US 2865368 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 23, 1958 F, E. SANBORN 2,
RESUSCITATORS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 26, 1954 INVENTOR. FHA/W1 E. fA/VBOAW ATTORNEY Dec. 23, 1958 Filed Nov. 26, 1954 F. E. SANBORN RESUSCITATORS 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 +9 INVENTOR. [FAN/f Yaw/B0194 ATTORNEY Dec. 23, 1958 F. E. SANBORN 2,865,368
RESUSCITATORS Filed Nov. 26, 1954 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENT FHA/W46 JAM? /V 122 4 BY M ATTORNEY F. E. SANBORN RESUSCITATORS Dec. 23, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Nov. 26, 1954 M R 0 v: m5 MN R VHM K m N T IFL A K M m A means Patented Dec. 23, 1958 RESUS CITATORS Frank E. Sanborn, Chicago, 11]., assignor to E. A. Baer,
My present invention relates to an improved resuscitator that automatically produces in a patients lungs natural inhale and exhale of oxygen.
One of the principal objects of this invention is to provide a novel di-phragm that floats at its axis.
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel venturi.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a novel diaphragm operated combined venturi, nozzle and valve that alternately and successively subject the diaphragm to pressure and suction.
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel valve that yieldingly closes the venturi to atmosphere.
Still a further object of this invention is to provide novel means for controlling the volume flow of fluid to the resuscitator.
Still a further object of this invention is to provide a novel system and arrangement of chambers, channels and ports for the inhalation and exhalation of the resuscititor.
Still a further object of this invention is to provide a safety device that will open to atmosphere when the pressure in the resuscitator goes above a maximum pressure for which the device is set.
Still another object of this invention is to provide novel means for opening the resuscitator to atmosphere, in case suction in the resuscitator goes below a safe pressure, thus preventing damage to lungs or tissue.
These and other objects of the invention will be apparent from the following description, reference being had to the drawings.
To the above end, generally stated, the invention consists of the novel devices and combination of devices hereinlfter described and defined in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings, which illustrate the invention, like characters indicate like parts throughout the several views.
Referring to the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of the resuscitator;
Fig. 2 is a front elevational view of the same, with the mask removed;
Fig. 3 is a rear elevational view of the resuscitator as shown in Fig. 2, with some parts removed;
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the housing cap for the diaphragm and associated parts removed from the resuscitator;
Fig. 5 is a view of the resuscitator in central upright section taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 2, on an enlarged scale;
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary view principally in front elevation with some parts sectioned on the line 6-6 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary detail view in section taken on the irregular line 7-7 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 8 is a view in transverse section taken on the line 3i5 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 9 is a view principally in rear elevation with the housing cap sectioned on the line 9-9 of Fig. 5;
Figs. 10 and 11 are plan views of the upper and lower sections of the casing of the safety air intake valve, respectively, removed from the resuscitator; and
Fig. 12 is a plan view of the ring valve removed from the intake valve casing.
The resuscitator includes a body 13, a head 14, and a neck 15 all in the form of a single casting. The body 13 and head 14 are annular in a vertical plane and the former has a flat face 16. Figs. 1, 2 and 3. Integral with the back of the body 13 is a large boss 17 of a diameter slightly less than the body 13 and has a flat outer end 17' parallel to the face 16. Fig. 5.
An annular flange 18, integral with the rear end of the head 14, is of a larger diameter than said head. A reinforcing web 19, in the plane of the flange 18, is integral with said head, the neck 15 and the body 13. Figs. 1, 2 and 3.
A large core 211 extends aixally completely through the head 14 and in which bore 20 is a removable valve casing 21. This valve casing 21 has at its front outer end portion screw-threaded engagement with the head 14, as indicated at 22. Fig. 5. Extending axially into the valve casing 21 from its rear end is a bore 23, the outer portion 24 of which is of a larger diameter than its inner end portion 25. Formed in the periphery of the valve casing 21 is a wide channel 26. Fig. 5. An L--shaped port 27 leads from the chtnnel 26 into the bore 23 at its inner end. The valve casing 21 at the inner end of the bore 23 surrounding the port 2'7 affords a valve seat 28. Pig. 5.
