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Publication numberUS2851873 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 16, 1958
Filing dateSep 2, 1949
Priority dateSep 2, 1949
Publication numberUS 2851873 A, US 2851873A, US-A-2851873, US2851873 A, US2851873A
InventorsMalcolm Wheeler-Nicholson
Original AssigneeMalcolm Wheeler-Nicholson
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building construction
US 2851873 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 1.6, 1958 Filed Sept. 2. 1949 M. WHEELER-NICHOLSON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 6 INVENTOR. 9 MAL coL MWf/E-f/e-A//c/f so/v Sept. 16, 1958 M. WHEELER-NICHOLSON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed sept. 2. 1949 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. Macau/1 WL/f-mfA//c//OLJQN Sepf- 16, 1958 M. WHEELER-NlcHoLsoN 2,851,873

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 6 Sheets--Sheet` 3 Filed sept. 2. 1949 1 N VEN TOR. MAL c0 M WHEH @aN/WOL .fo/v

A Arron/ffy Sept- 16 1958 M. WHEELER-NICHOLSON 2,851,873

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION I l Filed Sept. 2. 1949 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 W2 l fl INVENTOR.

Sept-16,1958. M. WHEELER-N|cHoLsoN I 2,851,873

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 2, 1949 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 1N VEN TOR.

ATTORNEK Sept. 16, 1958 M. WHEELER-NICHOLSON 2,851,373

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION vFiled Sept. 2. 1949 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Wp; 50 1| @H1750 H E gag/. J

1, .4. l JNVENTOR.

I7 l ,4 MALCOLMW/-ffa E19-Moyano /l TTORNE /1 -after the material has been transportd to the site.

2,851,873 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson, Great Neck, N. Y. Application september z, 1949, senat No. 113,725

6 Claims. (Cl. 72-1) fThe present invention relates to lbuilding constructions and. building methods applicable to a wide variety of' weakness that such joints imply and (c) their use gener-` ally requires the addition of insulating materials, the erection of studding, the use of wall board, etc'., thus adding to the time, labor and costs of the building. Further cost is added by the necessity of using different materials for inner walls :and partitions, with extensive and expensive carpenter Work in the erection of wooden studding, the nailing on of plaster base or wall board, the cutting of doors and windows, etc.

An eiort to reduce these costs has resulted in the manufacture of pre-fabricated housing, either of wood, metal or other material. Certain economies are effected by this method, for example by the factory pre-cutting of lumber or stamping of metal to required dimensions, pre-iitting of door and window casings and the pre-fabri-` cation of studding, josts, insulating material and other parts of the structure. However, these pre-fabricated houses suifer from several disadvantages. Their cost and popularity have never been such as to provide a suicient backlog of orders to permit continuous assembly-line production with its attendant economies. This results in high cost, which is increased by the necessity of using skilled labor for assembling and erecting the building Prefabrication also inherently results in the limitation of architectural design to a minimum number of models. This leads to inexibility, rigidity and monotony of design. In an effort to cut costs, some of the pre-fabricated houses are cheaply built, so that they soon fall into disrepair.

It is an object of the present invention to overcome these disadvantages and to provideV a novel type of construction which is comparable to brick or stone construction in durability, yet is less expensive than either conventional constructionor pre-fabrication, while at the same time permitting unlimited scope in architectural design.

