US 2862254 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 2, 1958 G. w. MEEK STRUCTURAL BUILDING PANEL CONSTRUCTION 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 10, 1954 Dec. 2, 1958 e. w. MEEK STRUCTURAL BUILDING PANEL CONSTRUCTION 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 10, 1954 Dec. 2, 1958 G. w. MEEK STRUCTURAL BUILDING PANEL CONSTRUCTION 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed June 10, 1954 7&
United States Patent STRUCTURAL BUILDING PANEL CONSTRUCTION George W. Meek, Pelham, N. Y., assignor to American B., Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application June 10, 1954, Serial No. 435,826 23 Claims. (Cl. 20-4) The present invention relates to building panel structures and methods of constructing the same and, more particularly, to such panel means in the form of separate units readily connected together and with other'units to form quickly erected buildings.
A general object of the present invention is to provide such panel means in unit forms readily adapted to economical mass production, the units being sturdy and sufliciently load-supporting as to require no supporting frame structure for certain constructions, the units being easily and quickly fastened together in a secure and substantially weather-tight manner by unskilled persons assuring complete satisfaction of an amateurs do-it-yourself desires; and an efficient continuous line assembly procedure of turning out such panel units in standard duplicate units.
A more specific object of the present invention is to provide such a procedure featured by timed movement of panel parts successively along an assembly line where they may be properly prepared and readily assembled with automatic application of adhesive material which is set during progress along the line effectively to bond the parts together.
Another object of the present invention is to provide such panel units in a form whereby pins or pegs may be employed in a simple manner to mount them to each other and to floor and roof structures.
An additional object of the present invention is to provide in such panel units means to reduce internal condensation with suitable provision for relief of moisture-laden air from the interior thereof economically associated with the pin or peg securing means.
A further object of the present invention is to provide means for readily battening and sealing together meeting edges of adjacent wall panel units as the panel units are mounted in simple fashion in juxtaposed relation.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide structural embodiments of the invention which are readily manufactured and allow efficient use thereof.
Other objects of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
The invention accordingly comprises the several steps and the relation of one or more of such steps with respect to each of the others, the apparatus embodying features of construction, combinations and arrangement of parts which are adapted to effect such steps, and the article which possesses the characteristics, properties and relation of elements, all as exemplified in the detailed disclosure hereinafter set forth, and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.
For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a schematic showing diagrammatically illustrating practice of an embodiment of the procedure of the present invention for mass producing the unique panel units;
. Fig. 2 is an exploded perspective view to reduced scale, with parts broken away and in section, of a typical panel unit of the present invention and associated supporting and connecting means employable therewith in its erection as a building wall unit;
Fig. 3 is a sectional detail to about two-thirds actual scale, with parts broken away, taken substantially on line 3-3 of Fig. 2 to show details of a bottom portion of the Fig. 2 panel unit, and including in elevation certain pin or peg fastening and venting means detachably shown in the foreground of the lower part of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of one of the two header elements or pieces illustrated in Fig. 2;
Fig. 5 is a sectional detail to the scale of Fig. 3, with parts broken away, of a top portion of the Fig. 2 panel unit and of associated roof structure mounted thereon;
Fig. 6 is an elevational detail, with parts in section and broken away, of a gable portion of a building constructed with side wall panel units of the present invention designed for that location, the shown ridge portion of the building roof being sectioned;
Fig. 7 is a sectional detail, with parts broken away, of the splined connection of two juxtaposed wall panel units of the Fig. 2 type;
Fig. 8 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 7 showing a modified form of the connection;
Fig. 9 is a sectional detail to the scale of Figs. 3 and 5, with parts broken away, of the bottom portion of the wall panel unit illustrated in Figs. 2, 3 and 5, and associated floor structure supporting the same;
Fig. 10 is a sectional detail, with parts broken away, of additional portions of floor structure illustrated in Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 is a transverse sectional view to about the same scale of Figs. 3, 5 and 9, with parts broken away, of corner wall structure showing a battened joint between end and side wall units, of the Figs. 1 and 8 type, as provided by an intervening corner filler structure;
Fig. 12 is a sectional detail similar to Fig. 8 but to about the scale of Figs. 3, 5, 9 and 11, of still another embodiment of the joint between juxtaposed mated wall units of the present invention;
Fig. 13 is an exploded sectional view of structure similar to that shown in Fig. 12, indicating the details of opposed edge structures of the mating wall units like in most respects to those of Fig. 12 and a like intervening sealing or gasketing means prior to the units being pushed together to form a joint similar to that of Fig. 12;
Fig. 14 is an exploded sectional view similar to Fig. 13 of a further embodiment of joint structure between adjacent wall units; and
Fig. 15 is a sectional detail similar to Fig. 12 of the structure shownin Fig. 14.
