US 2861274 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
NOV. 25, 1958 w, STUART r 2,861,274
' THREE PIECE HELMET Filed Feb. 21, 1957 INVENTOR Whitney A- Leolzarci GHuXiable ATTORNEY W/ZMM;
United States Patent f THREE PIECE HELMET Whitney A. Stuart, New Brunswick, N. J., and Leonard G. Huxtable, New York, N. Y., assignors to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army Application February 21, 1957, Serial No. 641,777
3 Claims. (Cl. 2-6) The invention relates to protective helmets or the like, particularly helmets which comprise a shell of relatively rigid material such as metals, alloys thereof, or synthetic plastic materials.
Such helmets are well known and, of necessity, must have a head opening larger than the largest dimensions of the head to permit the helmet to be put on and taken off. It follows then, that the same cannot have a reasonably close fit in the face or neck areas unless they include portions which are hinged to the crown portion of the helmet shell. Hinges are not only expensive and heavy whereby to add to the cost and weight of the shell but they are easily damaged by the rough usage incident to military operations and are correspondingly difficult to repair in the field.
With the foregoing in view, it is an .object of the invention to provide an improved helmet shell of the class described.
A further object is to provide an improved helmet which includes a relatively small crown together with a separate visor and a separate combined neck and ear shield, said visor and shield being pivotally connected to said crown for independent pivotal movement to and from operative and raised positions.
A further object is to provide in a helmet as last described, interengaging means on said visor and shield which provide movable stops limiting raising movement of said twain.
Other objects and advantages reside in the particular structure of the invention, the structure of the several elements of the same, combinations and subcombinations of such elements, all of which will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art upon reference to the attached drawing which illustrates one species of the invention in connection with the following specification wherein the invention is described and claimed.
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is an elevational view of a helmet according to the invention, the parts being shown in the operative positions;
Figure 2 is a like view, the parts being shown in certain of the raised positions;
Figure 3 is a longitudinal, diametral, vertical sectional view;
Figure 4 is a transverse vertical sectional view taken substantially on the plane of the line 44 of Figure 1; and
Figure 5 is a plan view of the invention, the parts being shown in the operative positions.
Referring specifically to the drawing, wherein like reference characters designate like parts in all views, designates generally a head piece or crown which is preferably in the form of a substantially hemispherical segment of a hollow sphere. It is understood that the crown 10 is provided on the inside with suitable sweat band and head supporting cradle (not shown) when the shell is formed as a helmet liner. A typical and suitable sweatband and cradle are shown in the patent to Riddell, No.
2,250,275. However, when the crown 10 is worn over a liner, such sweatbands and cradle are omitted. Therefore, it should be understood that the helmet according to the invention may comprise either a helmet liner-type of head covering or it may be a mere shell for covering a helmet liner.
The crown 10 is formed with radially outwardly projecting fixed rear and front stops 11 and 12 respectively for a purpose to be apparent later. The crown 10 is likewise formed with suitable latch means such as the lower and upper bosses 13 and 14 on the front side thereof above the front stop 12 for purposes which will likewise be apparent hereinafter. The crown 10 mounts a pair of coaxial pivots 15 which pass through the crown on opposite sides thereof just above the lower edge or brim. The pivots 15 likewise pass through the opposite or forward ends of a combined neck and ear shield 16 to mount the latter on the crownfor pivotal movement from the lowered or operative position of Figures 1 and 3-5 to various raised positions as illustrated in Figure 2 and'in broken lines in Figure l. A radially inwardly direct lip 17 on the upper rear edge of the shield 16 engages the rear stop 11 to limit downward movement of the shield to the operative position. Such lip 17 likewise rides over the upper latch means or boss 14 of the crown 10 to latch the shield 16 in the raised position shown in Figure 2. As the shield 16 comprises a substantially U-shaped segment of a hollow sphere, ithas a close sliding fit over the crown 10 and is concentric to the same as the pivots 15 are located on a common axis of the spheres of which the crown 10 and shield 16 are segments.