4In accordance with the invention, a building of any desired shape, size and design is built up of pre-'formed elements or panels which it together to form walls, partitions and other portions of the building. These panels also serve as forms for a poured concrete frame or skeleton which is cast in place after the panels are assembled and not only locks the panels together but also serves as a strong structural framework which takes the load of the walls, ceiling and roof and any upper stories. These panels and the manner in which they are used'in the building construction are quite different from the i States Patent O ICC 2 blocks heretofore employed. The construction in accordance with the invention permits wider choice of materials by freeing the panels of the necessity of carrying the weight of the walls and roof, strengthens the jointure of the panels with one another and makes such strengthening an integral element in strengthening the overall design of the building, takes advantage of a wider choice of materials and design in the panels to make the panels self-insulating both by reason of the materials used and the design, thus obviatng the use of studding and other additional insulating materials, makes possible the construction of a building with relatively unskilled labour and Without need of cranes orother heavy machinery and employs the advantages and the economy of factory pre-fabrication by forming the basic panels with mass production methods. The design of the panels in combination with the engineering principles embodied in their usein erecting` a building permits a choice of material that not only makes them self-insulating without the use of interiork studding, wall board and insulating materials, other than an exterior coating of cement stucco and an interior coating of plaster, but, in addition, gives the stnlcture durability superior to standard frame construction and comparable to brick and stone construction possessing qualities of fire resistance, sound insulation, heat transfer quotients, moisture-vapor absorption resist ance, vermin, termite and other insect resistance and fungus and rust-proof qualities meeting all standard tests for such requirements. In addition, the structure has a resistance to hurricanev winds and earthquake shocks superior to that of present types of buildings.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a new type of building construction in which a variety of buildings can be constructed from a relatively small number of basic buildings units. This makes possible greater economy of `production since mass production methods can be used more eiiectively, tooling and machinery costs are lower and inventory and storage ex penses are reduced. The construction is applicable not only to 4outside walls but also to interior walls and partitions which, in accordance with the invention, constitute an integral part of the 4building structure.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description and claims, in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate, by way of example, a preferred form of the invention.

In the drawings:

Figurel is a perspective View of a basic element or panel in accordance with the invention, portions being broken away tol show the internal construction.

Figure 2 is a perspective view, partially in section, showing how reinforcing bars for the poured concrete skeleton or foundation are positioned in channels or troughs provided-in the edges of the panel and serving as forms for the concrete framework,

Figures 3 and 4 are perspective views illustrating how the basic panel is divided into sections for easy handling, Figure 3 showing a top section and Figure 4 an intermediate or lower section.

Figure 5 is a fragmentary horizontal section on a larger scale taken across the -joints between two panels.

Figure 6 is .an exploded perspective view showing the -two halves of a panel section before they are united.

Figure 7 is aY perspective view of a corner panel.

Figure 8 is a schematic plan on a smaller scale showing how the corner panel of Figure 7 is used in making the corner of a building.

Figure. 9 is aperspective view of a pair of window panels.

Figure 10 is a perspective view of a pair of door panels.

Figure` lly is an exploded perspective View showing how the side panels, corner panels, door panels and window panels are assembled on the building foundation.

Figures 12 and 13 are perspective views of tongues or inserts with which the l foundation is provided..

Figure 14 .is a vertical sectionof a typical two-story building in accordance with the invention, taken approximately on the line 14-14 of Figure 17. t Figures and 16 are enlargements of portions of Figure 14.

Figure 17 is a vertical section taken on the line 17-17 in Figure 14. l

In accordance with the invention, a building of any desired size and shape is quickly and economically built by assembling on a suitable foundation: the 4required number of building elements selected from' a relatively small number of basic elements kwhijchhavethe dual purpose of serving as permanent -parts of thebuilding,.constituting both inner and outer `and alsoserving as completeforms for a pouredconcrete s tructuralframework or skeleton which is kept in place; after the building eley ments are assembled and takes themajor portion of the structural loads of the building. v

In the construction illustrated by way of example in the drawings, the basic building element includes basic wall panels B (Figures l and 1 l), b asic corner panels C (Figures 7 and l1), door panels D"( Fig`ur es l0 and 11) and window panels W'(Fig`1.1r'es' 9 and ll). l

As the elements B, C, D and are not required to take any substantial structural load-such load'being taken by the poured concrete skeleton or frameworkthey are preferably made vof material selected for light channels 6 are of relatively large diameter in'proportion to the thickness of the panel while still leaving edges 7 of sufiicient strength to avoid their being easily broken in handling. For example, in a panel ten inches thick, the channels 6 may be six inches in diameter leaving each of the edges 7 two inches thick.

At the upper edge of the panel B, there is provided a trough 8 which is preferably of approximately the same width as the channels l6 and substantially greater depth. For example, in a 3 x-9 foot panel ten inches thick, the trough 8 may be six inches wide and ten to twelve inches deep. A continuation of the outer wall portion 1 forms a ange 11 on the outside of` the ytroughI 8, while a continuation of the inner Wall portion 2 forms an inner flange 12. The inner ange 12 is provided with one or more notches 13 while the outer flanges 11 are provided either with similar notchesor with score lines 14 so that notches can easily 4belormed merelyby knockingl out thezscored. material.A vNTli'e notchesformedby the score ,lines 14 are offsetV fror'n'fthe"notchesA 13 by. -adistance equaltolthe" widthof the', notches so that they right handasidmofzeach notch `14 (Figure l) ,isin .thesame'plane astheleft handside` of the opposite vnotch 13.I n f.