Referring to the drawings, in which like numerals identify similar parts throughout, it will be seen from Fig. 1 that an embodiment of the structural building panel unit of the present invention may be readily manufactured on a mass basis by a continuous line assembly procedure. The panel units, each of which for illustrative purposes may be a standard wall panel unit, are to 'be assembled together in the construction of the walls of a building, for example, of the cottage or barracks type, etc. Each wall panel unit includes inside and outside sheathing sheets or plates with interposed core means. Such wall panel units may be standardized as rectangular structures of con venient dimensions, such as about four feet wide and about eight feet long, or two feet wide and eight to fourteen feet long. The sheathing sheets or plates may be formed of a variety of materials, such as sheet metal, e. g., sheet steel or aluminum, fiber or wood sheets, asbestos board, etc., and may be of laminated construction. For example, the sheathing sheets or plates may be formed of suitable plywood with the plies thereof laminated or bonded together by suitable waterproof adhesive,
and natural wood grain in outside plies may constitute a desirable decorative feature or provide a desired pleasing ornamental effect, although obscuring coating material, such as paint,'may'be employed both for decorative and protective purposes. Structurally, such panel units may be constructed in the manner proposed in Munters Patent 2,417,435 of March 18, 1947, wherein the sheathing plates, which may be of steel sheeting of about to 26 gauge (0.031 to 0.015), are intervened by suitable porous core means in the form of corrugated or honeycombed material having transverse air chambers extending between the inner faces of the plates and provided by the folds .in the corrugated sheet material. Such sheathing sheets or plates may be provided in precut form and fed successively from a stack thereof to the line assembly apparatus which, as afirst step of the procedure of manufacturing the wall units, may apply bonding adhesive successively to the inner faces of the plates. However, it may be preferred to provide the sheathing sheet material in the form of a roll or coiled strip thereof, as diagrammatically illustrated at 20 in Fig. 1.
In accordance with the procedure diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 1, the sheathing sheet or plate material is fed from the supply roll 20 in the form of bendable sheet metal, such as coated steel strip 21, to edge-forming or shaping means at an edge-shaping station 22. The edgeshaping means at the station 22 may include a pair of grooving rolls 23, 23 provided with annular ribs 2424, suitably arranged relative to each other as to form marginal grooves 25, 25 in the strip 21 to define fold lines. The edge portions 26, 26 of the strip 21-are then progressively turned back upon the main body of the sheet along the fold lines, and then upwardly by suitable pairs of rollers 2727, or any other apparatus well known in the art for performing such folding and shaping operation on edges of moving strips of sheet metal. As a result, each edge portion 26 of the strip 21 is folded back upon itself to provide a reverse bend forming a beaded edge 28 and then upwardly substantially normal to the main body of the strip to form an upturned, substantially right-angled edge flange 29.
The strip 21, provided with shaped edges as it passes through the edge-forming or shaping station 22, is then fed to a severing and punching station 30 where it may be passed through suitable guillotine means 31, there only diagrammatically illustrated without reference to specific details, since such devices are well known to the prior art. As is usual, such a guillotine may comprise a fixed bed blade 32 relative to which a guillotine blade 33 is periodically reciprocated. Such blades, of course, are suitably shaped so as to sever the shaped strip 21 without distorting the formed edges thereof. The guillotine 31 also preferably carries suitable punching means to provide holes in the sheathing sheet or plate as it is severed as the leading portion of the strip 21. Such punching means may be in the form of a pairof punching pins 34, 34, mounted with the reciprocating blade 33 to be brought down into alignment with suitable holes 35, 35 in the bed plate 32 so as to punch intothe sheathing sheet or plate 36 (severed as the leading end portion of the strip 21) a pair of holes 37, 37 in the trailing end of the plate.
Such finished plate structure 36 is illustrated at an adhesive-applying station 38 in Fig. l as it isbeing progressed through suitable adhesive-applying means, which may comprise supporting bed rolls 39,39, an adhesiveapplying roller 40, and a supply hopper or tank 41 from which the adhesive, preferably of a Waterproof character and in liquid form, is .fed to the applying roller by a transfer roller 42. The applying roller uniformly coats the inner face 43 of the plate 3.6 with adhesive as the plate is fed forward through the adhesive-applying means and deliver thereby to an assembly station 44.
At the assembly station 44, the sheathing plate 36, having its adhesively-smeared inner face 43 disposed upwardly, may be slowly carried along by suitable endless conveyer means (not illustrated, as being familiar to the conveyor art). At the assembly station 44, preferably as the sheathing plate 36 is moved slowly forward, other elements are assembled thereon. For example, a pair of end spacing means in the form of end header elements 45, may be laterally moved to and placed upon the adhesively-smeared inner face 43 of the plate 36 and rested upon the end marginal portions thereof with similar placement therebetween of core means 46 which may be of the Munters type, mentioned above. Such lateral feed and placement of the header elements 45, 45 and the core means 46 are diagrammatically illustrated by dot-dash lines and arrows at the assembly station 44. Thereafter, the header elements 45, 45 and core means 46 supported on the plate 36 are overlaid at the assembly station 44 with a second sheathing plate 136, which preferably is similar in all respects to the first-mentioned plate except for a reversal in orientation so that its holes 37, 37 are in the leading end of the assembled wall panel unit 47 and, of course, its inner face is also suitably smeared with bonding adhesive. in fact, the means to form the top plate 136 may be similar to that provided at the edge-shaping station 22, the severing and punching station 30, and the adhesiveapplying station 38, with the addition of suitable turnover mechanism if it is desired to dispense with the manual operation to perform that function. The reversed top plate 136 may then be fed laterally, such as from the dot-dash position illustrated at assembly station 44, down over the header elements 45, 45 and core means 46, as illustrated in full lines, either manually or by suitable transfer mechanism, as diagrammatically suggested by an arrow at assembly station 44.
