US 2856039 A
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Oct. 14, 1958 H. G. HAWKINSON 2,856,039
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION l Filed March 4, 1954 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIE 1 -11 i I ilili.a' .%gl g s 55 Z4 48 6 INVENTOR. FIE: CE IIARow ifllukmsozv BY @MMM6MJ M Arron/us Oct. 14, 1958 H a. HAWKINSON 5, 9
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 4, 1954 '4 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VEN TOR. #4220412 6? Mums/s0 flrramlans Oct. 14, 1958 H. G. 'HAWKINSON 2,856,039
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 4, 1954 4 Sheets-Sheet s Fl 5 1s a F v INVENTOR. M 554K049 4- MAM/Also M MM@MM Arrokug-lf Get. 14, 1958 H, w so 2,856,039
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 4, 1954 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Fl 51 .21. so
INVENTOR. l/mow llfllvk/A/sow B Y @MJMMQJ nM BUHDENG CONSTRUCTION Harold G. Hawkinson, Grand Rapids, Minn.
Application March 4, 1954, Serial No. 414,043
1 Claim. (Cl. 189-34) This application has relation to building construction and more particularly to a building construction which embodies a number of similarly constructed individual panels which can be fastened together to form the walls, roof and floor supports of a building.
In conventional construction, an outer wall of a building, for example, includes vertical studding fastened to a floor plate and a top plate; sheathing, building paper, and a wood, stucco, stone or brick weather wall on the rates atent outside of the studding; and lathe and plaster or plaster board covered with paint or paper inside of the studding. Even the prefabricated walls of ready-built houses are usually built up in this manner.
In the building construction of the present invention, each of the individual panels includes an outer and an inner metal wall each having a prefini shed surface, two vertical metal studs and upper and lower metal channels designed to receive the top and floor plates respectively. Each of the outer and inner wall panels is insulated from the studs and the channels by a layer of insulating paper. A sheet of fibre board rests in contiguous relationship to the inner surfaces of each of the metal walls. A bat of insulating material occupies the space between the two layers of fibre board. One of the vertical studs is designed to fit inside of a vertical stud of an immediately adjoining panel. A hat of insulating material is cemented to one of the vertical studs and to each of the upper and lower channels. Weather stripping and calking strips are cemented onto the vertical flange of walls to form a tight seal between panels when assembled.
Because of the construction of the individual panels of the present invention the conventional built-up wall structure is no longer needed. Because of the fact that such panels can be manufactured in assembly line fashion, a saving in man-hours and an increase in the uniformity and accuracy is obtained. Since the panels can be constructed so that each regular wall panel extends to ceiling height and has a width equal to about half the distance spanned by three studs conventionally spaced, the flexibility in using these panels to build up structures of any desired dimensions is very great.
In order to obtain the advantages set out above and to obtain other advantages which will appear as the specification progresses, this building construction was developed.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view of a building constructed according to the present invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged horizontal sectional view taken on line 2-2 in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged horizontal sectional view taken on line 3-3 in Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged vertical sectional view taken on line 4-4 in Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical sectional view taken on line 5-5 in Fig. 1;
2,156,039 Patented Oct. 14, 1958 Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view taken on line. 6-6 in Fig. 2;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary perspective view of lower corner portion of a wall panel showing its relative positioning with respect to a floor panel and a floor plate;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary perspective view of an opposite lower corner portion of a wall panel from that shown in Fig. 7 showing its relative positioning with respect to a floor panel and a floor plate.
Fig. 9 is a perspective view of a wall panel showing insulating bats in exploded relationship thereto;
Fig. 10 is an exploded fragmentary view of an upper corner portion of the outer and inner walls, the insulating paper, the upper channel and a vertical stud of a wall panel;
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken on line 11-11 in Fig. 1;
Fig. 12 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional view also taken on line 11-11 in Fig. 1 with parts in section and parts broken away;
Fig. 13 is also an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional view taken on line 11-11 in Fig. 1 with parts in section and parts broken away; and
Fig. 14 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken on line 14-14 in Fig. 13.
Referring to the drawings and the numerals of reference thereon, a plurality of floor panels each denoted 10 are laid together on a slab 11. Appropriate floor plates 12 are fastened to said floor panels and, in the case of the outer wall floor plates, a metal flashing 13 is nailed to the top of floor plate 12 to extend down over the outside edge of the floor panel 10 and to flare outwardly over the edge of the slab 11. This is best seen in Fig. 4.
