US 2858136 A
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Oct. 28, 1958 H. RIND TRANSPORT CONTAINER FOR LIQUEFIED GASES 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb.
lNVENTOR HAROLD RIND BY M .1
ATTO RN EY Oct. 28, 1958 H. RlND TRANSPORT CONTAINER FOR LIQUEFIED GASES Filed Feb. 23, 1954 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR HAROLD RIND g m ATTORNEY 0a. 28,1958 TH. RlND 2,858,136
TRANSPORT CONTAINER FOR LIQUEFIEU GASES Filed Feb. 23, 1954 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 F l G. 8 23 I I i lllllllll/I INVENTOR. HAROLD RIND ATTORNEY United States Patent TRANSPORT CONTAINER FOR LIQUEFIED GASES Harold Rind, Syosset, N. Y., assignor to Air Reduction Company, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application February 23, 1954, Serial No. 411,847
7 Claims. (Cl. 280-) This invention relates to the transportation and storage of quantities of a liquefied gas, such as liquid argon, oxygen or nitrogen.
The primary object of the instant invention is to provide an improved, simply-constructed container for such a liquefied gas. A more specific object is to provide a transportable, insulated container having spaced inner and outer vessels, which is so constructed as to minimize heat leak from the atmosphere to the liquefied gas in the inner vessel and to accommodate expansion and contraction of the inner vessel. Another object is to provide, in such a container, means for preventing the bouncing, during transportation, of the inner, liquefied gas vessel, regardless of any contraction or expansion of the inner vessel which occurs in the handling of a liquefied gas, such as liquid oxygen.
The means by which the foregoing objects and others are accomplished, along with the advantages and features of the invention, will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawing of a preferred embodiment of the instant invention, in which:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal view including a truck trailer which carries the instant liquefied gas container;
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view showing the front support-spacing means between the front sections of the inner and outer vessels which form the container;
Fig. 3 is a transverse partially-sectioned view showing the front support-spacing means and cooperating structure;
Fig. 4 is anenlarged, partially cross-sectioned view of the front tube support;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged, partially-sectioned side View showing the hold-down support which prevents bouncing of the inner vessel, regardless of the relative movement between the inner vessel and outer vessel due to expansion and contraction;
Fig. 6 is a transverse view of the Fig. 5 hold-down support as seen from the rear of the container;
Fig. 7 is a longitudinal cross-section of the rearward part of the container and show the rear, axial trunnionlike support; and,
Figure 8 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the rearward part of the container and of the rear, axial, trunnionlike support shown in Figure 7.
In the disclosed preferred embodiment of the instant invention, the foregoing objects are achieved by supporting the inner vessel for containing a liquefied gas at three locations by a novel structural combination. A rear axial trunnion-like support, extending from the inner vessel to i 2,858,136 Patented Oct. 28, 1 958 a ice 2 and yet the tendency of the inner vessel to :move relative to the outer vessel due to inertia, momentum, or swaying during transport use is prevented. An additional feature is a front upper hold-down support which prevents vertical bouncing of the inner vessel, regardless of Whether the inner vessel is expanded or contracted.
In Fig. l, the preferredinsulated container embodying the instant invention is shown in a form adapted for use as a liquid oxygen truck trailer. The truck tractor 13 has the usual cab and front and rear wheels. The forward end of the trailer 15 is mounted above the rear wheels of the tractor in the conventional manner by means not shown. The insulated container 17 constitutes the major part of the trailer 15 which has the usual rear pair of wheels and a tail structure 19 for pumps and devices (not shown) which are used in handling liquid oxygen. The container 17 is basically comprised of two spaced vessels, inner vessel 21 having a radius of twenty-seven inches and outer vessel 23 having a radius of thirty-six inches. Suitable insulation .(not shown), such as a fine powder, is provided in the space between the vessels in order to insulate the inner vessel in a manner which is suitable for handling liquid oxygen or similar materials. Conventional apertured bafiies 20, which are used in transporting liquids, also are built into the inner vessel.
