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Publication numberUS2855244 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 7, 1958
Filing dateJun 3, 1955
Priority dateJun 3, 1955
Publication numberUS 2855244 A, US 2855244A, US-A-2855244, US2855244 A, US2855244A
InventorsLeon W Camp
Original AssigneeBendix Aviat Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sonic liquid-spraying and atomizing apparatus
US 2855244 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 7, 1958 L. w. CAMP 2,855,244

SONIC LIQUID-SPRAYING AND ATOMIZING APPARATUS Filed June 3, 1955 INVENTOR.

Leon W Camp BY ATTORNEY United States Patent SONIC LIQUID-SPRAYING AND ATOMIZING APPARATUS 1 Claim. (Cl. 299-1) This invention relates to apparatus for atomizingand spraying liquids and has, as a general object, prov1sion of such an apparatus that is simple and rugged and produces a very fine atomization. It may be employed for atomizing alone, as for atomizing fuels for carburetion,

or forprojecting finely atomized liquids, as in spray painting and the like.

Briefly, the invention consists of a sonic vibrator having a liquid-conducting passage therein extending to one or more apertures in a working face. When liquid is supplied through the passage and the face is vibrated at high frequency in the sonic or ultrasonic range, the liquid is projected from the face as a fine fog or mist. For spray coating of objects, as in painting, the mist is directed onto the object. For carburetion, the mist is entrained in a current of air into which it is projected.

Various specific objects and features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description with reference to the drawing, in which:

Fig. 1 is a plan view of one embodiment of the invention.

Fig. 2 is a vertical, longitudinal section taken in the plane IIII of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a cross section taken in the plane III--III of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 is an end view taken in the plane IV--IV of Fig. 2.

As shown in the drawing, the invention comprises a body of electromechanically responsive material adapted to be vibrated longitudinally by extension and contraction and having a face 11 at the left end, this being the working face of the device. As used herein the expression electromechanically responsive material means any material that responds to electrical excitation to change its shape or dimensions. Magnetostrictive materials such as nickel change their shape when subjected to the magnetic field ofv an electric current. Other electromechanically responsive materials such as quartz crystals and barium titanate change shape when subjected to an electric potential.

In the form shown, the body 10 consists of a magnetostriction vibrator 12 of known type having a face 13 at its left end which is firmly bonded to the right end face 14 of .an amplifying horn 15. The horn 15 is solid, except for a water-conducting passage 16 which extends from a connecting nipple 17 in the top of the horn to the left end thereof. The nipple 17 is shown connected by a flexible hose 18 to a source of liquid, which in this instance is indicated as a pump 19 and a reservoir 20.

The left end face or working face 11, previously referred to, is defined by a separate face plate 21 which is securely bonded to the left end of the horn 15. This left end 22 of the horn has an annular groove 23 therein which is connected to the passage 16 by four radial grooves 24. Except where the grooves 23 and 24 occur, the entire face 22 is flat, and fits against and is tightly bonded to the face plate 21. The latter has an annular row of discharge apertures 25 juxtaposed to and com- "ice municating with the groove 23. It will be observed, therefore, that a path for liquid flow is provided from the nipple 17 to the apertures 25 in the end face 11 As previously indicated, the magnetostriction vibrator 12 is of conventional form, having an energizing winding 27 and a polarizing permanent magnet 28 so that when the Winding 27 is energized with alternating current of a frequency to which the body 10 is mechanically tuned, powerful vibrations are induced therein. The horn 15 functions to magnify the amplitude of the vibrations existing at the end 13 of the magnetostriction vibrator, so that the working face 11 vibrates with greater amplitude than does the end 13 of the magnetostriction vibrator proper.

When the body 10 is vibrated at a frequency sufiiciently high and with sufficient energy input to produce the necessary amplitude of vibration at the face 11, liquid passing through the apertures 25 in the face is finely atomized and discharged a substantial distance away from the face, As fluid is atomized and discharged from the face 11, the supply thereto is renewed from the reservoir 20 through the pump 19 and the hose 18. It is to be understood that very little pressure is required to maintain the fluid supply, and that in some instances it is merely necessary to position the reservoir 20 slightly above the level of the body 10 to give gravity feed of liquid to the tool as it is discharged. A valve 30 may be provided to control the rate of flow.