A corner panel 14 is placed at a corner of the floor area on top of a pair of mutually perpendicular floor plates and wall panels 15 are situated in sealing relationship to said corner panel and on top of said floor plates. A plurality of wall panels can be fastened to said floor plate 12 in side by side relationship to each other to form the desired length of solid wall.
In order to provide for windows and window frames such as denoted at 16, a series of short panels 17 having a height equal to the desired window frame height are installed as best seen in Fig. 1. A pair of narrow panels 18 having height equal to the height of the window frame are installed on top of the outer short panels to be contiguous with adjacent wall panels 15. A bridge panel 19 having depth equal to the distance between the ceiling level and the top of the window frame 16 and length suflicient to extend between the adjacent wall panels is installed on top of the narrow panels 18. A wall panel is installed in side by side relation to the outer edge of the short, narrow and bridge panels to add stability to these panels and a window frame 16 can be fitted into the opening provided. Doors and door frames can be mounted in a somewhat similar manner. Roof panels 20 are supported by wall panels 15 and by a girder 21 which is supported on posts such as 22.
The construction of the wall panels 15 is typical of the construction of all of the panels. An outer metal wall 23 of a wall panel 15 consists of a flat sheet 24 and three flanges extending inwardly from that sheet. A pair of side flanges 25, 25 and a bottom flange 26 extend inwardly of said sheet 24 to form an acute angle therewith. An inner metal wall 27 of the wall panel 15 consists of a flat sheet 28, a pair of side flanges 29, 29 and a bottom flange 30 extending inwardly therefrom to form an acute angle therewith.
As best seen in Fig. 4, a lower metal channel 31 consists of a U-shaped strip of metal 32 and a pair of outwardly extending flanges 33, 33 integral therewith. The angle of these flanges is such that they will nest with the bottom flanges 26 and 30 of the outer and inner walls to be parallel therewith.
A first vertical'stud 34 consists of a U-shaped strip 35 and a pair of outwardly extending flanges 36, '36. The angle at which these flanges extend outwardly from the U-shaped strip 35 is such that theywill nest with and be parallel to the side flanges 25 and 29 of the outer and inner walls. 'A second vertical stud 37 consists of an inverted U-shaped strip 38 and a pair of outwardly extending flanges 39, 39. These flanges extend outwardly at angles to nest with and be parallel to side flanges 25 and 29 of the outer and inner walls.
An upper metal channel 40 consists of a U-shaped strip 41, a pair of outwardly extending flanges 42, 42 integral therewith and perpendicular thereto, and a pair of skirts 43, 43 each perpendicular to and integral with an outer edge of one of said flanges.
To assemble a wall panel, a sheet of insulating material 44 such as asbestos is placed in position to completely cover the inside surface of both the inner and outer walls 27 and 23. The first stud 34 and the second stud 37 are nested with the outer wall 23 and the inner wall 27 to have the sheets 44 there between and are fastened together as at 45. This assembly is placed over the lower metal channel 31 and the flanges 33, 33 thereof are fastened, thru the insulating sheets, to the flanges 26 and 30 of the walls as at 46. Two sheets of fibre board 47 are slid into the panel from top end thereof one to lie against each of the walls. A bat of insulating material 48 such as fibre glass is also'slid into the panel to fill the space between the fibre board sheets. Upper channel 40 is then placed in position at the top of the panel to have the skirts 43, 43 in contact with an inner surface of each of the insulating sheets 44. A boss 49 is integral with the upper channel 40 and is used to secure said channel to said first stud 34. i
A fastening tongue 50 is integral with and extends outwardly from said lower metal channel 31 in position adjacent tosaid first stud 34. It is spaced from the end of said stud and is adapted to be nailed to said floor plate 12 when the panels are being installed in direction to leave this tongue 50 uncovered. A positioningtongue 51 is integral with and extends outwardly from said metal channel 31 in position adjacent to said second stud 37. It is of size and position to pass between said fastening tongue 50 and said first stud 34 of the immediately adjacent wall or corner panel. As best seen in Fig. 8, the sides of the U-shaped strip 38 of the second stud 37 come down over the sides of the floor plate 12 and can be nailed to that plate when the panels are being installed in direction to leave these sides uncovered.