The weight of the inner vessel 21 and the liquefied gas therein is transmitted to the outer vessel 23 at three locations. The rear trunnion-like support 25 carries the rear vertical load as well as the rear lateral loading and substantially the entire longitudinal loading which results from starting and stopping the truck. The front lateral and vertical loading is carried by two tube supports 27, one of which appears in outline in Fig. 1, slightly forward of the rear tractor wheels. The two front supports 27 are positioned at a forty-five degree angle to the vertical center line, as will appear by reference to Fig. 3. A hold down support 29 is also provided, in vertical alignment with the tube supports 27, between the upper front sections of the inner and outer vessels. Conventional means, such as piping, safety devices and drain and vent holes for bafiles and other interior structure, used for filling the inner vessel with a liquefied gas and for the removal therefrom, have been omitted in the interest of clarity in presenting the instant invention.
Referring now to Figs. 2 and 3, the basic construction and positioning of the front tube supports 27 and the holddown support 29 can be determined, aswell as the reinforcing means within the inner tank or vessel which serves to prevent the inner vessel from being deformed inwardly and the reinforcing construction for the outer vessel, at the location of the front tube supports 27, which serves to prevent the outer vessel from being deformed.
The two front tube supports 27 are positioned at the midpoints between the vertical longitudinal plane and horizontal longitudinal plane of the container and extend between the outer surface of the inner vessel and the inner surface of the outer vessel. The exterior reinforcing construction 31, attached to the trailer plate 30, is suitably designed and constructed so as to provide means for transmitting the forces acting on the tube supports 27, and hence two locations of the outer vessel, to the trailer plate 30 without any adverse effects on the outer vessel. Suitable outriggingand bolsters (not shown in detail) are incorporated in the exterior support construction 31. The
details of this construction 31 are not significant since there are many structures which can provide means, at the the upper ends by longitudinal plates 33. The side elevation of the U-shaped members is shown in Fig. 3. The tube supports 27 include a plastic tube and two plates at each end of the plastic tube. This tube construction will be described in detail hereinafter with-reference to Fig. 4.
At the location of the two front supports 27, the inner vessel'is reinforced interiorly by means of the heavilyconstructed wall 41. This wall is made from an oddshaped ring 43 which'has an inner rim 45 and an outer rim 47. Wall 41 also has alarge opening or aperture 49 therethrough. It is to be noted that wall 41 is so constructed that the lower part thereof is more strongly built. Thus, the'lower section of ring 43 has a greater radial length and both of the lower parts of the rims 45, 47 are wider in a longitudinal direction. When assembled or positioned, the reinforcing wall 41 is slightly off center, that is, not aligned in the vertical transverse plane passing through the centers of the two front supports. The wall 41 is ofi center, as shown in Fig. 2, so as to permit lining-up of the wall'with the'front supports when the inner vessel '(which is restrained at its rearward end) is cold, due to containing liquid Oxygen and hence contracts rearwardly.
The outer vessel also has interior reinforcement adjacent the front supports 27 and the hold-down support 29. This reinforcement includes large ribs 53, the outer ends of which abut the inner surface of the outer vessel. These threeribs53 are connected by weldments to three boxlike structures 55, partially enclosing each of the front supports 27 and the hold-down 29. Each of these welded, box-like structures 55 has two transverse walls 57 and two longitudinal walls 58. As an example of this construction, reference can be made to the structure around the hold-down support 29 in Figs. 2 and 3. The ribs 53 are welded to the centers of the longitudinal walls 58. With this reinforcement and exterior support 31, the relatively thin wall of the outer vessel is capable of withstanding the various loadings without adverse effects, such as bulging or buckling.
The hold-down support 29 which is aligned with the front supports 27 is basically comprised of two complementary angled surfaces which bear or slide against each other. As appears clearly in Fig. 2, the upper surface is provided by upper slide member 61 which is attached to cover plate 62. This cover plate 62 is welded to the outer vessel and closes an opening formed in the outer vessel. The lower surface is provided by lower slide member 63 which is attached to the inner vessel. The details of hold-down construction will be described with reference to Figs. 5 and 6. pointed out that holdrdown 29 provides the means for preventing the inner vessel from bouncing and/ or rocking during transporting, regardless of the expansion and contraction of the inner vessel.