The notches 1*3and114.do not extend to the-full depth of `the`trough.8. For example, if the trough is twelve. inches deep, .the notches will ,have .a depth `of. approxi#- t mately 'six inches", Moreover, as willappeanbelow, the'r weight and good heat insulatingfproperties while having a moderate amount of structural strength. It has, been found highly satisfactory to moldsuch' units of a'composition consisting of wood shreds or shavings, or similarA relatively long and narrow, for example two to sixinches v long and 1A; to S; inch wide, rather than in the form of sawdust or chips. Forexample, equal weight of ydry wood shavings and dryl Portland cement are combined with enough water to make a plastic mass which is molded to the desired shape with only enough pressure tomake it coherent and give it the desired density while leaving a substantial volume of voids in the moldedpanel. The

presence of these voidsenhance's the insultingproperties ofthe material. Prior to incorporation in the ,unit`, .the wood shavings are preferably impregnated'bysoaking them in a mineral solution to make therrrresistantto re, insects, water absorption and d ecay.f

The basic side panel or wall p anel B (Figure 1) has a length or height equal approximately vto the ceiling height of the building and a width'which' is less' than the height and preferably from 1A to 1/2 of the height. For example,

the panels for use in constructing a residence may be nine 3 and transverse web'portions4.' The bottom edge of, the panel is formed with a continuous 'groove'S andjeach' of the vertical side edges is provided-`with a cha n'nel6. While the channel 6 is shown'as'beingscmicircular in cross-section (Figures l' and'S), it will-,bfc understood that the channels may alternativelyy be tringular,rec tangular sexagonal -or other desiredpolyg'onal shape, as

well as oval or other shape not a truecircle.A The term" semi-polygonal is used in the description 'rand claims in a broad sense, to include all of these possibilities. The

i as metal mesh.

notchesl'and 14 are not necessarily of 4the same depth.'

The' VpanelsB are preferably of. hollo\v .cons`t`r1ction,. as illus't'ratefdvjn Figure l, a.plurality.'oflhemetically.4 sealed cavitiestlbeingf provided between thespacedinner 1 andlo'tenwall portions'landl.. These cvitiesxare bounded vbyr the peripheral and transverse'.'webY portions- 3 and `4 which'are'integral .with the. inner, and outer wall portions so that the cavities. are completely,seledjaganst the entry of moisture. The..relativelydhin' inner and outer wall portions 1 and-2 are/reinforced,by,.the.transf versiey web portions 4 thespacing of which can be. variedA in accordance with the strengthlrequirements. ..The-in, terior of the panel may berdivided intothLrieefpavitiesby two Iwebs 4 as illustrated in l.VH Foruthe .sake of clarity only one such web l4 is shown in 4this `figure. s

Instead of being ,in one piece, as shown in Figure v1, the panelsrcanbe madey in` a plnralityof sections for.' greater ease of handling. As `illustrated in-Figures. 3, 4 and V14, each of' the ,basic panels Bscomprises".astopfA section T andstwo lower sections Thelinesof division of the panels are alongthe transverse webs .4'fso.that eachof the sectionscontains one'or more sealedcavitie's 1 10.- The lower edge-,ofV the top sectionT is-provided with a'lgroove 15l whichis similar to thefbottom groove `5 (Figurel). Each ofthe `lower Ipanels vL is providedat its upper -edgef with'. a, corresponding-tongne l16 sojthatA the panel sectionst together withy a tongue and groove joint' assuringV correct alignmentland preventing relative lateral displacement. Except for being divided into a plurality of superposedsections, the panels-are thefs'ame as described above and corresponding parts are' desig` nated-by/thesarne reference'numerals. l In the embodimentillustrated in lthe drawings,`two of therlowersections L andoneftop section T together form a complete panel 'B. To provide astill stronger construction, for example in buildings that are subject to stresses due to settling or inareas subject to earthquakes, hurricanes or tornadoes, the panels are reinforced by woven wire, expanded or perforated metal, or other mesh or foramnous material 17 which, for convenience, is herein referred tol (See Figures 3 and 4.) The metal mesh 17 is continuous in each panel or section and is preferably embedded in the material in approximately the medial plane of the panel. It extends out into the side channels 6 and the top trough 8 and in the lower panel I section L it extends up into the tongue 162 To simplify.