Strips of insulating material 52 such as fibre glass are bonded to the outer central surfaces of said first stud, said bottom channel and said top channel. A top plate 53 extends along the entire length of a wall in the upper metal channels 40 and on top of the top insulating strips 52 of each of the wall panels 15. The top plate is fastened through said insulating strips 52 to said channels 40 as at 54 as best seen in Fig. 12.
A vertical weather strip 55 of some material such as rubber is bonded to each of the side flanges 25 and 29 which are adjacent to said second stud 37 to have position between said weather strip 55 and said flat sheet 24 of said outer wall 23. When awall panel 15 is placed astride the floor plate 12 and slid into nesting relationship with the next adjacent panel, the weather strips '55 will contact the side flanges 25 and 29 of said adjacent panel to form a weather tight seal therebetween. The strip of calking compound 56 also contacts the flange 25 and is forced to fill the space between said weather strip 55 and said flat sheets 24 of said outer walls. A small bead of calking compound will be squeezed out between the outer walls 23 as seen in Fig. 2. This is wiped otf to leave a moisture-tight seal.
To provide means for installing electric and telephone wiring, a plurality horizontal raceways 57 and a vertical raceway 58 are provided in each wall panel. The horizontal and vertical raceways are open to each other and the panel construction is cut away so that adjoining horizontal raceways in adjacent panels are open to each other. Since these raceways are all constituted as closed sheet metal conduitsintegrally connected to the inner metal wall 27, they serve to add stiffness and strength to the panels.
Roof panels 20, floor panels 10 and corner panels 14 are of the same construction as are the wall panels 15. In the roof panels, however, an upturned and backwardly extending flange 59 is provided at each side edge and at the top edge thereof. A clip 60 is slid over adjacent flanges of adjoining panels to form a water-tight seal therebetween. see Figs; 13 and 14.
' As'sh'own in Fig. 12, a portion of the inner wall of the roof .panel 20 is cut away and flanges 62 on said roof panel are used to anchor said roof panel to said wall panel 15 as at 63. A molding strip 64 is provided to conceal the fastening means, to give a finished appearance, and to provide a place from which to hang pictures.
It is to be understood that the construction and arrangement of parts is such that there is no metal to metal contact (except for fastening means) between either of said walls and the connecting studs and channels. This eifectively'blocks the transfer of heat from one side to the other and prevents condensation and other related problems formerly associated with use of metal construction materials.
It is further'to be understood that the surfaces of the outer' wall 23 and the inner wall 27 can be prefinished to provide any desired color, texture, or other quality desired in the finished building.
What is claimed is:
Building construction including an elongated floor plate, a plurality of identical wall panels each including a lower channel positioned astride said elongated floor plate and having a pair of horizontal flanges constituted as oppositely disposed edge portions thereof, a first vertical stud extending outwardly from a first vertical edge of said panel and having a pair of vertical flanges constituted as opposite disposed edge portions thereof, a second vertical stud positioned along a second 1 vertical edge of said panel in receiving, adjacent relationship to a firstvertical stud of an adjoining panel and having a pair of vertical flanges constituted as opposite disposed edge portions of said second vertical stud, a fastening tongue integral with said lower channel and extending outwardly therefrom at a location adjacent and spaced from said second stud in contiguous relationship to said floor plate, fastening means securing said fastening tongue to said floor plate, a positioning tongue integral with said lower channel and extending outwardly therefrom at a location adjacent said first stud, spaced from said floor plate and in contiguous relation to a fastening tongue and a second stud of an adjacent panel, an outer wall having a pair of horizontal flanges constituted as oppositely disposed end portions of said wall anda pair of vertical flanges constituted as oppositely disposed vertical edge portions of said outer wall, an inner wall having a pair of horizontal flanges constituted as oppositely disposed end portions of said inner wall and having a pair of vertical flanges constituted as oppositely disposed edge portions of said inner wall, a first insulating sheet in contiguous relation to substantially all of the inner surface of said outer wall including said horizontal and vertical flanges of said wall, a second insulating sheet in contiguous relation to substantially all of the inner surface of said inner wall including said horizontal and vertical flanges of said wall, a plurality of screws each fastening through one of said horizontal flanges of one of said inner and outer Walls, one of said insulating sheets and one of said horizontal flanges of said lower channel, and screws each fastening through one of said vertical flanges of one of said inner and outer walls, one of said insulating sheets, and one of said vertical flanges of said first and second studs.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 745,000 Coifield Nov. 24, 1903