In Figs. 1 and 2, the liquid is shown discharged from the face 11 in the form of a mist or fog 28 which is impinged on the surface of an object 29 positioned closely adjacent thereto. In this instance, the fog is precipitated onto the surface of the object 29 in a very finely divided uniform film, making the apparatus particularly suitable for spraying paint or other coatings. The apparatus is preferable in some particular applications to the conventional spray gun employing an air blast, because there is no rush of air, the minute particles of liquid constituting the fog 28 being projected forcibly from the surface 11 and carried by their own momentum to the surface 29, rather than being carried thereto in a current of air which must be deflected laterally when it impinges on the surface 29.

When the invention is to be used for the purpose of atomizing a. liquid and mixing it with a gas, such as in the carburetion of a liquid fuel with air, the projected fog or mist 28 is projected into a moving current of air which picks it up and carries it along therewith, the two being thoroughly mixed because of the fineness of the particles of the fog or mist.

Although it is usually desirable to provide a large number of apertures 25, as shown in the example illustrated in the drawing, no particular number of apertures and no particular arrangement thereof is required. However, the cross-sectional pattern of the fog projected from the face corresponds roughly to the pattern of the apertures and can be controlled to a certain extent by arranging the apertures in the desired pattern.

The over-all length of the body 10 should be one-half wave length, or a multiple of one-half wave length, at the frequency of operation. When the over-all length is one-half wave, the body vibrates with maximum motion at its opposite ends and with minimum motion in a plane intermediate the ends. If the length of the body 10 is one wave length, maximum motion occurs at the opposite ends and also at the middle, and there are two planes of minimum motion (nodal planes), each spaced one-quarter wave length from one end. The second mode of operation has the advantage that the stress is reduced at the point of joinder of the vibrator 12 to the horn 15, and it also facilitates the location of the liquid connection 2,855,244,. e p p n nipple 17 at or near a nodal point. However, these conditions are not absolutely necessary.

In order to discharge the liquid from the face 11, the maximum velocity of the face must be relatively high and is determined by the amplitude of vibration and by the frequency. In a device having a working face 11 approximately square, dimensioned to operate at 22,000 cycles per second, satisfactory results have been obtained with an electrical power input of 25 watts. Under these conditions, the face 11 imparts to the liquid a maximum forward velocity of about fifteen feet per second and has a maximum negative acceleration of about 60,000 G. This great acceleration causes the liquid film on the face 11 to shatter into extremely small droplets.

Although for the purpose of explaining the invention a particular embodiment thereof has been shown and described, obvious modifications will occur to a person skilled in the art, and I do not desire to be limited to the exact details shown and described.

I claim:

Apparatus for spraying a liquid comprising: a body having a face containing a liquid-discharging aperture and a liquid-conducting passage extending from said aperture through said body to a liquid supply connection thereon; means for generating in said body and transmitting to said face compressional wave energy in direction perpendicular to said face and of power and frequency high enough to vibrate said face at a velocity sufficient to eject therefrom liquid particles reaching said face through said aperture; said body comprising a rear portion remote from said face of electromechanicallyresponsive material and a front portion extending from said rear portion to said face, said liquid-conducting passage being contained within said front portion; said front portion having a vibrational node displaced from said face and said liquid supply connection being located at said node.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,453,595 Rosenthal Nov. 9, 1948 2,512,743 Hansell June 27, 1950 2,738,173 Massa Mar. 13, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 826,088 Germany Jan. 7, 1952

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2453595 *Aug 27, 1943Nov 9, 1948Scophony Corp Of AmericaApparatus for dispensing liquid fuel
US2512743 *Apr 1, 1946Jun 27, 1950Rca CorpJet sprayer actuated by supersonic waves
US2738173 *Apr 9, 1952Mar 13, 1956Massa FrankReduction of friction between a fluid and the wall of a conduit through which the fluid is passing
DE826088C *Jun 8, 1949Jan 7, 1952Fruengel Frank Dr IngUltraschallvergaser fuer Kraftstoffgemische
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2949900 *Jun 2, 1958Aug 23, 1960Albert G BodineSonic liquid sprayer
US3103310 *Nov 9, 1961Sep 10, 1963Exxon Research Engineering CoSonic atomizer for liquids
US3162368 *Jul 6, 1961Dec 22, 1964Exxon Research Engineering CoSonic energy transducer
US3175567 *Aug 8, 1963Mar 30, 1965Elliott Brothers London LtdApparatus for effecting ultrasonic cleaning of the interior of vessels
US3198170 *Mar 6, 1962Aug 3, 1965Copal Co LtdUltrasonic-wave painting machine
US3209447 *Mar 12, 1962Oct 5, 1965Aeroprojects IncTransducer coupling system
US3370538 *Feb 11, 1966Feb 27, 1968E W Hines And AssociatesFluid pumps energized by magnetostrictive action
US3394274 *Apr 12, 1967Jul 23, 1968Branson InstrSonic dispersing device
US3451379 *Jul 26, 1966Jun 24, 1969Coal Research InstMethod and apparatus for treating liquid fuel oil
US3677236 *Sep 8, 1970Jul 18, 1972Plessey Co LtdFuel-injection devices for mixture-aspiring internal-combustion engines
US3679132 *Jan 21, 1970Jul 25, 1972Cotton IncJet stream vibratory atomizing device
US3796536 *Apr 24, 1972Mar 12, 1974Matsushita Electric Ind Co LtdLiquid fuel burner
US4003518 *Feb 4, 1974Jan 18, 1977Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Method and device for controlling combustion in liquid fuel burner utilizing ultrasonic wave transducer
US4301968 *Apr 3, 1979Nov 24, 1981Sono-Tek CorporationTransducer assembly, ultrasonic atomizer and fuel burner
US4311275 *Dec 12, 1979Jan 19, 1982Lindkvist Allan ErikDevice for use in apparatus for thermal spraying
US4370131 *Jun 24, 1977Jan 25, 1983Surgical DesignUltrasonic transducer tips
US4431684 *Aug 27, 1982Feb 14, 1984E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Co.Ultrasonic vibrator for applying finish to yarn
US4465234 *Oct 5, 1981Aug 14, 1984Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Liquid atomizer including vibrator
US4526808 *Jun 2, 1981Jul 2, 1985E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanySupplying liquid to surface of ultrasonic vibrator, moving threadline in close proximity to atomized mist
US4533082 *Oct 14, 1982Aug 6, 1985Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, LimitedPiezoelectric oscillated nozzle
US4537354 *Mar 1, 1983Aug 27, 1985Siemens AktiengesellschaftOrifice valve for an ultrasonic liquid atomizer
US4541564 *Jan 5, 1983Sep 17, 1985Sono-Tek CorporationUltrasonic liquid atomizer, particularly for high volume flow rates
US4605167 *Jan 17, 1983Aug 12, 1986Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, LimitedUltrasonic liquid ejecting apparatus
US4815661 *Aug 3, 1987Mar 28, 1989Tomtec N.V.Ultrasonic spraying device
US5025766 *Aug 17, 1988Jun 25, 1991Hitachi, Ltd.Fuel injection valve and fuel supply system equipped therewith for internal combustion engines
US5219120 *Jul 24, 1991Jun 15, 1993Sono-Tek CorporationApparatus and method for applying a stream of atomized fluid
US5299739 *May 26, 1992Apr 5, 1994Tdk CorporationUltrasonic wave nebulizer
US5387444 *Feb 27, 1992Feb 7, 1995Dymax CorporationUltrasonic method for coating workpieces, preferably using two-part compositions
US5582540 *Jan 22, 1996Dec 10, 1996National Science Council Of R.O.CHydrostatic and hydrodynamic polishing tool
US6102298 *Feb 23, 1998Aug 15, 2000The Procter & Gamble CompanyUltrasonic spray coating application system
US6901926 *Jul 23, 2003Jun 7, 2005Omron CorporationUltrasonic atomizer, ultrasonic inhaler and method of controlling same
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DE2259521A1 *Dec 5, 1972Jun 14, 1973Grenobloise Etude ApplVerfahren und vorrichtung zur erzeugung von fluessigkeitstropfen hoher geschwindigkeit
DE3036721A1 *Sep 29, 1980Apr 8, 1982Siemens AgVerbesserung an einem ultraschall-fluessigkeitszerstaeuber
DE3828591A1 *Aug 23, 1988Mar 9, 1989Hitachi LtdEinspritzventil fuer brennkraftmaschinen
EP0082896A1 *Dec 30, 1981Jul 6, 1983E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyMethod and apparatus for applying liquid to a moving threadline
EP0200258A2 *Apr 17, 1986Nov 5, 1986Jean Michel AnthonyUltrasonic spraying device
EP0217518A1 *Aug 14, 1986Apr 8, 1987Delavan IncUltrasonic spray nozzle and method
WO1993016812A1 *Feb 25, 1993Sep 2, 1993Dymax CorpUltrasonic spray coating system and method
WO2011151728A2 *Jun 2, 2011Dec 8, 2011Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaAirless spray gun
Classifications
U.S. Classification239/102.2, 123/536, 451/165, 125/11.22, 123/198.00E, 451/446, 261/1, 310/26, 239/214
International ClassificationB05B17/06, F02M51/08
Cooperative ClassificationB05B17/063, B05B17/0623
European ClassificationB05B17/06B2B, B05B17/06B2