the drawings, the metal mesh has been omitted from certain figures but it will be understood that, where' greater strength is desired, itis preferably incorporated in like manner in all of the panels. V

Figure 6 illustrates how a panel section L is 4formed with a closed cavity and with the metal mesh 17 embedded in the material of the section. The section is iirst molded in two halves L1 and L2 in complementary molds. When the cement has hardened sutliciently for the molded material to retain its shape but before it has completely set, the two halves are pressed together with the metal mesh 17 between them and pressure is maintained until the material has hardened. The metal mesh being embedded partly in one half and partly in the other half of the section assists in binding the two halves together to form an integral section. 4

The corner panels C are essentially the same as the side panels B with the exceptions pointed out below. The top section of a corner panel C is illustrated in Figure' 7 4where corresponding parts are designated by the same reference numerals as in the foregoing figures. One of the vertical edges of the corner panel is provided with a channel 6, as described above, while `the opposite edge 1S intersects, or merges into, the adjacent portion of the outer wall portion 1 of the panel to form an outside corner 19 which is shown substantially square (Figure 18) but can be beveled or rounded if desired. On the inner face of the panel, spaced from the corner wall 18, there is provided a channel 6C which corresponds in lcross-section to the channel 6. The spacing of the channel 6C from the wall portion 18 is such as to provide a lip or edge 7C which is the `saine thickness as the edge portions 7 and is in the same plane as the inner wall portion 2. The metal mesh 17 is bent to approximately 90 degrees, as indicated at 21, so as to project out into the channel 6C as well as in the channel 6 at the opposite edge of the panel. While Figure 7 illustrates only the top section of a corner panel, it will be understood that a one-piececorner panel corresponding to the basic panel shown in Figure vl can Abe made in like manner.

Fig. 8 illustrates -how a corner panel C is used in combination with basic panels B to form the corner of a building. A corner turning in the opposite direction is formed by placing another basic panel in the position shown for panel C and then placing a corner panel C with its channel 6C in registry with the channel 6 of the last mentioned basic panel. The same corner section -can hence be used to make either a right hand or a left 'hand corner or an inside or outside corner while keeping the panels right side up in all instances. f

The door panels D (Figure 10) are formed in pairs, the individual panels being designated vD1"and D2, r espectively. Except for each of the panels being `formed to provide one half of a doorV opening 22, the door panels D are essentially the same as the basic panel B (Figure l) and corresponding parts are designated by the same i reference numerals. By reason of the door opening 22, each of the door panels is substantially L-shaped ormore specifically-inverted L-shaped and comprises a vertically extending portion 23 and a horizontally extending lintel portion 24. In assembled position, the free ends 25 of the lintel portions 24 abut one another. an open archway is desired, the door panels D may be used without additional trim. Alternatively, the door opening may be fitted with a conventional door frame. If desired, a pre-fabricated steel or wood door frame is placed between the two door panels which are then moved together so as to embrace the door frame. I

The window panels W are also formed in'pairs' comprising panels W1 and W2 and are essentially the same as the basic panel B of Figure l except thatV each has an opening 27 which together form the window opening. Corresponding parts of the panel are designated bythe same reference numerals as in Figure l. By reason of the window opening, each of the window panels W is substantially C-shaped comprising a verticallyv extending portion 28, a horizontally extending sill portion 29 and a parallel horizontal lintel portion 30. When the window panels are assembled, in the building, the free end edges of the sill portions and lintel portions abut one another in approximately the center of the window. Before the two panels are pushed together, a pre-fabricated window frame may be placed between them so as to t into the window opening.

The manner in which the four basic panel shapes B, C, D and W are used in the construction of a building is illustrated in Figures ll to 17. Figure l1 is an exp loded view illustrating, by Way of example, how the various panels are used. Figures 14 to 17 show, by Way of example, the use of the panels in constructing a twostory building.