Extending axially into the bore 23 is a needle valve 29 having an enlarged intermediate body 31] that has screwthreaded engagement with the valve casing 21 at the inner end portion of the bore 23, as indicated at 31. The valve 2% has a rearwardly projecting stem 32 that projecis outwardly of the head 14. Fig. 5. A knob 33 is applied to the valve stem 32 and secured thereto by a screw 34. Figs. 1, 3 and 5. integral with the valve stem 32, close to the body 31), is a pair of axially spaced annular flanges 36 between which is held an annular packing 36 that is compressed between the valve stem 32 and the valve casing 21. When the needle valve 29 is closed, it impinges the valve seat 28. A divided ring 37 is removably held in an internal annular groove 38 in the valve casing 21 at the rear end portion of the bore 211 and prevents accidental removal of the needle valve 29 from said casing. Fig. 5.
A dial 39, in the form of a thin annular plate, is fixed to the head 14, at its rear end, overlaps the flange 18 and is concentric with the valve casing 21. Fig. 1, 3 and 5. Formed in the dial 39 at its center is a large hole 41) through which the valve casing 21 may be removed. Fig. 5. On the face of the dial 39 is the following indicia: Off, Slow, Med, Fast, circumferentially s aced at the perimeter of the dial 39 substantially degrees apart. Cooperating with the dial 39 is a pointer 41 fixed on the inner end of the knob 33. Figs. 1, 3 and 5.
in the top portion of the head 14 is a bore 42 which extends into the channel 26. A nipple 43 has internal screw-threaded engagement with the head 14 at the bore 42 and a coupling sleeve 44 has screw-threaded engagement with the nipple 43. A fragment of a hose 45, leadin; from an oxygen tank, not shown, is detachably secured to the coupling sleeve 44 by a fixture 46. Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 5.
It mav be here stated that the purpose of the needle valve 29 is to control the volume flow of oxygen from the hose 45 to the resuscitator.
Formed in the body 13, at its face 16, is a narrow annular chamber 47 axially aligned with said body. An annular closure plate 48 for the outer open end of the chamber 47, is detachably secured to the body 13 by a plurality of machine screws 49. Figs. 1, 2 and 5. In-
tegral with the closure plate 48 is an outwardly projecting boss 50 having an axial bore 51 that extends through the closure plate 48 in axial alignment therewith. The closure plate 48 and the boss 50 afford means for attaching a mask to the resuscitator, as will presently appear.
The outer portion of the chamber 47 is of a slightly larger diameter than the inner portion to afford an annular stop shoulder 52. An annular screen 53 is removably held in the chamber 47 between the closure plate 48 and the stop shoulder 52. Figs. and 6.
A bore 54, of large diameter, extends axially completely through the body 13 rearwardly from the chamber 47. Secured in the bore 54, with a tapered fit, is a long cylindrical core 55 open at each end. Fig. 5. The open end of the core 55, leading from the chamber 47, is closed by a screw plug 56 having at its inner end an annular recess 57 surrounded at its outer end by a valve seat 58. A packing 59 in an external annular channel 60 in the screw plug 56 is held compressed between said screw plug and the core 55. Fig. 5.
An endwise reciprocating tubular casing 61 extends axially into the core 55 from its rear end and has fixed in its outer end portion a venturi 62.. A nozzle 63 is fixed in the inner end portion of the casing 61 in axial alignment With the venturi 62 and axially spaced therefrom, see Figs. 5, 7 and 8.
Integral with the core 55 is an internal partition 64 having a central port 65 through which the nozzle 63 outwardly of the casing 61 projects. This partition 64 divides the core 55 internally, at its inner end portion, into a narrow annular oxygen intake chamber 66 and a long oxygen flow chamber 67, see Fig. 5.
As heretofore described, oxygen is conveyed from a tank to the channel 26 and from here oxygen is conveyed to the chamber 66 through a long passageway 68 of large diameter in the head 14, the neck 15 and the body 13, to a port 69 in the body 13 which is in communication with a shallow internal chamber 70 in the body 13 that extends circumferentially therearound. Formed in the core 55 is an external channel 71 that extends circumferentially therearound in registration with the channel 70. A plurality of circumferentially spaced ports 72 in the core 55 lead from the channel 71 into the chamber 66. On each side of the channel 71 is a packing 71 in a channel 71" in the core 55 that extends circumferentially therearound, and is compressed between the body 13 and the core 55. Figs. 5 and 9.
Integral with the nozzle 63, within the chamber 66 is a two-faced valve 73 that alternates and successively engagesthe seat 58 to close the nozzle 63 to the chamber 66 and opens the port 65 during inhalation, to permit a flow of oxygen from the chamber 66 to the chamber 67. During exhalation, the valve 73 engages a seat 74 on the partition 64 surrounding the port 65 and opens the nozzle 63 to oxygen in the chamber 66 and closes the 'port 65. Fig. 5.
The venturi 62, at its inner or intake end is abruptly inclined at 75 to a small axial hole 76 and from thence is gradually inclined at 77 to a passageway 78 of relatively large diameter that extends to the open outer end of the venturi 62. Formed in the casing 61 between the venturi 62 and the nozzle 63 is a plurality of circumferentially spaced ports 79. Fig. 5.
A chamber 88 in the form of an internal channel in 'the boss 17 extends circumferentially around the core 55. This chamber 80 is in registration with a shallow channel 81 in the core 55 and extends circumferentially tion between the chambers 47 and 88. Figs. 5, 6 and 8.
A diaphragm 84 of resilient metal or other suitable material, is provided for reciprocating the casing 61 and hence the venturi 62 and the nozzle 63 carried thereby. The diaphragm 84 is concavo-convex with its convex side outermost. A narrow annular housing 85 perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the core 55 is provided for the diaphragm 84. Figs. 5 and 9. This housing 85 includes a back member 86 and a front member 87 at their perimeters having telescopically connected annular flanges 88 and 89 respectively. The housing back member 86 has at its axis a hole through which the reduced outer end portion 90 of core 55 projects and fixed to said back member. The front housing member 89 has a large central opening 91 which exposes the diaphragm 84 to atmospheric pressure. Figs. 5 and 9.
It is important to note that chamber 67 at its outer end is in communication with the housing 85 on the inner side of the diaphragm 84 and subjects said diaphragm to suction and pressure. Fig. 5.
The diaphragm 84 has at its axis a hole through which the outer end portion of the venturi 62, which is outward of the outer ends of the casing 61, projects with a working fit. At its axis the diaphragm 84 has a limited floating movement between an annular flange 92 integral with the outer end of the casing 61 and a like fiange 93 fixed to the outer end of the venturi 62. The diaphragm 84 at its perimeter is fixed between the flange 89 on the front housing member 8'7 and a spacing ring 84 in the housing 85. The'housing 85 is contained within a large annular cap 95 telescoped onto the boss 17 and provided with a plurality of circumferentially extended slits 96 for the circulation of air therethrough. Figs. 4, 5 and 9. A divided ring 97 held in a circumferentially extended groove 98 in the boss 17 frictionally holds the cap 95 on the boss 17. A fixed stud 99 in the groove 98 extends loosely between the ends of the ring 97 and prevents said ring from turning in the groove 98 and facilitates the compression of said ring during the application of the cap 95 to the boss 17 and the removal of the same therefrom. Figs. 5 and 8.
The venturi 62 at its outer open end is normally closed by a conical valve 100 having fixed to its base a spring 101 comprising, as shown. four light radially disposed arms 102. These arms 102 at their outer end positions extend between the diaphragm 84 and the front housing member 87 and thus hold the valve 100.
The following description is for a safety device.
Extending into the body 13 from the under side thereof is a large bore 103 into which a tubular casing 104 having an open upper end and a closed lower end extends at its upper end portion and is secured to the body 13 by screw-threads. Fitted in the bore 103 and supported on the upper end of the casing 104 is an annular box-like casing 185 comprising an upper section 106 and a lower section 107, the former removably supported on the latter. in the center of the section 106 is a large port 108 and axially aligned with the port 108 in the section 107 is a smaller port 109. Figs. 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8.
A valve 110 rests on an external seat 111 on the upper section 106 surrounding the port 108. This valve 110 has a depending stem 112 having an applied nut 113 on its lower end portion.
A second valve 114 slidable on the valve stem 113 is held by a coiled spring 115 on an external seat 116 on the lower section 107 surrounding the port 109. The spring 115 is held compressed between the valve 114 and a washer 117 on the nut 113. Opposing annular bosses 118 on the valve 114 and the washer 117 hold the spring '115 encircling the valve stem 112 centered. Formed in the upper section 106 is a multiplicity of air holes 119 and formed in the lower section 107 are like air holes'12t}. Within the casing 105 is a valve 121 in the form of a loose fiat ring that rests on the lower section 107 and closes the air holes 120. In the lower portion of the casing 104 is a plurality of circumferentially spaced air holes 122. Figs. 5, 10, 11 and 12.
in the wall surrounding the casing 105 is an annular stop shoulder 123 between which and the upper end of the casing 105 is a chamber 124. A port 125 affords communication between the lowermost port 83 and the chamber 124.
A mask 126, applicable to a patients face, is attached to the resuscitator and has integral with its perimeter an endless soft rubber tube 127 provided with a stem 12% having a normally closed valve 129 and through which stem the tube may be inflated. The mask 126 is provided with a slide valve 134} including a ferrule that extend into the mask 126 through a hole in the crown thereof and to which ferrule the mask is fixed with an air-tight joint. The end of the ferrule in the mask is normally closed by a soft disk 132 of rubber or other suitable material. The disk 132 is attached at its center to the ferrule 131 by a screw 133.
The ferrule 131 is slidably mounted on a tubular memher 134 telescoped into the boss 59 with a tight fit. A headed pin 135 extends through slots 136 in the tubular member 134 and holes in the ferrule 131. When the mask 126 is applied to a patients face, it acts as a base of resistance against downward pressure on the resuscitator to move the tubular member 134 into contact with the disk 132 and open the same. The mask 126 is in communication with the chamber 47 through the ferrule 131, the tubular member 134 and the bore 51. Figs. 1 and 5.
As heretofore stated, the volume flow of oxygen from the hose 46 to the resuscitator is controlled by the manually operated valve 29. This valve 29, while intended for general use is particularly needed when the resuscitator is being used on small lungs. In this operation the volume of air or oxygen being delivered through the control valve 29 to the resuscitator must be under a very light flow. Since there is an opening, to wit: the ports '79 between the venturi 62 and the nozzle 63, at all times the light flow of air or oxygen has a tendency to enter the venturi 62 and cause a leak which would effect the deveiopment of sufficient pressure in the resuscitator to force the diaphragm 84 outwardly. Hence, the provision of the conical valve 1% to close the open outer end of the venturi 62 to the atmosphere.
During the inhalation phase oxygen by-passes the nozzle 63 and builds up sufiicient pressure in the resuscitator to force the diaphragm 84 outwardly. This move ment of the diaphragm 84 draws the casing 61, the venturi 62 and the nozzle 63 outwardly, causes the valve 73 to close the port 65 and open said nozzle to oxygen in the chamber 66 which is the beginning of the exhalation phase. The nozzle 63 directs a flow of oxygen into the venturi 62 and from thence to atmosphere which produces suction expelling the gases in the patient and in the resuscitator to atmosphere until the pressure is reduced to the required minimum. This sucks the diaphragm 84 inwardly which in turn moves the casing 61, the venturi 62 and the nozzle 63 inwardly again closing said nozzle and opening the port 65 to permit oxygen to bypass the valve 73 and again build up pressure in the resuscitator.
It may be here stated that this novel resuscitator has eliminated the toggles, toggle springs, cloth or rubberized diaphragms found in other positive and negative resuscitators, and has substituted, therefore, a novel diaphragm, as shown, formed of resilient metal or material such as plastic or any material capable of being formed to concavo-convex shape to withstand pressure required to safely perform lung inhalation and exhalation with out damage to the lungs or other tissues in the human body.
The diaphragm 84 is attached to the venturi 62 which, unlike all other resuscitators, when on inhalation, is not in an open circuit, but a closed circuit.
When diaphragm 84- on inhalation is pressed outwardly, it has operated the casing 61 to seat the valve 73 which closes the port as to inhalation and opened the nozzle 63' to venturi 62, permitting air or oxygen, or fluid such as C0 to flow through the nozzle 63 into the venturi 62 and opens the valve 190 normally held closed by action of the spring arms 102 to atmosphere. This produces suction causing evacuation of lung air, causing a negative pressure in the resuscitator sucking the diaphragm 84 inwardly, which operates the casing 61 to close the nozzle 63 and open the valve and hence the port 65 to inhalation.
This novel action of the diaphragm 84 also differs from all others in this, when the diaphragm is .inward, it is in an inhalation position, just the reverse of the toggle operated resuscitators.
The novel shape of the venturi is highly important as it creates a greater turbulence, giving greater assurance to the suction which is so essential to the more effective performance of aspiration and diaphragm response.
While there are herein disclosed but a limited number of embodiments of the structure, process and product of the invention herein presented, it is possible to produce still other embodiments without departing from the inventive concept herein disclosed, and it is desired, therefore, that only such limitations be imposed on the ap' pended claims as are stated herein, or required by the prior art.