A visor 18 is likewise pivotally mounted on the pivots 15 for movement from the lowered or operative position of Figures 1 and 5 to a plurality of raisedpositionsas shown in Figure 2 and in solid and broken lines in Figure 3. The visor is also a U-shaped segment of a hollow sphere for the most part and is concentrically outwardly of the crown 10. It includes an upper edge which is formed with a radially inwardly directed lip or the like 19 at the front which engages the front stop 12 to limit downward movement of the visor 18 to the operative position. The lip 19 rides over the lower latch boss 13 to latch the visor in the raised position shown in Figures 2 and 3.
The rear ends of the visor 18 or the front ends of the shield 16 are formed with movable stop means for engaging the other to limit raising movement of same to the various raised positions illustrated particularly the fully raised positions shown in broken lines in Figures 1 and 3. In the embodiment illustrated, the rear ends 20 of the visor 18 are radially outwardly offset. Radially outwardly directed visor portions 21 connect the ends 20 to the main body of the visor 18 and comprise rearwardly facing shoulders. These shoulders 21 comprise such movable stops for engaging the upper edge 22 of the shield 16 to limit raising movement of both the visor 18 and shield 16 to any of a number of partially raised positions, one for each of which is illustrated in Figure 2, or to the fully raised positions shown in broken lines in Figures 1 and 3. In this connection, it should be noted that when either the shield 16 or the visor 18 is in the fully raised position, it has been passed over the crest of the crown 10 and is secured in such position by gravity. However, it should be noted also, that the so-called partially raised positions of Figure 2, both the visor and shield are elevated to positions wherein they are at least substantially entirely above the lower edge or brim of the crown 10. These positions allow the maximum of ventilation and would he usually used when a minimum of protection and a maximum of comfort is desired. The shield 16 may be fully raised, Figure 1 in broken lines,
'when lit le protection is desired but the visor is needed for a glare or sun shield. Likewise, the visor may be 'fully raised (Figure 3, broken lines) when the shield 16 is needed for protection against drafts or otherwise while ,rproviding maximum vertical vision such as is needed for a-ircraft spotting. In this connection, it should be noted, that the shield 16 is secured in the operative .position solely by gravity. Hence, as the wearers head tilts back as in following the flight. of an aircraft overhead, the shield 16 will ride up when it abuts the neck of the wearer and will carry the fully retracted visor 18 with it. The parts are returned by gravity to the original positions when the head is again lowered.
-It is apparent from the foregoing, that there has been :provided a helmet which is readily changeable from one which ofiers the maximum protection to one otfering a maximum of coolness, yet one which is capable of providing a variety of intermediate positions. Thus, the tie vice accordingto the invention is extremely flexible in operation and provides adequate protection under a wide variety of rapidly c'hangingconditions.
Moreover, while there has been shown and described what is now thought to be the preferred embodiment of the invention, it is understood that the same is susceptible of other forms and expressions. Consequently, 'tjheinvention is not considered as being limited to the precise structure shown and described hereinabove except as hereinafter claimed.
1. A three piece helmet, comprising a crown, a visor,
and a combined neck and ear shield, a pair of coaxial ,pivot means pivotally connecting said visor and shield to said crown, said visor and shield being independently and pivotally movable from operative positions wherein they depend from said crown to a plurality of raised positions, one of said shield and visor having laterally outwardly ofiset ends including radially directed portions providing shoulders, and said shoulders providing movable stops .for engaging the other of said shield and visor 4 so as to limit raising movement of one of said shield and visor to a selected raised position.
2. A three piece helmet, comprising a crown, a visor, and a combined neck and ear shield, a. pair of coaxial pivot means pivotally connecting said visor and shield to said crown, said visor and shield being independently and pivotally movable from operative positions wherein they depend from said crown to a plurality of raised positions, said visor having laterally offset rear ends including radially directed portions providing rearwardly directed shoulders, and said shoulders engaging said shield to limit raising movement of the latter to a fully raised position when said visor is in said operative position :and to a partially raised position when said visor is in a raised position.
3. A three piece helmet, comprising a crown, a visor, and a combined neck and ear shield, a pair of coaxial pivot means pivotally connecting said visor and shield to said crown, said visor and shield being independently and pivotally movable from operative positions wherein References Cited in the file of this patent 'UNITED STATES PATENTS Dunand Feb. 1, 1921 Leibson July 1-7, 1928 OTHER REFERENCES Helmets and Body Armour in Modern Warfare," copyright 1920 by Yale University Press, page 36, Figure 7, and page 47, Figure 8.