A poured concrete or other footing or foundation F is provided with a shoulder 31 (Figure 14) for supporting the joints 32 of the rst floor 33. On its upper face, the foundation F is provided with tongues 3d and 35 which project upwardly from the foundation and may, for example, be formed of suitable strips, (Figures l2 and 13) embedded in the concrete of the foundation. The projecting portions of the tongues 34 and 35 correspond in cross-section With the grooves 5 in the bottoms of the panel. f The foundation is also provided with a series of spaced wells 36 which extend down into the foundation, the spacing of the wells being equal to the width of the panels.

After the foundation has been completed, a plurality of panels are assembled on it in upright position. The grooves 5 in the lower edges of the panels fit over the tongues 34 and 35 of the foundation, thereby aligning the panels with the lfoundation and with one another. The Vertical side edges 7 of adjacent panels abut one another so that the opposite channels 6 together form a vertical cylindrical hollow shaft. The panels are positioned so that the shaft formed by channels 6 are in alignment with the Wells 36 in the foundation. Figure ,11 illustrates the use of basic side panels B, a pair of door panels D, a corner panel C and a pair of window panels W. Each of the panels may either be one piece or may be in sections, as described above. o

After the panels have been assembled on the foundation, a plurality of reinforcing bars, wires or rods are positioned in the shaft formed by channels 6 and in the trough 8 at the tops of the panels. Alternatively, the reinforcing rods as assembled concurrently with the assembling of the panels. As illustrated in Figure 2, there are a plurality of vertical reinforcing rods 38 in each of the shafts formed by the channels 6, the rods being held in position by tie wires 39. The reinforcing rods 38 extend down into the Wells 36 in the foundation and in a multiple story building also extend into the aligned vertical shaft formed by the channels 6 in the vertical side edges of the next tier of panels. There are also a plurality of horizontally reinforcing rods 41 disposed inthe troughs 8 provided at the upper edges of the panels. The reinforcing rods 41 extend continuously through the troughs of successive panels and are preferably connected with vertical reinforcing rods 38, for example by tie wires 42.

After the panels are assembled and the reinforcing rods are positioned as described, concrete is poured into the vertical shaft formed by the channels 6 and by the wells 36 in the foundation and also in the horizontal troughs 8 at the tops of the panels to provide an integral poured concrete skeleton or frame-work F comprising vvertical pillars or columns 43 cast in place in the wells 36 and the shafts formed by the channels 6 and integral horizontal beams 44 cast in place in the trough 8. The reinforced columns and beams thus formed not only bind the panels together into an integrated structure but also constitute a strong structural framework or skeleton that carries the structural loads of the building, for

example. the load imposed by the ceiling, roof and any upper story. Since the panels themselves providecomplete forms for the poured concrete framework, the labor and material customarily required for erecting forms and subsequently removing them are eliminated. In erecting a multiple story building, the concrete of the framework is preferably poured after completing each tier of panels, i. e. after completing each story. As the reinforcing rods extend continuously from one story to the next and as the building can be erected so quickly that the concrete in the framework of one story is still green when that of the next story is poured, the result is an integral skeleton of framework for the whole building. j

When the panels are provided with metal mesh 17, as described above, this mesh extends into the channels 6 and the trough 8 and the marginal portions of t-he mesh are hence embedded in the poured concrete pillars and beams of the building skeleton. An even stronger interlock is provided by bendingr the edge portions of the metal mesh to form hooks 45 (Figure 5) and passing a reinforcing rod similar to the rods 38 down between the overlapping hooked portions of adjacent panels so as to lock them together.

In a multiple story building, joists 47 which support the ceiling and the second floor extend through` the notches 13 provided in the inner anges 12 of the first tier of panels and the inner ends of the joists rest on the concrete beams ed which constitute a portion of the structural skeleton of the building. The notches 13 not only position the joists correctly without measuring but also holds them in a vertical position. If desired, additional concrete can be poured into the troughs 8 between the ends of the joists so as to till, or 'nearly fill, the troughs and thereby anchor the joists still more solidly.