What I claim is:
1. In a resuscitator, a body, a diaphragm, a chamber in the body, means for supplying fluid under pressure to said chamber, a second chamber in the body open to the inner side of the diaphragm, the outer side of the diaphragm being exposed to the atmosphere, a port connscting the two chambers, a venturi leading to atmosphere and yielding for opening and closing the same, a nozzle constructed and arranged to discharge fluid into the venturi said venturi and nozzle being connected for common endwise reciprocation, said nozzle being in communication with the first-noted chamber and having a valve for opening and closing the nozzle to the firstnotcd chamber in reverse order, said diaphragm being attached to the venturi for reciprocating the same and the nozzle and the valve to open and close the port and the nozzle.
2. The invention defined in claim 1 in which the closing of the nozzle includes a seat for the valve on the opposite side of the first-noted chamber from the port.
3. The invention defined in claim 1, further including means for varying the volume flow of fluid to the firstnoted chamber.
4. The invention defined in claim 1, further including means for varying the volume flow of fluid to the firstnoted chamber.
5. The invention defined in claim I, further including a conical valve with its apex extending into the open outer end of the venturi to close the same.
6. The invention defined in claim 1 in which the venturi and nozzle are axially spaced apart, and. in which the means connecting the venturi and the nozzle is a tubular casing having at least one port in communication with the last-noted chamber.
7. The invention defined in claim 1, further including a mask in communication with the last-noted chamber...
8. The invention defined in claim 1 in which the dia phragm is free for a limited axial floating movement.
9. The invention defined in claim 1 in which the venturi at its intake end is abruptly inwardly curved to a small axial hole and then gradually outwardly tapered toward its discharge end.
10. The invention defined in claim 1 in which the diaphragm is a thin sheet of flexible material.
11. The invention defined in claim 1 in which the diaphragm is a thin sheet of concavo-convex flexible material.
12. in a resuscitator, a body, a housing fixed relative to the body, a diaphragm in the housing and held thereaseases by at its perimeter, said housing outwardly of the diaphragm being open tothe atmosphere, a chamber in the body to which fluid under pressure is supplied, a second chamber in the body in communication with the housing on the inner side of the diaphragm, a port connecting the two chambers, a nozzle in communication withthe first-noted chamber and having a valve for opening andclosing'the port and for opening and closing the nozzle to the first-noted chamber in reverse order, said nozzle being constructed and arranged to discharge fluid from the first-noted chamber into the venturi, said venturi and'n'ozzle beingconnected for common endwise reciprocation, said diaphragm being attached to the venturi for reciprocating the same and the nozzle and the valve for openingand closing the port and nozzle and a yieldingly held valve normally closing the venturi to atmosphere.
13. The invention defined inclaim 1 in 'which the diaphragm at its perimeter and .center has a limited axial floating mo-vementyrelativeto the housing and the venturi and a yieldingly held valve normally closing the venturi to atmosphere.
14. In a resuscitator, a mask, a body, a housing, ,a diaphragm in the housing and held thereby at its perimeter, said housing outwardly or". the diaphragm being open to atmosphere, a chamber in the body in communication with the mask, a tubular core leading the chamber and into the housing to which core the housing is attached,.ascrew plug closing the core to the chamber and havinga valve seat on its inner end, a partition in the core dividing the same at its inner end portion into a narrow fluid intake chamber and 'a long suction and pressure chamber in. communication with the housing on the inner side of the'diaphragm, the first-noted chamber and the suction and pressure chamber being in communication the one with the other, a port in the partition connecting the last two chambers, means for supplying the fluid intake chamber with fluid under pressure, a venturi. and'a' nozzle, the former being open toatmosphere and the latter being in communication with the fluid intake chamber, said nozzle being constructed and arranged to deliver fluid from the fluid intake chamber into the venturi, said venturi and nozzle being connected for endwise reciprocation in the core, said nozzle having a valve for opening and closing the port and cooperating with the valve seat on the screw plug for opening and closing the nozzle, said diaphragm being attached to the venturi for reciprocating the same and the nozzle and the valve for opening and closing the port and the nozzle and a yieldingly held valve normally closing the venturi to atmosphere.
15. The invention defined in claim 14 in which the venturi and the nozzle are axially spaced and in which the means connecting the venturi and the nozzle is a tubular casing having at least one port in communication with the suction and pressure chamber.
16. The invention defined in claim 14 in which the diaphragm at its attachment to the housing and the venturi has a limited axial floating movement.
Fox May 22, 1945 Goodner Oct. 4, 1949