It will be noted that each assembled panel unit 47 has a pair of core-to-sheet interfaces with each interface formed by an inner face of one of the pair of sheathing sheet units and one of the side faces of the core means unit as a result of the sandwiching of the latter between the pair of the sheathing sheet units. Suitable spraying means may be substituted for the transfer roller adhesiveapplying equipment illustrated in Fig. l at 38 to apply adhesive to the inner face 43 of the sheathing sheet 36 as the latter is moved along. The companion sheathing sheet 136 may be provided by inverting every other one of the successively-fed, adhesive-smeared sheathing sheets 36 in lieu of supplying the former to the assembly station 44 from a branch line. It is to be understood that in the practice of the continuous procedure of manufacturing the structural building panel units of the present invention, the adhesive alternately may be applied to each side face of the core means unit 46 as it is transferred to the assembly station 44, rather than to the companion interface faces of the sheathing sheet units, and by equipment similar to the transfer roller adhesiveapplying means illustrated in Fig. 1 or by suitable spraying means. In applying the adhesive to the side faces of the core means unit 46 by spraying equipment, it is found that a minimum of the adhesive will be sprayed down into the cells of the core means when the latter is of the honeycomb or corrugated types if the spray is directed to the edges of the cells at an oblique angle, thereby concentrating the applied adhesive to the edges of the core means structure, which constitute the side faces of the core means unit. It is also to be understood that the adhesive may be applied both to the inner faces of the sheathing sheet units 36 and 136 and to the side faces of the core means unit 46, if desired, instead of being applied only to one of the pair of core and sheet faces constituting each interface and in the manners indicated above. Furthermore, assembly of the elements of each panel unit 47 at the assembly station 44 may, of course, be accomplished while the sheathing sheet unit which constitutes the bottornmost element of the sandwich is being moved forward through that station, such as by being slowly transport 3d along by a moving belt, so that there is no pause in the movement of that sheet unit during assembly of the other elements of'the sandwich thereon; but, of course, continuous movement is not essential to practice of the assembly procedure since, during the steps of shaping, handling, applying adhesive, 'etc., there may be temporary pause in the forward travel of the elements to and through the various stations.
The assembled panel unit 47 is then fed forward to suitable bonding or setting means which may be of a character to apply at a heating and pressing station 48 to the elements sandwiched together suitable curing heat and pressure. For example, the assembled panel unit 47 may then be fed forward between banks of heating -devices, such as lamps 49-49, and thence through pressure-applying means, which may be in the form of a pair of opposed loaded rolls 50, 50 biased toward each other, as diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 1. As a result, the adhesive, with which the inner faces of the sheathing plates 36 and 136 are smeared, is suitably set up securely to bond together the various elements of the sandwich, including the two sheathing plates and the interposed header elements 45, 45 and core means 46.
If the sheathing plates 36 and 136 have outer faces of a character which are ornamentally attractive and have the visual appeal essential to a marketable finished product, or if the units are to be sold uncompleted for finishing by the buyer, no additional processing of the bonded panel units 147 (after leaving the heating and pressing station 48) is necessary. If, however, it is desired to apply to the outer faces of the sheathing plates 36 and 136 decorative and/or protective coating material, such as paint containing colored pigments, the bonded panel units 147 may be successively fed through a coating or paint-spraying station 49 and then through a coating or paint-drying station 50. As is understood in the art, suitable coating or paint-spraying equipment may comprise supply ducts 51-51 terminating in suitable spraying nozzle means 52-52 arranged on opposite sides of the path of travel of the unit to be sprayed therewith, which here is the bonded panel unit 147, such spraying equipment being diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 1. The paint-drying equipment at the drying station 56 is also only diagrammatically illustrated as comprising electrically-energized heat-radiating means 53, 53, also arranged on opposite sides of the path of movement of the bonded panel unit 147.
A suitable means for connecting together the vertical or longitudinal side edges of juxtaposed and aligned wall panel units of the type illustrated at 147 in Fig. 1 is illus trated in Fig. 8, as will be more fully explained hereinafter, but it may be desired, in constructing such -a bonded wall panel unit, to omit forming or shaping of the longitudinal edges thereof. For example, such a modified form of bonded wall panel unit is illustrated at 247 in Fig. 2 and, as there indicated, may comprise an inside sheathing sheet or plate 236 and an outside sheathing sheet or plate 336, transversely spaced from each other by header elements 45, 45 and core means 46. The paired edges 26, 26 and 26, 26 of the inside and outside plates 236 and 336 are left free from deformation and with the body of core material 46 and the header elements 45, 45 foreshortened laterally so as to be of less width to provide therebetween along the side edges of the bonded panel unit longitudinally-extending or vertical position, as illustrated in Fig. 2. In that event, only one grooves or channels 54, 54 for reception of suitable connecting battening means. As will be seen from Figs. 2 and 7, such battening means may be in the form of an elongated spline member 55 formed of suitable material, preferably in the form of a strip of wood. Such spline member 55 may be shaped by chamfering off edges at 56, 56 to provide a tapered nose, facilitating force-fitting into one channel 54. If desired, the spline member 55 such spline member 55 would be provided for each panel unit with its unchamfered side seated and adhesivelyanchored in one side channel 54, leaving the other side channel free for reception of the tapered nose of the like spline member of an adjacent wall panel unit when brought to alignment and juxtaposition thereof.
