US 2861714 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 25, 1958 s. A. GLOSSOP 2,861,714
SHIPPING UNIT Filed Oct. 5, 1955 v I 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 NVENTOR. ORE GLOSSOP I GZENNASHM ATTORNEY a. A. GLOSSQP w SHIPPING UNIT Nov. 25, 1958 Filed Oct. 5', 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 'INVENTOR. GLENN/SHMORE 6l0$$0P BY Z ATTORNEY United States atent 2,861,714 SHIPPING Nrr Glenn Ashmore Glossop, Short Hills, N. J., assignor to Colgate Palmolive CompanyyJerseyCity, N. J., a corporation of Delaware Application October 5, 1955, Ser ial N0. 38,6 08 3 Claims. (Cl.2 20- o3) The present invention relatesto a shipping unit containing a liner and so constructed as to inhibit nipture of the liner during movement and shipment. More specifically the invention isof a shipping unit assembly comprising a drum, liner and bag or bladder meansfor containing an immobilized air bubble which acts as a cushion preventing tearing of the liner during rough handling while also allowing for variations in volume of drum contents due to temperature changes. The liner and bladder means may be joined together. i 7
When shipping materials in rigid drums or containers it is common practice to utilize relatively thin drum liners, usually made of plastics, e. g., polyvinyl chloride,
polyethylene, to prevent contact of the shipped materials with the container walls or air and also to insure'against adulteration'of the transported substance. Often it is absolutely necessary when using drums made-of certain materials of construction, e. g., iron, steel, for shipping aqueous liquids, to employ nonreactive drum liners or else the liquid will chemically attack thedrum and the contents Will be adulterated. by the reaction product. It is possible to use drums made ofnonreactive materials,
e..g., stainless steel, but often the cost is prohibitive.
When shipping materials in drums containingrelatively t n i e s it a e f undth o rri a d stin tions there is sometimes a s ibstantial percentage of torn diners. .aOften the material leaking through such torn liners becomes contaminated andmust either be scrapped or purifiedat additional expense.
Inaccordance with theinvention ashipping unit for inhibiting drumlinerrupture comprises: a rigid cylindri- 'cal1y shaped drum having aniopen endj arig'idover for" said end :of the drumy means for holding the cover to the drum; 'a flexible drum lin'er adapted to contain materials to be shipped; means 'for' tightly sealing the 'liner about said materials; and a relatively smalLfiexible'container' inside the drum, capable of'being' filled with and expanded by airand ofbeing sealed off and mad'eLair- .tight.
Ihepr se inven i n p d s acdmp r t e y mp expen i l n n et st m an t .a gqw funct n and advantages of which are apparent fromthe renewing detailed description, taken in conju ncti on with thedrawingsin which 1 Fig. 1 is a partially sectioned cutaway perspective view of ashipping unit of the present invention;
'Fig. 2 is an enlarged plan view of a'preferred bladder or bag part of a shipping unit;
Fig. 3 is a sectional view along line 3 3 of Fig. 2
showing the bladder fpartially inflated;
"Fig." 4 is a partially" sectioned exploded cutaway perspective view of a shipping unit embodying a modification of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is'an enlarged sectional view illustrating a suitable air injection and check valve andbung adapter therefor;
.Fig. 6 is an elevation of a combination drum liner and air bladder;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view along line 7-7 of Fig. 6 showing the bladder inflated;
'with respect to bunghole 12.
Fig. 8 is a partially sectioned exploded cutaway perspective view of a shipping unit containing a combination liner and bladder.
Referring to the drawings, in which for purposes of illustration, several preferred embodiments of the invention have been shown, the numeral 11 designates a standard rigid open ended gallon drurn having a standard sidebunghole 12, and equipped with a rigid drum cover 13 and a clamp ring 14 for tightly holding the cover on the drum.
In Fig. l is shown a flexible relatively thin drum liner 15 of the open end type whose open end 16fis folded back over the drum '11. Considered as a part of the drum liner is cover liner 17, a circular sheet of the same material as the drum liner, which is held in liquid tight contact with the main portion of the drum liner forming a flexible tightly sealed liner capable of holding materials to be shipped. Generally the liner, including cover liner, is made of a suitable plastic film or sheet, e. g. polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride about .01 to .15 inch thick.
The liner is large enough so that it can conform with the inner surface of the drum and cover.
Betweentheliner 15 and the drum wall near bunghole 12 is located a container 18, usually either a bag or bladder, of flexible, resilient or elastomeric material, e. g. rubber, plastic, capable of being filled with airand of being sealed off and made airtight.
' in a simple and preferred form of bladder a substantially circular piece of sheetingll) is sealed near its circumference to another substantiallycircular piece 21 of the same materialof lesser diameter which' is thicker and the reforeless apt to bedistorted when the bladder 22 made thereby is inflated. Circular piece 21has a tube 23 attached thereto or molded integrally therewith so that bladder 22 may be inflated by means of the tube. Tube 23 may be closed off byknotting it or tying with a string (not shown) or by any other, suitable method. Radial ribs 24 and 25 are provided to separate bladder 22 from inner Walls of drum 11 and bunghole 12respectively thereby providing exit paths leading out bunghole 12 for any air entrapped between drum 11 and-drum liner .15. Radial ribs 25 also position the bladder'22 In Fig. .4 an independent inflatable container or bladder 26 has attached to it a valve 27 through which air maybe injected into bladder 26 when drum 11 is closed and drum liner 28 is tightly sealed about materials to be shipped. Valve 27 has a check feature which prevents ioutward flow of air from the bladder, thereby causing the retention of air in the bladder after injection, and during storage and shipment. An adapter 29 positions valve '27 in bunghole 12 Where it is readily accessible When'the .bung is removed. Adapter 29 is shown as a separate unit but'of course it may be molded integrally with the valve bladder. Drum liner 28 is of closed end design and has a filling sleeve 31 which-may be sealed off. Check vent 32is forreleasing any air between drum 11 or cover 13 and liner '28. This entrapped air-maybe forced'to thevent as bladder 26 'is inflated.
In Fig. 5 are shown the details of attachment to a drum of onekind of air injection and retaining valve 27 vwhich valve is sealed to a bladder 26. 'The valve' means is made of rubber or resilient plastic material. Through thechannel 33 and relatively thin flaps 34 ahollow needle (not shown) attached to an air or gas pump (not shown) may be inserted. The flaps are soconstructed as to close, if unobstructed by said hollow needle, when the pressure inside bladder 26 exceeds that in channel 33, and consequently, once the hollow needle is withdrawn the bladder #26 becomes airtight. Adapter 29 is a semi-rigid orrigid valve assembly from being forced out the bunghole.
Circular fin 38 on valve 27 is cemented or otherwise joined to bladder 26 in airtight contact. It prevents expulsion of the valve 27 through the hole 36 of the adapter. Fins 33 and 39 also serve to maintain the valve position relative to the adapter 29. Pin 39 may be joined to the valve 27 after positioning the bladder and valve relative to the adapter or it may be molded into the valve if it is pliant enough to be inserted through hole 36 in adapter 29. Bung 19 protects the valve from damage during handling.
The combination drum liner and container of Figs. 6 and 7 comprises a liner onto which is joined a substantially circular piece 46 of plastic or rubber sheet, forming with the liner a bladder 41. Valve 27 is attached to the liner at fin 38.
The assembly and filling of the improved shipping units of this invention is relatively easy. Considering the unit of Fig. 1, first, container or bladder 18 is inflated to about M: cubic foot (generally the proper volume of air in a 50 gallon drum to allow for thermal expansion of shipped materials) and is sealed. Various drum sizes may be utilized and the degree of inflation of the bladder should be adjusted accordingly. The bladder is then positioned inside the drum at the side bunghole thereof and drum liner 15 is carefully put in place.
Next the material to be shipped is added to the drum, care being taken to minimize the amount of air trapped between the liner and the drum (except of course, that which is immobilized in container 18). Then the side bung 19 may be put in place and cover liner 17, drum cover 13 and clamp ring 14 are installed and tightened, sealing the liner. Again it is important that no air be trapped within the drum liner. If air has been trapped between liner l5 and drum 11 it may be eliminated by turning the filled and sealed drum on its side, bunghole up, removing bung 19, and venting the space between liner and drum. Vented air must be replaced with immobilized air and often the addition of more air into bladder 26 will assist in dispelling entrapped air.
In the resulting shipping package there is provided an immobilized air bubble to allow for thermal expansion of the material to be shipped. There is no free or mobile air within the liner or between the liner and the drum. Free space or air space within a drum allows the liquid or paste contents to move but when free space is eliminated the liquid can only circulate slightly. In addition the liner of the present invention is in intimate contact with the drum and therefore the drum bears the brunt of any shocks due to liquid inertia. It follows that when a drum of material packed according to the invention is dropped or otherwise roughly handled during shipment the strain on the liner walls due to arresting the motion of the drum contents is steadier, and also is less than the strain when an ordinary drumand liner-assembly is dropped. Consequently the liners of the novel shipping units will resist tearing during shipment.
In order to facilitate filling of the invented shipping units air vents may be placed at suitable points on the drum to vent the space between liner and drum to the atmosphere. the task of tipping drums after filling to vent trapped air out the side bung can be avoided and by using check vents the air in vented spaces may be expelled and re-entry prevented with no necessity for unscrewing bungs, etc.
Likewise the process of inflating the airtight container or bladder may be improved by the use of a check valve attached to the bladder and so located and adapted that the blader may be inflated from outside the drumafter the drum and liner are sealed. In this process the bladder is positioned and then the liner is installed. The liner is filled with liquid and sealed off, no air being entrapped By locating vents near the tops of drums therein. Next, the drum is sealed and the bladder is inflated, preferably by air pump. The distension of the bladder causes displacement of air entrapped between liner and drum and such air is expelled through the vent. In filling the liner the volume of liquid added should be such as will allow the entrance of suflicient cushioning air into the bladder. The pressure inside the inflatable container may be as high as the container, liner and drum will stand but preferably will be about atmospheric.
Vents and fluid injection means and equipment should preferably be so designed and located as not to project outwardly from the drum far enough to interfere with normal drum handling methods nor inwardly in such a way as to endanger puncturing of the drum liner. Covers may be provided to protect the vents and injection means, and shields over vents and injection means may be employed to safeguard the drum liners.
Combination liners and bladders like those shown in Figs. 6, 7 and 8 may be filled and sealed by methods like either of those outlined above. The use of such combinations assures that the bladders will always be available when needed and so helps guarantee their use by operators assigned to filling drums. It is clear that a saving in liner or bladder material is also effected.
While specific embodiments of the invention have been described the description and illustrations given do not constitute a limitation of the invention, but, to the contrary, obviously numerou modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or going outside the scope of the claims.
Having described the invention, what is claimed is:
-1. A shipping unit comprising a rigid cylindrically shaped drum having a flat bottom andan open end, a rigid flat cover for the open end of the drum, means for holding the cover to the drum, a flexible drum liner inside the drum adapted to contain materials to be shipped substantially equal in bulk volume to the volume of the covered drum and adapted to be tightly sealed about said materials, and an inflated flexible container of relatively small limited maximum capacity inside the closed drum and in contact with an interior surface thereof and the exterior surface of the drum liner sealed about the materials to be shipped, said container having an inlet opening through which it is capable of being filled with, expanded by and emptied of air, and means for hermetically sealing that opening, the inflated container being in a fixed position inside the closed drum in contact with a surface thereof and being immobilized between and in contact with said surface and the material filled liner during storage and shipment.
2. A shipping unit asset forth in claim 1 in which the inflated flexible container has two walls, an inner wall and an outer wall, a portion of the drum liner itself forming the inner wall which is in contact with the material to be shipped and a separate flexible member peripherally hermetically secured to the drum liner forming the outer wall which is in contact with an interior surface of the closed drum.
3. A shipping unit comprising a rigid cylindrically shaped drum having a flat bottom and an open end, a rigid flat cover for the open end of the drum, means for holding the cover to the drum, -a flexible drum liner inside the drum adapted to contain materials to be shipped substantially equal in bulk volume to the volume of the covered drum and adapted to be tightly sealed about said materials, an inflated flexible container of relatively small limited maximum capacity in fixed position inside the closed drum and immobilized in contact with the interior surface thereof and the exterior surface of the drum liner sealed about the materials to be shipped, said container having an inlet opening through which it iscapable of being filled with, expanded by and emptied-of air while the drum is closed and means for hermetically sealing that opening while the drum is closed, a venting passage through the closed drum through which air exterior to the sealed material containing liner and flexible container and inside the closed drum may escape from the otherwise tightly sealed drum as the flexible container is expanded by the injection of air into it, which injection displaces the vented air, and sealing means for hermetically closing the venting passage.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Shemp et a1. Jan. 31, 1939 Florian Feb. 17, 1942 Shores May 12, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Australia July 3, 1950 Great Britain Jan. 17, 1951