Referring now to Fig. 4, the construction of the front supports 27 will be described. In general, these two supports are comprised of three elements, an inner bronze bearing plate 71, a cylindrical plastic laminate tube 72, and an outer aluminum support plate 73. The inner plate 71 has its interior surface constructed so as to conform to the outer longitudinal surface of the inner vessel. This surface bears freely against the inner vessel and hence the expansion and contraction of the inner vessel can be accommodated at this location. The outer support plate 73 is welded to the outer vessel and has a circular recess 75 for receiving the cylindrical plastic tube 72. The inner bearing plate 71 has a similar recess 76. Outer plate 73 has eight equally-spaced threaded holes for receiving stainless steel cap screws 77 which extend through holes in the plastic'tube. Plate 71 has four such holes. Each lower screw has a thin stainless steel sleeve, surrounding the screw frorn the vertical face of the recess to theouter surface of the plastic tube so as to provide a low heat conductive path from the outer vessel to the low heat conductive plastic tube. Flat stainless steel washers At this point, it can be are fitted under the heads of all of the screws. The plastic tubes are made from melamine-glass laminate and are an inch thick with a nine inch outside diameter and a height of seven and three-quarters inches. The two plates 71, 73 are machined to fit the plastic tubes or support legs 72 with a light press fit.
Referring now to Figs. 5 and 6 wherein the hold-down 29 is shown in greater detail, it can be seen that a vertical plastic laminate bar 81 is rigidly retained at its upper end by a bracket including cap screws. The bracket, in turn, is attached to the cover plate 62, above-mentioned. The plastic bar is also made from melamine-glass laminate. The lower end of the plastic bar 81 is beveled to lit the top inclined surface of the slide member 61. The respective ends of bar 81 are attached to the slide member 61 and bracket 83 by means of two stainless steel cap screws. The plastic bar 81 is one inch thick, four inches wide and eight and a sixteenth inches long. The aluminum slide member 61 has a lower inclined surface which abuts or bears against a similarly inclined surface of the lower slide member 63, above mentioned. The inclination is 1 to 5; that is, one unit of height change occurs in five units of length change. This inclination is derived from the longitudinal length from the rigid rear location of the'inner vessel at the trunnion-like support 25 to the hold-down support 29 and the vertical distance from the top horizontal centers of front supports 27 to the holddown support 29. in the disclosed container, the ratio of this longitudinal distance (about 243 inches) to this vertical distance (about 46 inches) is about 5 to 1. This construction accommodates the vertical and longitudinal expansion and contraction while maintaining contact between members 61 and 63 and hence preventing bouncing of the inner container 21.
The construction of the rear trunnion-like support 25 and associated structure is shown in detail in Fig. 7 and will now be described. The inner vessel 21%. is suitably reinforced interiorly by three basic structures which are the longitudinal tubular structure 81, a rear spider 83 having four radial members, and a forward spider 84, having six radial members. The tubular structure 81 has two reinforcing rings incorporated therein, interiorly of the locations from which the spiders 83, 84 extend out to, and are attached to, the inner vessel. The members of spider 83 have plates (not shown) extending rearwardly to exteriorly ribbed locations on the rear wall of the inner vessel. The trunnion extension 85 of the inner vessel is attached by bolts to a rimmed-plate 86 which fits within the rear end of the tubular structure 81 and is attached thereto. It is to be understood that suitable continuous welds preclude the escape of fluid from the innervessel to -the space between it and the outer vessel. The trunnion extension 85 has two main sections which are an interiorly-reinforced, truncated conical member 87 and an outwardly flanged cylindrical section 88. Member 87 is perforated in order to reduce heat leak and is longitudinally reinforced by gussets 89. The flange 90 of cylindrical section 88 is attached thereto by means of bolts and a smallinwardly extending flange formed by the outer endof the cylindrical part of section 88. The cylindrical section 83 of the trunnion extension 85 is surrounded by and bears against a large plastic laminate bushing 91. Since this plastic bushing is supported by the outer vessel through a construction to be described, it is apparent that H the rear part of the inner vessel, through the trunnion extension 85, is supported by the plastic bushing 91.