As will be seen from Figs. 2 to 5 incl., each header element 45 preferably is in the form of an elongated strip of wood, or other suitable material, having longitudinal inner edges at 57, 57 chamfered off along the inner face 58 thereof to provide channel-connecting lateral passages, as will be explained more fully hereinafter. The outer panel end face 59 of the header element or strip 45 is preferably provided with a longitudinally-extending slot 60 with which is preferably aligned a groove 61 in the end of spline member 55. The longitudinal slot 60 and the groove 61, aligned therewith, are receptive of fin 62 forming the leg of T-shaped bracket strip 63.
Each bracket strip 63 maybe formed by shaping a flat strip of sheet metal, or fiberglass reinforced plastic (with the use of heat), with provision of a reversed fold longitudinally along the center line to form the fin 62 as a medial rib, as is best seen in Figs. 2 and 3. Each bracket strip 63 may be of a standard length, such as about two or four feet along, so that ends of successive bracket strips may be abutted substantially medially of each wall panel unit, as proposed in Fig. 2, so that there will be no break lines at the battened joints between juxtaposed panel units. As indicated in Fig. 3, such bracket strip 63 may be employed for secure anchorage to suitable floor structure, diagrammatically illustrated at 64 and, if desired, such strips may be secured to the latter by nails driven through holes 65-65, illustrated in Fig. 2. As will be best understood from Fig. 3, the fins 62 are provided with a series of transverse holes 66-66, each of which, when the aligned fins are seated in the header element slot 60, will be suitably aligned with a transverse hole 67 in header element 45. Each transverse hole 67 is aligned with one of the holes 37 in the outside plate 336 and, although for simplicity of manufacture preferably extends entirely therethrough, it need not extend much beyond the slot 60 and to the depth to which an anchoring or connecting peg or pin 68 it to be driven.
As will be best understood from Figs. 2, -3 and 5, the connecting or anchoring pin or peg 68 preferably includes an elongated cylindrical main section 69 merged with a tapered tip section 70 and having at the outer end a pulling head 71, preferably of the same diameter as the main section and formed, if desired, by providing an annular necking groove 72 in the latter. Thus, when one of the bonded wall panel units 247 is seated down over an anchored bracket strip 63 or a pair thereof, as proposed in Figs. 2 and 3, one of the transverse holes 67 in the bottom header element 45 is brought to approximate alignment with one of the holes 66 in one of the fins 62, and one of the anchoring pins 68 is inserted through the one of the holes 37 in the outside plate 336 which is aligned with these holes 66 and 67 and driven inward to approximately the position illustrated in Fig. 3, so as tightly to tie or anchor the parts together.
In accordance with the present invention, protectivecaps will be provided for a particular job in two forms, perforated and unperforated, since as is illustrated at 173, the unperforated snap-in caps are to be employed for filling or blocking the holes 37, 37 in the top portion of the inside plate, since it is not desired intentionally to provide for free passage of air from the inside of the building into the interior of the wall panel units or the core material therein.
Although various sealing means have been devised securely to gasket the vertical joints between adjacent wall panel units, as will appear hereinafter, it is found that the differential in moisture vapor pressure between the interior and exterior of a building involves the hazard of leakage of moisture-laden air through such joints to the interior of such panel units. If such leakage occurs in the winter time, when the outside plate is at a temperature lower than the inside air, there may be a tendency for development of. condensation against the inner face of the colder outside plate, if the dew point of the leaked inside air is higher than that of the dew point of the colder external air. In accordance with one feature of the present invention, such hazard of condensation may be minimized by providing vertical passages between the core means and the inner face of the outside plate. As proposed in Fig. 2, such vertical passages. may be provided in the form of vertical channels 75, 75 in the outer side of the core means 46. This may be readily accomplished by providing the core means 46 in sections with those sections which are disposed along the lines of the channels 75, 75 being of less transverse dimension, i. e., the corrugations in those sections are foreshortened. Such channels 75, 75 provide chambers to which leaked interior air may diffuse and travel to concentrate any tendency for condensation to those locations. However, if outlet ways are provided, which communicate the channels 75, 75 to the outside air, the leaked interior air usually will bleed off under normal conditions before condensation of appreciable extent, such as that requiring drainage, can occur. Such communicating outlet ways may be provided, as is preferred. by forming notches '76, 76 in the outside face of the bottom header element 45, preferably aligned with the vertical channels 75, 75; and the perforations 74-74 of the snap-in caps 73, 73 provide the orifices of the outlet ways communicating with the vertical channels since the pin holes 67, 67 are preferably located in the header notches, as is best seen from Fig. 4.
