Integrated circuit device
US7936062Jan 19, 2007May 3, 2011Tessera Technologies Ireland LimitedWafer level chip packaging
US7939918Oct 26, 2006May 10, 2011Tessera Technologies Ireland LimitedChip packages with covers
US8143095Dec 28, 2005Mar 27, 2012Tessera, Inc.Sequential fabrication of vertical conductive interconnects in capped chips
US8592831Oct 26, 2006Nov 26, 2013Invensas Corp.Integrated circuit device
US8604605Jan 5, 2007Dec 10, 2013Invensas Corp.Microelectronic assembly with multi-layer support structure
EP2381478A2Feb 3, 1999Oct 26, 2011Tessera Technologies Hungary Kft.Integrated circuit device
U.S. Classification148/268
International ClassificationC23C22/05, C23C22/38, C23C22/37
Cooperative ClassificationC23C22/38, C23C22/37
European ClassificationC23C22/38, C23C22/37