Referring now to the rear construction of the outer vessel, it can be observed that it has a cap-like structure 111 at its longitudinal center which protrudes from the rear wall of the outer vessel. This cap-like structure is attached to they rear wall of the outer vessel by weldments. The interior end of the cap-like'structure 111, in the rear space betweenthe inner and outer vessels, is attached to six ribs 115 which extend, at an angle, out to the horizontal wall of the outer vessel. At that location, each rib 115 is attached to the outer vessel by suitable means. The ribs 115 have plates (not shown) extending longitudinally rearwardly to the rear wall of the outer vessel at the location of exterior ribs 117. These rib plates 117 are attached to the outer surface of the rear wall for the purpose of reinforcing. This construction is similar to the reinforcing means, above-mentioned in connection with spider 83.
From the foregoing, it is believed apparent that the rear parts of both vessels have been suitably constructed so as to provide for supporting the inner vessel on the plastic bushing 91 which, in turn, is supported by the outer vessel. The plastic bushing 91, although shown as a single ring which can be used, is preferably made of two melamine-glass laminate rings, two and one-half inches thick, having a nineteen inch outside diameter and an inside diameter of ten inches. The inner vessel is rigidly secured against rearward longitudinal movement by eight stainless steel bolts 93 which pass lengthwise through the plastic bushing 91, the transverse flange 90 of the trunnion extension 85 and a transversely-disposed ring 95 attached to the inner end of the cylindrical part of the cap-like structure 111. These bolts are locked by conventional means (not shown). With this construction, it is apparent that a heat-resistant, axial trunnion-like support is provided. 7 v
In the above-described construction, it is to be noted that the specific trunnion-like support constitutes one form of axial means for positioning, restraining and supporting axially one end of the elongated, longitudinally disposed, inner cylindrical vessel so that the inner vessel will expand from, and contract towards, the location of the trunnion-like support when a liquefied gas is handled. In addition to restraining and supporting one end of the inner vessel in a manner which will provide for the downward, upward, lateral and longitudinal forces of the inner vessel, the trunnion-like support is so constructed to provide a low heat conductive path to the inner vessel by having incorporated therein a substantially-continuous thick plastic member through which the transfer of heat must occur. Cooperating with the trunniondike support, and forming therewith a simple three-point arrangement for positioning and supporting the inner elongated vessel of the instant liquefied gas transport container are the two tube supports at the other end of the inner vessel. These specific tube supports can be considered as the preferred form of a vertical-lateral support means for supporting and positioning the other end of the inner vessel insofar as Weight and lateral forces are concerned while also providing for the expansion and contraction of the inner vessel in relation to its axially fixed end. It is to be noted that the two vertical-lateral support means are aligned or positioned opposite each other at a transverse location which is adjacent the end wall of the unrestrained end of the inner vessel and that these support means are at an appreciable angle to the longitudinal center line, preferably at an angle of forty-five degrees.
The hold-down support for preventing vertical bouncing of the vertically-unrestrained end of the inner vesselduring transportation, regardless of whether the inner vessel is contracted or expanded, is of course, a feature which cooperates with the three-point support-spacing structural combination to give additional advantages by preventing the adverse efifects which bouncing would produce on the instant double walled, container construction.