Although such relative locations of the channels 75, 75, notches 76, 76, and perforated snap-in caps 73, 73 are preferred for simplicity of manufacture, it is not essential that they be so aligned. The chamfering at 57 of the inner edge of the outside face of the bottom header element 45, which is juxtaposed to the core means 46, defines, with end surfaces of the latter and the inside face of the outside plate 336, a channel-connecting lateral passage. Thus, if the outlet ways comprising perforations 74-74 in snap-in caps 73, 73 and the notches 76, 76 are communicated to this lateral passage provided by the chamfering at 57, there is communication via the latter to the channels 75, 75. Location of the pin holes 67, 67 in the notches 7 6, 76 not only permit the snap-in caps '73, 73, when provided with the perforations 7474, to serve the dual function of protectively covering the pin heads 71, 71 and providing outlet orifices, but also facilitates the use of the snap-in caps since the notches provide relief for the skirts of the latter so that they may be made sufliciently long to assure quite secure anchorage in the holes 37, 37 in the outside plate 336. Since, from a manufacturing point of view, it is desirable that the header elements 45, 45, whether they be intended for use at the tops or bottoms of wall panel units, be of standard form, it is preferred that the chamfering at 57 be duplicated at both sides and the notches provided on both sides in transverse alignment of th pin holes 67, 67 with the latter reaching through from the notches on one side to those on the: other. As a result, the anchoring pins 68, 68 for the. bottom ends of each of the panel units 247 can be driven in from the outside through the holes 37, 37 in the out-- side plate 336 and from the inside through the similar holes in the top portion of the inside plate 236. Thus, the only structure which dictates particular orientation of a wall panel unit 247 is the location of the vertical channels 75, 75, and this side may be identified by suit-- able indicia.
It is desirable to provide for the pin anchorage of the top ends of the panel units from the inside, as is illustrated in Fig. 5, since the slope of roof structure, such as that illustrated at 77, may make access to pin holes in the outside plate difiicult, if not impossible. For this reason, the snap-in caps, which are to be plugged into the holes 37, 37 in the top end of the inside plate 236, are made irnperforate, as indicated at 173, so as to avoid as much as possible the passage of vaporladen interior air into the wall panel unit 247. Panel units, somewhat similar to those proposed for the wall panel units, may be provided for the roof construction 77, having, if desired, a strengthening strip 78 of wood, or the like, interposed between sections 79, 79 of core material, into which nails may be driven through the bottom sheathing plate 80 to fasten thereto the anchoring .strip 163 having an apertured anchoring fin 162 disposed obliquely to the base thereof, as indicated in Fig. 5. In view of the possibility of leakage of interior air to the core means of the wall panel unit 247, the lateral passage provided by chamfering at 57 of the inner edge which is adjacent the inner face of the inside plate 236 may also cooperate with the transverse air chambers or passages provided by the core material corrugations to transfer leaked interior air directly to the channelconnecting triangular lateral passage provided by the other chamfering at 57 adjacent the inner face ,of the outside plate 336, as is illustrated at 81 in Fig. 5. The preferred corrugated core means of the wall panel unit 247 is shown in true section in Fig. 5, while being only diagrammatically illustrated in the other figures.
As indicated in Fig. 6, the roof panel units 77, 77 preferably are provided with header end elements 82, 82 of wood, or the like, carrying bolts 83, 83 which extend down through an angled support or bearing plate 84, in turn supported by, if desired, an I-beam joist 85. The joist 85 may, if desired, be supported by posts inward of wall panel unit 247 preferably flanked by special wall panel units 347, 347, each having a roof wedge portion 86 for fitting to the slope of the roof structure; and, of course, suitable filler pieces may be employed to fill in the gap illustrated in Fig. 6. Also, it is possible to use similar wall panel units, such as 247, for the entire end wall structure and, when the roof load is relatively light, to support bearing structure, such as angled plate 84, at each end upon the top edge of the middle wall panel unit by a stub post. In such a structure, right triangular gable filler pieces will be employed in pairs at .each end to fill in the gaps between the top ends of the rectangular wall panel units and the gabled roof structure. Preferably, a wedge-shaped filler strip 87 is inserted between the ends of roof panel units 77, 77 and the joint is covered with an angled ridge plate 83.
As previously indicated, the structure of the battened yertical joint between juxtaposed wall panel units 247, which employs the spline member 55 in boxed space between opposed pairs of the side edges of the inside and outside sheathing plates, is illustrated in Fig. 7. As
indicated in Fig. 8, a somewhat similar structure may be employed to provide a vertical battened joint between juxtaposed wall panel units of the type illustrated at 147 in Fig. 1. As shown in Fig. 8, such battened joint may comprise a batten strip 89 inserted in the boxed space provided by the opposed side grooves or channels 154, 154 between the laterally-extending beaded edges 2528,
9 While the spline member 55 of the Figs. 2 and 7 embodiments has one portion snugly fitted into one of the side edge grooves or channels 54 and adhesively-afiixed therein, preferably during the adhesive bonding of the sand wich elements together in the Fig. 7 embodiment, and with its tapered nose adapted to be driven into the opposed channel 54 of the juxtaposed wall panel unit, the batten strip 89 of the Fig. 8 embodiment may be securely anchored in the boxed space by nails 90-90 driven through the beaded edges 28-28, which may be perforated at intervals for that purpose.
As illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10, the floor structure of such a building may also be built up from a plurality of standard floor panels 91-91, somewhat similar in construction to the wall panel units and the roof panel units. For example, a floor panel unit 91 may have a bottom sheathing plate 92, which extends laterally beyond a top sheathing plate 93 with an interposed end header element 94 rabbeted at 95 beyond the edge of the top plate and there carrying a finned anchoring strip 263 similar to the anchoring strip 63 except that it is provided with an oblique drip skirt 96. Bolts 97, 97 may extend down through the base of the anchoring strip 263, the header element 94, the bottom sheathing plate 92, and through a lateral flange 98 of a foundation channel angle 99, as shown.
As illustrated in Fig. 10, the floor panel units 91, 91 may be joined together by juxtaposing the edges of their bottom plates 92, 92 and supporting the latter on a foundation I-beam 100. The end edges of the header elements 94, 94 are provided with opposed and aligned channels 101, 101, one of which is shown in Fig. 9. A spline strip 102 is fitted into the opposed channels 101, 101; and bolts 97, 97 extend down through the header elements 94, 94, the extended portions of the bottom sheathing plates 92, 92, and flanges 103, 103 of the foundation Ibeam 100. The Wide open-top channel formed by the rabbets 95, 95 is filled in and the bolt heads covered by a suitable bridging and filler strip structure 104.
As indicated in Fig. 11, the joints at the corners of the Wall structure of the building may be filled in by means which also serve to anchor together the side edges of the wall panel units, which are there disposed normal to each other. For example, as illustrated in Fig. 11, two wall panel units of the Fig. 1 type 147, 147 may be connected together by seating in the side edge groove or channel 154 of each wall panel unit between its beaded edges 28, 28 a spline strip 104. Each spline strip 104 is chamfered off along one edge at 105 at an angle of 45 so that the chamfered faces may be brought to abutment of each other in face-to-face contact when the wall panel units 147, 147 are disposed normal to each other, as indicated in Fig. 11. In fact, the spline strips 104, 104 preferably form fixed elements of a columnar corner structure 106, comprising a sheathing angle 107 having beaded and flanged edges 103, 108 similar to the beaded and flanged edges 28, 20 of the wall panel unit 147 and to which the spline strips 104, 104 are fastened, such as by nails, in the illustrated manner. The space between the spline strips 104, 104 and the sheathing angle 107 is filled in with a body 109 of core material which may be of the character illustrated at 46 in the preceding figures. In assembling the parts of the corner joint structure illustrated in Fig. 11, the columnar corner structure 106 is erected on suitable base structure, such as floor structure of the type illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10, and then the wall units 147, 147 are moved successively along normal planes until their side edge channels 154, 154 receptively receive the spline strips 104, 104, so that when the panel units are securely anchored to anchoring strips, as proposed in Fig. 3, the parts of the corner joint structure are all securely connected and held together.
As illustrated in Figs. 12 and 13, the side edge structure of the wall panel units may be modified to provide 10 a sealed or gasketed joint between juxtaposed side edges of wall panel units 347 and 447, which may be similar in all other respects to the wall panel unit structure illus trated in Fig. 1. The edges 110, 110 of the sheathing plates 436, 436 of the wall panel unit 347 are turnedinwardly at right angles but in transversely-spaced rela-' tion to provide therebetween a longitudinally-extending recess 111. Each inturned flange 110 is also preferably provided with an inwardly-rolled bead 112 to form on the exterior thereof a groove. The juxtaposed inturned edge flanges 210, 210 of sheathing plates 536, 536 of the adjacent wall panel unit 447 are provided with outwardlyrolled beads 113, 113, with the latter longitudinallyextending outturned beads projected or seated into the longitudinally-extending grooves provided by the inturned beads 112, 112. The recess provided by the transverse spacing of the longitudinal edges of the inturned flanges 210, 210 receptively receives a flanged rib 114, which extends longitudinally along one side of a tubular elastic: gasket member or strip 115, that rib being easily snapped. into position, as will be seen from Figs. 12 and 13. Of' course, if desired, the gasket strip 115 may have its: flanged rib 114 seated between the edges of the flanges. 210, 210 at the time the elements of the panel unit 447' are sandwiched together. The tubular gasket member 115 is crowned or convexed along its opposite side 116, as is best seen in Fig. 13, so as to be snugly fitted with distortion into the recess 111 between edges of the inturned flanges 110, 110, as is illustrated in Fig. 12, when the wall panel units 347 and 447 are moved to juxtaposition. Thus, the gasket member 115 seals off the space between opposed end edges of the inturned flanges 210, 210 of wall panel unit 447 with the rib 114 seated in and filling the recess 111 provided thereby and the convexed opposite side 116 distortably fits into and seals off the similar recess 111 of the edge of the other wall panel unit 347, which exists between the opposed end edges of its inturned flanges 110, 110, efiiciently to block off travel of interior air to the outside through the joint and also to the interior of the panel units. Of course, the gasketing member also provides a seal at the joint to serve the purpose of an effective weather strip means.
As proposed in Fig. 13, the juxtaposed panel units of the Fig. 12 structure may be modified so that unit 547, similar in many respects to panel unit 347, having as an outside plate, sheathing sheet 436 provided with the inturned bead 112, may have, as an inside sheathing sheet, plate 636 with its inturned edge flange 310 provided with a longitudinally-extending inwardly-rolled V-shaped groove 117. The companion wall panel unit 647 has a similar inside sheathing plate 636, provided with a like V-shaped groove 117 along its side edge, so that those grooves are arranged in opposed relation together to provide a longitudinally-extending channel for electrical wiring and plumbing when the wall units are moved to juxtaposition to form a joint similar to that proposed in Fig. 12. The channel provided by the opposed grooves 117, 117 for electrical wiring and plumbing may be sealed off from interior air by any suitable sealing strip, such as that illustrated at 118, which, like gasket member 115, may be formed of any suitable elastic material, such as a rubber-like composition.
In Figs. 14 and 15 is illustrated a further embodiment of joint structure. As there proposed, one wall panel unit 747 may have its inturned edge flanges 410, 410 provided with longitudinally-extending beads 119, 119 in the form of fins. The companion wall panel unit 847 may have its inturned edge flanges 510, 510 provided with rolled-in V-shaped grooves 217, 217 similar to those provided in the edge flanges 310, 310 of the sheathing plates 636, 636 of the wall panel units of the Fig. 13 construction. Into the longitudinally-extending grooves 217, 217 are seated strips or rods 120, 120 of deformable gasketing material, such as caulking compound which may be similar to modeling clay, or porous, rubber-like material, such as sponge rubber, but preferably are of a very soft elastic composition, commonly marketed under the trade name of Permagum. As illustrated in Fig. 15, when the wall panel units 747 and 847 are moved toward each other with their side edges brought to juxtaposition, the longitudinally-extending fins 119, 119 are inserted or projected into the longitudinally-extending V-shaped grooves 217, 217 and distort in the latter the rods or strips 120, 120 of gasketing or sealing composition. It may be desired to supplement the seals provided by the Fig. 15 joint with fluid-impervious membranes, such as those illustrated at 12l121 in Figs. 14 and 15, of rubber or rubber-like material, metal foil, e. g. aluminum foil, etc., which will be incorporated at the time the core means is assembled between the sheathing plates so that the edges of the membranes will be adhesively bonded to the inner faces of thev sheathing plates.
It will be understood that in accordance with the present invention, wall panel units, roof panel units, and floor panel units may be provided in different designs to be accommodated to the erection of different types of buildings, while incorporating the basic features of the present invention. For example, the wall panel units may be provided in standard styles, which may include window openings, door openings, and filler portion for adaptation to differently-shaped spaces. Thus, one may purchase a packaged building in knocked-down condition, consisting of the proper number of standard parts, which he may readily put together in a simple manner without any particular skill. For small buildings, such as cottages, motel units and barracks, no particular load-supporting means need be additionally provided, other than the usual simple foundations, since the wall panel units of the present invention are capable of supporting unusually heavy loads, in and of themselves, and quite effectively will support roof structure with sufiicient margin to accommodate anticipated snow loads. It is contemplated to provide such units with sheathing sheets of a character which are of a finished and sufficiently ornamental quality as to make unnecessary any additional decorative treatment but, of course, if desired, one may readily apply paint "to the exterior surfaces thereof and wallpaper to interior surfaces to satisfy any specific demands.
I It will thus be. seen that the objects set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description, are efficiently attained and, since certain changes may be made in carrying out the above process, in the described product and in the constructions set forth without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described, and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A rectangular structural building panel wall unit having two side edges and top and bottom ends comprising, in combination, a pair of spaced inside and outside rectangular sheathing plates, spacing means acting to laterally space said plates apart, said spacing means comprising top and bottom header elements interposed. between and secured to top ends and bottom ends of said inside and outside plates, porous core means located between said plates, means defining in said core means adjacent to the inner face of the outside plate, a plurality of spaced vertical channels extending from end to end of said unit, said outside plate having holes in the bottom end thereof, and said bottom 'header element having ways in the outer side thereof communicating with said channels, with the outlet holes in the outside plate communicating with said Ways.
2. The wall panel unit as defined in claim 1 characterized by said ways in said bottom header element being in the form of notches aligned with said channels.
3. The wall panel unit as defined in claim 1 characterized by said header elements and core means being so shaped with respect to. each other as to provide therebetween lateral passages connecting said channels adjacent the inner face of said outside plate.
' 4. The wall panel unit as defined in claim 3 characterized by said ways in said bottom header element being in the form of notches with the channel-connecting lateral passages being provided in the outer sides of said header elements adjacent the core means to connect said notches as well as said channels.
5. The wall panel unit as defined in claim 4 characterized by said lateral passages being formed by chamfering the edge of the outer side of each of said header elements which is juxtaposed to said core means whereby each lateral passage is a triangular channel bounded by the inner face of said outside plate, the core means and the oblique chamfered face of said header element.
6. The wall panel unit as defined in claim 4 characterized by said top and bottom header elements having similar lateral passages provided in both the inner and outer sides thereof with interconnecting passages extending transversely through said core means from the lateral passages at the top and bottom adjacent the inner face of the inside plate to those adjacent the inner face of the outside plate.
7. The wall panel unit as defined in claim 1 characterized by said header elements each having a longitudinally-extending slot in its outside panel end face in the vicinity of each way for reception of an apertured anchoring fin, each of said header elements having a transverse hole extending to the slot aligned with each of its ways for reception of a transverse anchoring pin to be positioned into the anchoring fin aperture, each of said header element transverse holes being aligned with a hole in one of said plates for permitting insertion through the latter of the anchoring pins, said plate holes at the bottom end of said unit being said outlet holes in said outside plate.
