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Publication numberUS285440 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 25, 1883
Filing dateMay 16, 1883
Publication numberUS 285440 A, US 285440A, US-A-285440, US285440 A, US285440A
InventorsJames Swan
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 285440 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

(No Model.)

t J. SWAN.

AUGFBRI No. 285,440. Patented Sept. 251883* jyj. t




SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 285,440, dated September 25, 1883.

Y Application filed May 16, V1883. (No model.)

To all whom, t may concern:

Be it known' that I, JAMES SWAN, of Seymour, county of New Haven, State of Connecticut, have invented an Improvement in Angers, of which the following description, in connection with the accompanying drawings, is a speoieation, like letters on the drawings representing like parts.

rlhe object of my invention 'is to improve the quality of angers and bits, and at the same time cheapen their construction and enable the same to be more readily sharpened, and also to enable the steel cutters to be readily rel newed when worn out, thus enabling one twisted body to be utilized for many cutters.

The shanks, pods, and cutters of angers are now .Commonly made entirely of steel; but such angers are very expensive, so much so that they are used only in the most particular class of work. Angers are also largely made in which the Shanks and pods are of wroughtiron, and the cutters, of steel, are welded intol the end of the pod, the said head having the cutters and leading-screw attached to it, so as to form an integral part thereof. In both these common plans the auger or bit, when dull or injured, is sharpened by ale, and to enable a file to serve for suoli purpose it is necessary to leave the steel of the head and cutters at low temper, for if at high temper, or hard, a iile could not touch it, and it will be under stood that the harder the steel forming the cutters the more durable and efficient the auger or bit.

In my experiments, aiming to increase the durability of the cutters and obviate-frequent sharpening, and consequent filing back of the cutters, I have ascertained that I may make the cutters of steel, and harden and temper them just as I would any other Cutting-tool, and then, when finished, attach them, to the head of the pod, thus enabling the cutters to be of any desired hardness or quality of steel, and enabling them to be adjusted so as to always bear the same relation to the head of the pod, and so, also7 that if a cutter strikes a nail or other hard substance and is injured, the said cutter may be removed and another substituted for it.

It will be readily understood that all that is required of the pod or twisted part of the body is that it should have the requisite strength and stiffness', and, recognizing that a good quality of cast metal possesses as great, if not greater, stiffness in proportion to its thickness and weight than more expensive wrought metal, I have successfully experimented with and ascertained that cast-iron may be used to form the pod and head, and I have succeeded in producing avery stiff, rigid pod at a reduced cost; but to give the necessary strength in the shank, which is more liable to be broken by jars or careless dropping on hard surfaces, I have made theshanks both vof wrought-iron and of steel, and may make them of malleable iron 5 but in all instances I prefer to cast the pod upon the shank g and so, also, to enable the leading-screw to be made of steel, I have arranged to so place it in a mold as to cast the pod upon it, so that the iiowing of the metal into the mold in the formation of the pod acts as a binder between and to unite the shank'and theleading-screw. rIlhe shank, it will be seen, is thus composed of a duetile metal, as contradistinguished from cast metal. I have devised several different forms of cut ters, all of which may be readily attached to and adjusted upon the head of the pod and be held by a screw or screws, but I also desire it to be understood that I may unite the cutters with the pod by casting. In such plan I would, however, lose the great advantage of adjustment; but I would gain over other usual augers or bits in cheapness of construction.

The features wherein my invention consists will be set forth inthe claims at the end of this specification.

Figure 1 represents an auger embodying my invention. Fig. 2 represents the leading-- screw separated; Fig. 3, the shank separated; Fig. 4, a left-hand end view of Fig. 1. Figs. 5 and 6 show a modification in attaching 'the cutters to the head of the pod; and Figs. 7

and S, another modification, wherein the cutters are held on the head of the ing the latter about them;

The leading-screw a, made .of steel, has a shank, a', preferably of other shape than circular in cross-section, which is adapted to be inclosed by the metal of the cast podb. The shank e, of suitable length, is composed of a pod by castductile metal, or one capable of being drawn IOO ' `forming part oi' the pod.

while hot, or to be hammered and drawn, such as wrought-iron, malleable iron, or steel. That portion of the pod at the left of the dotted line x x, Fig. l, is called the head of the pod, and is lettered b2.

In the process of making my improved auger or bit, a pattern for the production of the pod and its head is buried in sand in a suitable ilask and tamped, and the pattern is then removed, leaving a mold suitable to produce the pod and head connected together', when iron is run in the said mold; but, prior to running cast-'iron into the Vsaid mold, the steel leadingscrew and the ductile-metal shank are so supported in the mold that the molten iron, when run in the mold, will iiow about the part a of the leadi1i0-sc1?ew, and also about the end c' of the shank c, thus causing the molten metal poured into the said mold and used to form the pod l), Fig. l, to flow about them, the pod formed by casting in the said mold acting as a binder or connection between the leadingscrew and one end of the shank c, thus effectually uniting the said parts to or incorporating them with the pod as integral portions thereof.

In Fig. l. I have shown the end c/ of the shank as nearly covered by ,the cast metal The part c may be provided with a hole, ci, or with aprojection, e, to afford better engagement of lthe metal forming the cast-metal pod with the ductile shank. The head hassuitable iiat portions, upon which are placed the steel cutters e, they, as in Figs. 1 and 4, being adjustably and removably attached to the said head by a screw, e', extended through a slot in cutter, and, preferably, the said cutter and heel will have means whereby the cutter may be prevented from twisting or turning laterally on its seat. In Figs. l and 4 this is accomplished by providing the rear of the hardenedsteel cutter with a rib or projection, e3, to enter a suitable groove in the cutter-seat on the head. (See Fig. 4.) These cutters may be readily removed to be sharpened, and may be readily applied to the head and adjusted thereon as the cutter is worn away by grinding.

In Figs. 5 and 6 the steel cutter is made as a curved blade attached to the head ofthe pod by two screws, ff. If desired, the two steel cutters may be supported in the mold prior to forming the pod therein by casting, as described, and the molten metal be made to envelop and bind the said cutters within and to form a xed part of it, as in Figs. 7 and 8, leaving the end of the cutter exposed to cut the material to be bored.

The pod may have a single or double twist, and but one cutter, if desired. An auger such as just described may be constructed very cheaply and rapidly, and makes a very eftt cient, strong, and durable tool, substantially as good as any of the usual angers or bits.

I wish it understood that the pod of this anger may be cast of any metal desired, t not necessarily cast-iron,) and by experimenting I have found that for some kinds of work the same metal of which the pod is cast will also answcr for the shank.

Angers are now constructed with square, spur, and gouge lip, and I wish it understood that the cutters of this auger may be made and used in any oi' the forms mentioned.

I do not broadly claim a separable steel leading-screw applied to a pod, nor do I broadly claim a head having a leading-screw and eutters attached to a pod.

I claiml. In an auger having a suitable shank and cutter, a cast-metal pod, combined with a steel leading-screw immovably fixed into the castmetal pod, as described.

2. In an auger, a cast-metal pod,` a suitable leading-screw, and cutter, combined with a ductile-metal shank immovably attached to the said pod, substantially as described.

3. In an auger, a shank and a cast-metal pod, combined with a steel leading-screw immovably fixed to the said pod, and with detachable cutters, substantially as set forth.

In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.


Titnessesz A. B. Posr, XV. H. VHrrrEironn.

Referenced by
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US7625160 *Mar 2, 2007Dec 1, 2009Milwaukee Electric Tool CorporationCutting tool
US7661911Mar 2, 2007Feb 16, 2010Milwaukee Electric Tool CorporationCutting tool
US8070397Feb 19, 2008Dec 6, 2011Irwin Industrial Tool CompanySelf feed bit
US8070398Feb 19, 2008Dec 6, 2011Irwin Industrial Tool CompanyMulti-blade self feed bit
US8328477Nov 5, 2008Dec 11, 2012Milwaukee Electric Tool CorporationCutting tool
US8371777Feb 12, 2013Milwaukee Electric Tool CorporationCutting tool
US20070277656 *Mar 2, 2007Dec 6, 2007Zeiler Jeffrey MCutting tool
US20070280798 *Mar 2, 2007Dec 6, 2007Zeiler Jeffrey MCutting tool
US20080138165 *Dec 6, 2006Jun 12, 2008Laverne DurfeeDrill bit
US20080166194 *Jan 9, 2007Jul 10, 2008Durfee Laverne RDrill bit
US20090087273 *Nov 5, 2008Apr 2, 2009Douglas AllenCutting tool
US20090208300 *Feb 19, 2008Aug 20, 2009Irwin Industrial Tool CompanySelf feed bit
US20090208302 *Feb 19, 2008Aug 20, 2009Irwin Industrial Tool CompanyMulti-blade self feed bit
US20100003094 *Sep 8, 2009Jan 7, 2010Irwin Industrial Tool CompanyDrill bit
US20100307640 *Dec 9, 2010Durfee La Verne RCutting edge and cutting tool
US20100322733 *Aug 27, 2010Dec 23, 2010Douglas AllenCutting tool
Cooperative ClassificationB27G15/00