If desired, an asbestos-melamine laminate plastic material can be used in place of the glass-melamine laminate above-described. Further, it is to be understood that structure for suitably supporting the rear of the container 17 on the trailer bed is provided although not shown or described. Unless specially mentioned above, all parts of the container are made of aluminum of the commercially-pure grade. I
It is to be noted that all support structures include a substantial laminated plastic element of appreciable dimension's which carries the entire loading or substantially retarded by the intervessel constructions which include the plastic ring 91, the plastic tubes 72, and plastic bar 81. The relative simplicity of the three-point support means contributes significantly to ease of fabrication, to economy of construction, and to adequate provision for expansion and contraction of the inner vessel. In addition, the structural arrangements provide for preventing the ad verse effects of momentum, inertia, swaying and bouncing, such as occur during transportation. The instant invention, of course, has utility in other transportation means, such as railway vehicles and ships. It is to be understoodthat one skilled in the art can make certain modifications in the disclosed preferred embodiment of the invention without departing from the invention as defined in the following claims.
1. A container for liquefied gas comprising an outer, cylindrical, metallic vessel, an inner metallic vessel for holding a supply of liquefied gas, supported within said outer vessel in spaced relationship thereto, substantially without metal to metal contact, said inner vessel being of elongated cylindrical shape, substantially horizontally disposed in said outer vessel, end support means rigidly interconnecting one end of said inner vessel and an adjacent end of said outer vessel leaving the other ends of said vessels free to move relative to each other, said means including radially spaced, longitudinal portions of said vessels having a heat-insulating bushing interposed therebetween, and supporting means spaced longitudinally of said vessels from said rigid end support means for supporting the free end of said inner vessel, consisting of means extending between said inner and outer vessels on which said inner vessel rests, said free end supporting means having a heat insulating member interposed between said vessels, one end thereof being rigidly connected with one of said vessels and having a bearing surface at its opposite end in sliding contact with said other vessel, such that said inner vessel is free to expand or contract relative to said outer vessel, in response to thermal variations occurring during the handling of said liquefied gas, while resting on said free end supporting means.
2. A container for transporting liquefied gas according to claim 1 wherein said free end supporting .means comprises two columns disposed respectively on opposite sides of the longitudinal axis and at the under side of said inner vessel, fixedly secured to said outer vessel and slidably supporting said inner vessel thereon.
3. A container for liquefied gas according to claim 1 having a hold-down member disposed between said inner and outer vessels acting downwardly on said inner vessel substantially oppositely to said free end supporting means, said holding member including a portion fixed to said outer vessel and a relatively movable portion fixed to said inner vessel, said portions having complementary contacting surfaces inclined upwardly toward the inner vessel free end and effective during relative expansion or contraction of said inner vessel to maintain said contact.
4. A container for transporting liquefied gas according to claim 2 wherein said inner vessel is provided with a circumferentially extending rib-like reinforcing element,
said supporting columns being disposed in a plane transverse to the longitudinal axis of said inner vessel and said reinforcing rib element being arranged parallel thereto at a slightly greater longitudinal distance from said fixed end-supporting means such that, upon relative contraction of said inner vessel when charged with a liquefied .gas,
said rib is disposed substantially in the same plane with said supporting columns.
5. A liquefied gas transport vehicle comprising a base mounted on wheels, an'outer, elongated cylindricallyshaped metallic vessel mounted substantially horizontally on said base, an elongated, cylindrical metallic vessel for holding a supply of a liquefied gas supported in substantially horizontal position in spaced relation within said outer vessel, fixed support means extending between an end of said inner vessel and an adjacent end of said outer vessel forming a rigid, heat-insulated support for said inner vessel and leaving the other adjacent ends of said vessels free to move relative to1eachother, a second support means spaced longitudinally of said vessels from said fixed support means slidably supporting said inner vessel on the underside thereof, hold-down means spaced longitudinally of said vessels from said fixed support means permitting relative longitudinal displacement between said inner and outer vessels, acting downwardly against the topside of said inner vessel, said second support means and said hold-downmeans extending between said inner and outer vessels and including heat insulating means interposed therebetween, and means forming a part of said hold-down means including two relatively movable, Opposed bearing members one of which is fixed with respect to the inner vessel and the other ofwhich is fixed with respect to said outer vessel, said members having slidably engaged, parallel contacting surfaces, said surfaces being substantially in a plane transverse to the'lon'gitudinal axis of said inner vessel and inclined with respect thereto, and the slope of said bearing surfaces'being upwardly toward the free ends of the vessels'and corresponding substantially to the ratio of the vertical distance between the effective point of support of said second support means and said hold-down means and the longitudinal distance between the etiective point of said rigid support and said hold-down means.