8. The wall panel unit as defined in claim 4 characterized by the provision of a pin-protective plug means for each of said outlet holes in said outside plate, each of said plug means being apertured to permit passage of air therethrough.
9. The wall panel unit as defined in claim 8 characterized by each of said plug means being in the form of a snap-in cap having a plurality of perforations therein.
10. Means for anchoring and connecting structural building panel units comprising, in combination, a plate sheathing one face of such panel unit and having a hole in an end portion thereof, a header element constituting a lateral end of said unit located behind said plate end portion, said header element having a fin-respective slot in its outside face extending generally parallel to said plate and a transverse hole extending from the latter to and beyond said slot in alignment with the hole in said plate, apertured anchoring fin means inserted in said slot with a hole therein aligned with the holes in said header element and plate, and an anchoring pin inserted through the hole in said plate and driven into the aligned holes in said header element and fin.
11. The panel anchoring and connecting means as defined in claim 10 characterized by protective plug means in the hole in said plate covering the outer end of said pin.
12. The panel anchoring and connecting means as defined in claim 11 characterized by said plug means being a snap-in cap.
13. The panel anchoring and connecting means as defined in claim 10 characterized by said pin having its outer end provided with a pulling head.
14. The panel anchoring and connecting means as defined in claim 13 characterized by said pin having an elongated cylindrical main section merged at one end with a tapered tip section and at the other-end with a headed section, the head being of a diameter substantially equal to that of the main section and defined from the latter by an annular necking groove.
15. The panel anchoring and connecting means as defined in claim characterized by each of said panel units being substantially rectangular and defined by inside and outside transversely spaced plates, a pair of said header elements being interposed between and secured to end portions of said plates at opposite ends of said panel unit, each of said header elements having the fin-receiving slot therein extending longitudinally the full length thereof and traversed by a plurality of said pin-receiving holes aligned with a like plurality of holes in one of said plates, said anchoring fin means being elongated and having pinreceiving holes therein aligned with the pin-receiving holes in said header element.
16, The panel anchoring and connecting means as defined in claim 15 characterized by a plurality of protective plug means mounted in the plate pin-receiving holes =covering and protecting said pins.
17. The panel anchoring and connecting means as defined in claim 16 characterized by said outside plate having such holes in the bottom end thereof, said plug means which are mounted in these holes in said outside plate being perforated snap-in caps.
18. The panel anchoring and connectiong means as defined in claim 15 characterized by the side edges of the inside and outside plates of each panel unit extending laterally from the panel unit proper to define side edge grooves, the side edge grooves of adjacent panel units being arranged in opposition to each other to define a boxed space, and an elongated spline member fitted into the boxed space to tie side edges of adjacent panel units together.
19. Means providing a seal between side edges of adjacent building panel units comprising, in combination, a pair of juxtaposed panel units each having transverselyspaced inside and outside sheathing plates with interposed core means, said sheathing plates of each of said panel units having inturned transversely-extending and opposed side edges at least partially covering said core means at the end edge of each of said panel units, bead means extending out along the end edge of one of said panel units formed by shaping of one of said inturned plate edges, and a cooperating groove formed in the juxtaposed inturned plate edge of the adjacent panel unit and with said bead means receptively mounted therein, and sealing means distortably wedged between the juxtaposed end edges of said panel units.
20. The panel structure as defined in claim 19 characterized by said sealing means being in the form of an elongated strip of gasketing material seated in said groove and distortably clamped therein by said bead means.
21. Means providing a seal between side edges of adjacent building panel units comprising, in combination, a pair of adjacent panel units having opposed juxtaposed edges, the juxtaposed edges of said panel units being of appreciable width and each having a recess extending longitudinally therealong with the recesses of the juxtaposed edges being opposed, and an elongated tubular member of elastic material having along one side rib means snapped into one of the recesses for anchorage to the panel unit which has this recess, said tubular member being wider than the other opposed recess and being convex along its other side for snug fitting in the latter recess.
22. Means for providing a seal between the side edges of adjacent building panel units comprising, in combination, a pair of panel units arranged with their ends in contact, each of said units having a pair of spaced sheathing plates provided at their ends with integral inturned flanges, the pair of flanges on one end of one of the units being formed with a plurality of longitudinally-extending recesses, the pair of flanges on one end of the second unit being formed with a plurality of projecting beads fitting into said recesses, and a longitudinally-extending, distortable gasket member mounted between the edges of the adjacent panel units and between the grooves and beads thereon and compressed when the beads on one of the units are fitted into the recesses of the other unit.
23. Means for providing a seal between the side edges of adjacent building panel units comprising, in combination, a pair of panel units arranged with their ends in contact, each of said units being provided with a pair of spaced sheathing plates provided at their ends with inturned flanges, one flange on one of the units being formed with a longitudinal bead, a flange on the second unit being formed with a longitudinal groove into which said bead fits, a second flange on each of the units being formed with a channel, which channels come together in co-operation when the ends of the two units are abutted and which co-operating channels form a longitudinal pas-v sage between the two units for the reception of electrical Wiring, said passage being located near one face of the abutting panels and the bead-and-groove connection being located near the opposite face of the panels.
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