After the joists 47 have been positioned in the notches 13 of the first tier of panels, a strip 48 (Figures 14 an'd 16) is secured in place across the ends of the fjoists in alignment with the tongues 34 and 35 of the foundation. A second tier of panels is then erected on top of the first tier, the grooves in the lower edge of the panels fitting over the strip 48 to align the panels with each other and with those of the first tier. The inner and outer edges of the second tier of panels bear directly o'n the fiange portions 11 and 12 of the lower panels. The panels thus provide a continuous wall surface, both -inside and outside the building.

Additional stories are erected one after another in like manner until the desired height has been reached. It will be noted that, since the joists 47 rest on the concrete beams 44 of the integral concrete skeleton 0r framework, thc floor loads are carried by this structural `framework rather than by the panels. Hence, the panels can be formed of relatively lightweight material having inadequate strength to carry the building loads.

When the top story is reached, the joists 50 for the ceiling are inserted in the notches I3 of the upper tier of panels and the end portions bear on the horizontal beams 44, as described below. Rafters 51 for the roof overlap the ends of the joists 50 and extend through notches 14 in the outer flanges of the panels, the material which normally fills these notches having been cut or knocked out. Two small notches are cut in the lower edge of each rafter. A notch 52 iits'over vthe bottom of the panel notch 14 in which the rafter rests. By reason of this notch, the rafter also rests on the concrete'beam 44. A second notch 53 lits over the inner ange vportion 12 of the panels. Because of the offsetting of-the notches 13 and 14.-, as described above, the rafter comes down alongside the joist in overlapping relationship. `The rafter is preferably secured to the end of the joistby means of nails, screws, bolts or other fastening means 54. The depth of the notch 14 in the outer flange portion of the panel and the notch 52 inthe lower edge of the rafter is such that the uper edge of the rafteris substantially ush with the upper outside corner of the ^panel.

Hence, when the roofing 55 is secured on the upper side of the rafters, it isin engagement with the upper outside edges of the panels, thus forming a weatherproof and insectproof seal, thereby avoiding the necessity of having to k titysealing strips or pieces between the rafters. fhroughdirect engagement of the rafters with the beam Q4 and through connection of the rafters with the joist 50 which rest on thisV beam, the load of the roof is transmitted to thenpoured concrete framework of the building, thereby relieving the panels of this load.

After the Walls are erected, a suitable nishing coat may, if fdesired, be applied to the inner and outer surfaces. For example, the outer surface may be stuccoed and the inner surface plastered. In this event, the stucco and plaster are applied directly to the panels, no studding, furring, plaster board or other intermediate structure being required. Alternatively, a suitable finishing coat can be incorporated in the manufacture of the panels or can be sprayed or brushed on after the panels have been erected. ABecause of their self-insulating propverties, the panels need no additional insulating materials and preferably constitute substantially the entire wall segment.

Inside walls and partitions are constructed in like manner. The thickness of the wall is varied in accordance with `proper architectural design. Ordinarily, the linner walls will be thinner than the exterior walls of the building. It `'will be recognized that, by reason of the versatility of the panels and the flexibility of design, any ldesired type of building can be erected, using only a relatively small number of different prefabricated panels. By reason of the way in which the panels fit together, a Abuilding can be erected with relatively unskilled labor, thereby reducing building costs still further. The construction in accordance with the invention thus provides great latitude in architectural design.

In speaking of like parts in the specification and claims, the term like is used in the sense of meaning either identical or similar. It will be understood that many modifications can be made in the details of construction. The invention is therefore not limited to the specific construction shown by way of example in the drawings.

. What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

l. In building construction having a ceiling, a foundation, a plurality lof vertical panels of a height to extend from the lfoundation to the ceiling and of a lesser width than height, -the meeting vertical edges of adjacent panels having like channels of semi-polygonal cross-section which together yform a vertical shaft extending continuously from the foundation to the level of the ceiling, the foundation and the lower edges of the panels having inter-fitting portions for aligning the -panels with the foundation and witheach other, each of said panels having along its upper edge =a trough and inner and outer flanges on opposite sides of the trough, said flanges forming continuations of the inner fand outer surfaces of the panel respectively, the inner flange having a notch extending vertically downward from the upper edge of the ange to a level a substantial distance above the bottom of the trough, a poured 'concrete skeleton-comprising concrete column portions cast in place in said kshafts and extending continuously from the foundation to said troughs and continuous horizontal concrete -beam portions cast in place in said troughs, Iand joists constituting part of the ceiling structure extending through the notches in the inner flanges of the panels and bearing on said beam portions, whereby the load of-the ceiling is carried =by said poured concrete skeleton, while said notches position the joists and restrain them from turning.

2. In building construction comprising a foundation, a ceiling and a roof, a plurality of vertical panels of a height to extend from the foundation to the ceiling and of a lesser width than height, the meeting vertical edges of 'adjacent panelshaving'likechannels of semi-polygonal -cross-section'which together 'form a vertical shaft extendv9 ing continuously from the foundation to the level of the ceiling, the foundation and the lower edges of the panels having interiitting portions for aligning the panels with the foundation and with each other, each of said panels having along its upper edge a trough and inner and outer ilanges on opposite sides of the trough, said ilanges forming continuations of the inner and outer surfaces of the panel respectively, `the inner and outer anges having notches extending down from the upper edges thereof to a level above the bottom of the trough, the notches in the innerand outer llanges being oifset so that their opposite side edges are in a common plane, a poured concrete skeleton :comprising concrete column portions cast in place in said shafts and extending continuously from the foundation to said troughs and continuous horizontal concrete beam portions cast in place in said troughs, joists constituting part of the ceiling structure extending through the notches in the inner flanges of the panels and bearing on said beam portions, and rafters constituting part of the roof structure extending through the notches in the outer anges of the panels and secured to the end` portions of the joists, whereby the load of the ceiling and roof is carried by said poured concrete skeleton.

3. In multiple story building construction, a foundation having tongue portions projecting upwardly on the upper face thereof, a plurality of vertical wall panels of a height approximately equal to the iirst story ceiling height of the building and of a width less than the height, the meeting vertical edges of adjacent panels having like channels of semi-polygonal cross-section which together form a cylindrical shaft extending continuously from the foundation to the level of the first story ceiling, each of said panels having in its lower edge a groove fitting over the tongue portion of the foundation to position the panels relative to the foundation and each other and having along its upper edge a trough and inner and outer flanges on opposite sides of the trough, said flanges forming continuations of the inner and outer surfaces of the panel respectively, the inner ange having at least one notch extending vertically downward from the upper edge of the flange to a level a substantial distance above the bottom of the trough, a poured concrete skeleton comprising concrete column portions cast in place in said shafts and extending continuously from the foundation to said troughs and continuous horizontal concrete beam portions cast in place in said troughs, joists for the iirst story ceiling and second story floor extending through the notches in the inner flanges of the panels and bearing on said beam portions, tongue portions projecting upwardly above said joists, a second tier of like panels bearing on the inner and outer anges of the lower panels and positioned =by inter-engagement of said latter tongue portions with grooves in the lower edges of the upper panels to form a second story wall, land a continuation of said poured concrete skeleton comprising column and beam portions cast in place in the vertical shafts and horizontal troughs provided by the upper panels.

4. In a building construction having a foundation, a wall and a ceiling, a wall panel constituting a unit of said wall and having a height approximately equal to the vertical distance from the foundtion to the ceiling, a width approximately one-fourth to one-half the height and a thickness substantially equal to the wall thickness of the building, said panel comprising a continuous inner wall portion, a continuous outer wall portion and integral peripheral and transverse web portions connecting said inner and outer wall portions and cooperating with them to form a plurality of closed hollow cavities between said wall portions, the peripheral web portion and adjacent peripheral portions of the inner and outer wall portions cooperating to form a groove extending along the bottom edge of the panel, a channel of semi-polygonal crosssection extending along each of the'vertical side edges and a trough extending along the upper edge, the upper portions of the inner and outer wall portions forming lll inner and outer flanges on opposite sides of said trough, the inner flange having at least one notch extending vertically downward from the upper edgeof the ange to a level above the bottom of the trough. 4

5. In building 'construction having a ceiling, "a foundation Ihaving a plurality of spaced wells and tongues projecting upwardly from the upper surface of the foundation between said wells, a plurality of 4Wall members superposed on one another in vertical alignment, each of. said Wall members having spaced parallel inner and outer wall portions and -a continuous peripheral Wall portion `enclosing a sealed hollow space inside lsaid member, each of said wall members other than the uppermost members having -a peripherally extending groove in its lower peripheral wall portion, a peripherally extending tongue on its -upper peripheral wall portion, and vertically extending channels in its opposite vertical peripheral wall portions yand each of said uppermost wall members having a :peripherally extending groove in it-s lower peripheral wall portion and vertically extending channels in its opposite vertical peripheral wall portions, the inner and outer wall portions of said uppermost wall member projecting up wardly a substantial distance above the upper peripheral -wall portion to provide an integral trough, at least the inner wall portion of said uppermost wall member having in its upper edge spaced rectangular notches extending downwardly land terminating va substantial distance above the upper peripheral wall of said member, said wall members'being assembled in tiers with the grooves in the lower peripheral walls of the lowerrnost tier fitting over and interlocking with said tongues on the foundation and with side edges of the inner and outer wall portions of adjacent members abutting one another whereby said channels form vertically extending enclosures, said venclosures being laligned with said wells in the foundation and with the grooves in the lower peripheral wall portions of a superposed tier tting over and interlocking with the tongues on the upper peripheral wall portions of the subjacent tier and with the vertical side edges of inner and outer wall portions of adjacent members abutting one another and aligned with the vertical side edges of the subjacent wall members whereby said channels form vertically extending enclosures aligned with the enclosures between members of the subj'acent tier, the channels between adjacent wall members of the uppermost tier being in communication with said trough. concrete cast in place in said wells, channels and troughs bonding all of said members together and to the foundation land ceiling structural members extending through said notches and supported by said concrete.

6. ln a building construction having a ceiling, a foundation having a plurality of spaced wells and tongues projecting upwardly from the upper surface of the foundation between said wells, a plurality of wall panels each divided into a plurality of sections, disposed one above another, the width of said panels being equal to the center-to-center distance between said wells, each of said sections having spaced parallel inner `and outer wall por tions :and a `continuous peripheral wall portion enclosing a sealed hollow space inside said member, each of said sections other than the uppermost section of each panel having la peripherally extending groove in its lower peripheral wall portion, a peripherally extending tongue on its upper peripheral wall portion and vertically extending channels in its opposite vertical peripheral wall portions, the uppermost section of each panel having a peripherally extending groove in its lower peripheral Wall portion and vertically extending channels in its opposite vertical peripheral wall portions, the inner and outer wall portions of said uppermost section projecting upwardly a sub` stantial distance above the upper peripheral wall portion to provide `an integral trough, at least the inner portion of said uppermost wall member having in its upper edge spaced rectangular notches extending downwardly and terminating a substantial distance above the upper pe- 1 l ripheral wall of said member, said sections being 'assembled on said foundation with the grooves in the lower peripheral walls of the lowermost sections tting `over and interlocking with said tongues on the foundation Vvand with the grooves in the lower peripheral walls of upper sections tting over and interlocking with said tongues on the upper peripheral walls of lower sections, the side edges lof the inner and outer walls of the sections of each panel being aligned with one another and abutting the side edges of the inner and outer walls of the adjacent panels to form vertically extending enclosures, said enclosures being aligned with said wells in the foundation, ceiling structural members having end portions extending through,

said notches and into said trough, and concrete cast in place in said wells, vertically extending enclosures and troughs `of the assembled panels, bonding all of said sections together and to the foundation yand providing concrete columns in said enclosures and an integral beam in said trough, the ends of said ceiling members being at least partially embedded in said beams and'thereby anchored securely.

4References Cited in the le of this vpatent UNITED STATES PATENTS Richmond Feb. y14, 1911 Harkness Aug."17, 1920 Aschauer t- Sept..21, 1920 Ross Oct. 12, 1920 Pace Aug. 24, 1926 Winter Aug. 27, 1929 Eiserloh :May 6, 1.930 Welch June 21,11932 Erdner Mar. ,9, 1937 'Slobodzian Nov. 9, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS France Sept. 6, 1920 France Aug. '28, '1933 Great Britain Dec. 13,1934

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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/262, 52/289, 52/438, 52/576
International ClassificationE04B2/68, E04B2/64
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2/68
European ClassificationE04B2/68