6. A liquefied transport vehicle comprising a base mounted on wheels, an outer elongated cylindricallyshaped metallic vessel mounted substantially horizontally on said base, an elongated, cylindrical metallic vessel for holding a supply of a liquefied gas, supported in substantially horizontal position in spaced relation within said outer vessel, fixed support means extending between adjacent portions of said inner and outer vessels forming a rigid heat-insulated support for said inner vessel and leaving the outer portions of said vessels spaced longitudinally from said fixed supportfree to move relative to each other, a second support'rneans spaced longitudinally of said vessels from said fixed support means slidably sup: porting said inner vessel on the underside thereof, holddown means spaced longitudinally of said vessels from said fixedsupport means permitting relative longitudinal displacement between said inner and outer vessels, acting downwardly against the. topside of said inner vessel, said second supportmeans and said hold-down means extending between said inner and outer vessels and including heat insulating means interposed therebetween, and means forming a part of said'hold-down means including two relatively movable, opposedbearing members one of which is fixed with respect to the inner vessel and the other of which is, fixed with respect to. said outer vessel, said members having slidably engaged, parallel contacting surfaces, said surfaces being substantiallyin a plane transverse to, the longitudinal axis of 'saidiinner vessel and inclined with respect'thereto, such that the slope of said bearing surfaces is upwardly toward the free ends of the vessels and'cor-responds substantially to the ratio of the vertical distaneebetween the e'ifective point ofsupport of said second support means and said hold-down means and the longitudinal distance between the effective-point of said rigid support and said hold-down means.
7. A liquefied gas transport vehicle comprising a base mounted on'wheels, an outer elongated cylindricallyshaped metallic vessel mounted substantially horizontally onsaid base, an elongated, cylindricalmetallic vessel for holding a supply of a liquefied gas supported in substantiaily'horizontal position in spaced relation within said outer vessel, fixed support'means extending between adjacent' portions of said inner and outer vessels forming arigid, heat-insulated support for said inner vessel and le=-=.\ he outer portionsof said vessels spaced longilllLLludsly from said fixed support means free to move relative to eachother, outer support means spaced longitudinallysaid vessels from said fixed support means, extending between said inner and outer vessels, including heat insulating means interposed therebetween, and slidably engaging said inner vessel at effective points of support, respectively, at the topside and at the underside thereof to support and maintain said inner vessel in spaced relation'to said outervessel and accommodate relative longitudinal displacement between said inner and outer vessels, said outer supporting means including a 'bottom supportslidably engaging and providing an effectivepoint of support acting upwardly against the underside of said inner vessel, hold-down means providing an effective point of support acting downwardly and slidably bearing against the topside of said inner vessel, and means forming apart of said outer supporting means effective to maintain said hold-down means in engagement with said in ner vessel during relative expansion or contraction of said inner vessel comprising two, relatively movable, opposed bearing members, one of which is fixed with respect to the inner vessel and the other of which is fixed with respect to said outer vessel, said members having: slidably engaged, parallel contacting surfaces forming one of said points of support of said outer supporting means for said inner vessel, disposed substantially in a plane transverse to the longitudinal axis of said inner vessel and inclined with respect thereto such that relative expansion and contraction of said vessels with reference to said fixed support means produces relative sliding dis-' placement of said bearing members along said engaging surfaces while said hold-down means is effectively maintained in engagement against said inner vessel, the slope of said engaging surfaces corresponding substanti'allyto the ratio of the vertical distance between the effective points of support of said bottom support and said hold; down means of said outer supporting means and thelongitudinal distance between the effective points ofsupport of said rigid support and of the opposed bearing members of said outer supporting means.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS