US 2867941 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 13, 1959 R. A`. Du BREUlL 2,867,941
TOY AIRPLANE Filed May 1, 1957 l 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 /03 INVENTOR.
Jan. 13, 1959 R. A. DU BREUH. 2,861,941
TOY' AIRPLANE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May l, 1957 INVENTOR.
f E Mmw @fffw United States Patent C TOY AIRPLANE Robert A. Du Breuil, Hicksville, N. Y.
Application May 1, 1957, Serial No. 656,255
3 Claims. (Cl. 4679) ward ducts for entrance of air, and an open tail pipe for escape of the products of combustion, and these elements must be appropriately simulated in order to provide a proper replica. In order to design and produce a threedimensional toy model incorporating these features, novel forms of paperboard construction elements are utilized, including a fuselage element so formed from two pieces ofk paperboard material that the air ducts are automatically formed and positioned during assembly of these pieces, and a tail assembly for the fuselage, including a stabilizer and a rudder, and which provides the simulation of the tail pipe and locks the elements in position,
A further object of the invention is to provide a toy jet airplane so designed and assembled that it will fly (loop and etc.) when launched by hand. It is a common aerodynamic principle that the longitudinal and directional flight characteristics of an airplane depend upon the angle of the stabilizer in relation to the angle of the wing, as well as upon the correct location or distribution of weight with relation to the center of gravity. In order to achieve these characteristics a novel paperboard construction has been devised. This includes a wing platform in the fuselage and a Wing which is formed to lock in position with respect thereto. Also, the tail assembly above described is so constructed that the stabilizer is locked in proper position in relation to the thus positioned wing.
The weight, and control of the center of gravity of this toy airplane, are automatically built in during assembly. This is achieved by the incorporation of a separate paper weight piece in the nose portion of the fusev lage which not only reinforces the nose but serves also to establish the proper required weight andl balance for good ight characteristics.
Another object of the invention is to provide a paperboard construction strong enoughto withstand the abuse incident to repeated flights. This is achieved by providing a structure which strengthens the nose portion of the airplane and transmits all shocks and force to which the nose is subjected through internal parts of the airplane, thus precluding the possibility of damage to the characteristic external form of the fuselage. This internal lstrengthening structure includes the nose weight piece which butts against the wing, and the wing which is so ldesigned and placed as to butt against adjacent means vin the tail portion.
Another object of the invention is to provide a toy :airplane which is of simple construction and assembly and is thus less time consuming to set up for use than ice others now known. To this end the airplane is so designed that it may preferably be completely assembled, and secured in such assembly, by integral elements and without the use of applied fastening devices, glue or other adhesive. It will be noted, also, that the airplane is fabricated wholly of paperboard and does not require the use of supplemental parts made of other materials, such as metal nose weights, metal fasteners, or the like. Furthermore, the design and assembly of the parts are such that any force or shock applied to the nose of the airplane tends to lock the paperboard elements more securely in place, thus preserving the characteristic form and flight attributes of the toy.
In keeping with the objective of achieving simplicity and ease of construction, the blanks for forming the parts of the airplane are so designed as to be capable of being completely die-cut and scored in flat paperboard sheets, and the number of paperboard pieces has been reduced to a minimum without sacrifice of -structural perfection.
Various other objects and advantages will become apparent from the detailed description hereinafter appearmg.
In the accompanying drawings illustrating the invention, in the several figures of which like parts are similarly designated,
Figs. l, 2 and 3 are plan views of three paperboard sheets in which the blanks for the various elements of the model toy airplane of the invention are defined by cuts and folding scores and from which these parts are severable as individual elements upon the cuts defining their outlines,
In Figs. 4 to ll perspective views upon a reduced scale show various stages in the assembly of the parts of the toy airplane, and in these figures,
Fig. 4 is a perspective view ofthe partially three-dimensionally formed fuselage body and tail portion,
Fig. 5 is an exploded perspective view of the rudder and stabilizer elements of the tail assembly,
Fig. 6 is a perspective View of the completed assembly of the rudder and stabilizer elements,
Fig. 7 is a perspective view similar to Fig. 4 but showing the rudder and stabilizer assembly installed in the tail portion of the fuselage,
Fig. 8 is a perspective view of the wing element,
Fig. 9 is a perspective View similar to Fig. 7 but with the wing element in applied position,
Fig. l0 is an exploded view showing the nose assembly of the fuselage and the nose weight element, and indicating the direction and location of application of such nose weight element to the nose assembly, and
Fig. 1l is a perspective View of the completely assembled toy airplane,
Fig. l2 is an enlarged central longitudinal sectional elevation of the completely assembled toy airplane,
Fig. 13 is a transverse sectional elevation of the tail assembly taken in the plane of line 13--13, Fig. l2, and
Fig. 14 is a perspective View of the nose weight element in partially formed condition.
Having reference to Figs. l to 3, it will be seen that the blanks for the assembly elements of the airplane of the invention are formed preferably as parts of three sheets of paperboard material, for example cardboard, of such appropriate quality and caliper as best fits it for production of the several elements. The three sheet production of the elements serves not only to facilitate packaging in flat form, but inasmuch as the Fuselage and Rudder'elements, and the Nose and insignia elements of the sheets of Fig. l and 3 may be made of relatively light caliper paperboard, as distinguished from the Wing, Nose Weight and Stabilizer elements of the sheet of Fig. 2, which are preferably made of relatively heavier caliper paperboard to furnish adequate rigidity, lstrength and weight, this three sheet production of the elements serves also to readily provide for such a desired difference in caliper of the sheets.
nln Figs. l to 3 the relatively heavy full and broken lines indicate cuts and folding scores, respectively, and provide the boundaries for the structural elements of the toy Vairplane and demarcation between their relatively foldable parts (heavy full lines) and the fold lines, respectively, upon which these parts may be relatively folded, whereas the relatively light full lines dene the boundaries of surface ornamentation, such as coloring, as indicated by the stippling and parallel lining on various areas of the elements with the exception of the nose weight element which, in the nished assembly of the airplane (Fig. ll) is wholly concealed.
As suggested, and as shown in Figs. l to 3, the provisiony of three separate sheets of equal size will facilitate packaging, but where paperboard of only two different calipers is desired or required, as explained, only two sheets will suffice, the sheet of heavier caliper containing only the Wing, Nose Weight, and Stabilizer elements, and the sheet of lighter caliper containing all of the other elements.
Referring to Fig. l, it will be seen that the fuselage element, which forms the main body 1 and tail section 2 of the fuselage of the toy airplane, comprises a longitudinal member provided substantially midway of its length, at the main body portion l, with laterally olfstanding aps 3 and 4 bendable downwardly and inwardly upon folding scores 5 and 6, respectively, the ap 3 being provided at its free edge 7 with a pair of lock- `ing tabs 8 which, when the fuselage element 1 2 is bowed upwardly to substantially semi-cylindrical form, may be lockingly engaged in complemental slits 9 preferably lying in alignment with the folding score 6.
Laterally otfstanding from the tail section 2, and separated from the flaps 3 and 4 of the main body 1 of the fuselage by cuts 1t) and 11, respectively, are lateral extensions 12 and 13 provided with securing tiaps 14 and 15ndened from them by folding scores 16 and 17, respectively, upon which they may ultimately be folded to provide the simulation of a substantially cylindrical tail pipe. The free edge 18 of the flap 14 is provided with locking tabs 19 for securing engagement with complemental slits 21B preferably lying in substantial alignment with the folding score 17 and provided with lips, as shown, to facilitate entering of the locking tabs 1g.
Substantially forwardly of the aps 3 and 4 of the main body portion 1 of the fuselage element is bifurcated to provide two similar forwardly extending, laterally divcrging, air duct forming members 21 having upon their opposite lateral edges pairs of locking tabs 22 and 23, land their rear ends terminating in positioning tabs 24 defined from the aps 3 and 4 by arcuate cuts 2S. Between the duct forming members 21 at the crotch of their bifurcation is a positioning tab 26.
At the tail of the fuselage element the portion 2 is provided with a centrally arranged axially extending slit 27, and in the adjacent lateral extensions 12 and 13 slot forming cuts 28 are provided, and the slit 27 and cuts 23 function to accommodate, locate and anchor with the tail portion the rudder and stabilizer elements, respectively, as will be described hereinafter.
Referring further to Fig. l, it will be seen that the rudder element comprises two similar substantially triangular members Zg joined along, and flat foldable upon, a folding score 30. Each of these members 29 is provided upon its ultimate lower edge 31 with a mounting :flap 32, of less extent than such edge, having pairs of spaced ultimately vertically disposed slots 33. Thus, when the triangular members 29 are flat folded one upon 4the other upon their folding score Sti, the mounting flaps 32 will be brought into juxtaposition with their pairs of .slots 33inregister. In order that this folded condition of the parts may be maintained, one of the triangular members 29 is provided at its free edge 34 with an offstanding securing tab 35, and the other of such members is provided with a complemental locking slit 36 lying in substantial alignment with the folding score 37 lying between such member 29 and an edge flap 38. It will be noted that when thus folded and secured the combined bottom edges 31 of the members 29 will extend beyond (forwardly and rearwardly) of the ultimate vertical edges of the mouning aps 32.
The wing element, Fig. 2, comprises two identical wings 39 of swept-wing type integral with and laterally projecting from a centrally disposed mounting panel 40 having forward and rearward projections 41 and 42 extending beyond the lines of junction 43 of the wings 39 with the panel 4d. lt will be noted that the length of these lines of junction 43 is substantially commensurate with the length of the folding score lines 5 and 6 of the fuselage element and thus upon assembly of the wing element with the fuselage a nice fore and aft t will be attained, as will be described hereinafter.
The two stabilizer elements, Fig. 2, have identical bodies 44, although formed for right-hand and left-hand installation, and each is provided with a pair of similar support and templet members 45 bendable normal to the bodies upon folding scores 46. The ultimate inner edge of each of these templct members is provided with a positioning and mounting tab 47, and these tabs will, when arranged in the tail assembly, pass into, and through, respective mating slots 33 of the mounting flaps 32 of the rudder element, as will later appear.
The nose weight element, Fig. 2, comprises a fore and aft divergently tapering top portion 48 and similar side portions 49 Vbendable downwardly with respect to the top portion upon folding scores 5t) which define the major side edges of the top portion. The rear, ultimately substantially vertically disposed, ends of the side portions 49 are formed with feet 51 to hold the nose weight element, and particularly the rear edges 52 of its side portions 49 properly disposed in the airplane assembly. The forward ends of the top and side portions 48 and 49, respectively, are tapered to points and these tapered parts of the side portions are provided with tapered weighting sections`53 and 54 foldable upon folding scores 55 and 56-56, and one of which, at least (54 as shown), comprises a plurality of wedge like, or tapering, sections the outer one of which is provided at its free edge 57 with a locking tab S8 for insertion in a locking slit 59 preferably disposed in substantial alignment with the folding score 56 which forms the connection between the weighting section 54 and the side portion 49 to which it is attached. Thus, when the nose weight element is brought into final, weight-forming assembly (see Figs. l2 and i4), gathering together of the tapered ends of the top and side portions 48 and 49, respectively, and inward bending of the weighting section 53 upon its folding score 55, will produce a pyramidal point around which the several triangular parts of the weighting section 54 will be wrapped and the locking tab 58 then inserted through the locking slit 59 to secure this assembly.
The nose element, Fig. 3, includes fore and aft portions 60 and 61, respectively, integral with the forward portion and rearward extension of a base panel 62 and foldable with respect thereto upon relatively angularly disposed folding scores 63 and 64, respectively. The fore portion 60 constitutes the nose proper 65 of the airplane, the simulated cockpit 66, and the forward portion 67 of the fuselage; and the aft portion 61, taken with the base panel 62, constitutes, with the assembled flaps 3 and 4 of the fuselage element (Fig. l), a supporting, positioning and securing mounting for the wing element (Fig. 2) and a relatively rigid connecting member between the fore portion 60 of the nose element and the forward part of the main vbody portion 1 of the fuselage.
The nose proper `65 includes a top portion 68 connected with the simulated cockpit 66 and capable of bemg curled upon its longitudinal axis to approximate conical shape, and at the sides of the top portion 68 and dened therefrom by forwardly converging folding scores y69 and 70 are-nose bottom forming aps 71 and 72, respectively, which, when folded upon their folding scores 69 and 70, will be disposed in overlapping arrangement with the flap 72 on the exterior. This exterior flap 72 is provided with a locking tab 73 for securing engagement with a locking slit 74 which lies in substantial alignment with the folding score 69 of the flap 71. When thus assembled, it will be apparent that, although the'nose proper is provided with a top portion of rather true conical form, its sides are substantially vertical and its bottom horizontal and at.
The simulated cockpit has similar side members 75 and positioning iiaps 75' dened by cuts 76, 77 and folding scores 78 and 78', and each of these side members is provided with a locking tab '79, which tabs are for insertion, upon erection of the fore portion 60 of the nose element, in complemental locking slits S0 formed in substantial alignment with the folding scores 81 of positioning ilaps 82.
The forward free edges of the fore portion 60 of the nose element, and of the base panel 62, are provided with positioning and retaining flaps 83 and 84, and 85, respectively, adapted to be embraced within the substantially conical assembly of the nose proper 65. The rear edge of the fore portion 60 of the nose element is formed with a longitudinally axially projecting tab 86 which is designed to engage and overlie the positioning tab 26 of the fuselage element when assembly of such element with the nose element is effected.
The ultimate side portions 8'7 and 88 of the fore portion 60 ofthe nose element are provided with pairs of similar convergently arranged locking slits 89 and 90 into which, respectively, the locking tabs 22 and 23 of the air duct forming members 21 of the fuselage element will be inserted during assembly of the parts. It should be noted, here, that the spacing of the locking slits 89 and 90 from each other is less than the width 0f the air duct forming members 21 between their free longitudinal edges, and hence, when the locking tabs 22 and 23 of these members are properly fully inserted into the complemental slits 89 and 90 of the nose element, a pronounced bulge of the duct forming members 21 will be attained to thus simulate the characteristic appearance of conventional air ducts.
The side portion 88 of the fore portion 60 of the nose element opposite the base panel 62` is provided with a positioning flap 91 bendable upon a folding score 92, and substantially in alignment with this folding score locking slits 93 are provided for engagement with locking tabs 94 which project from the free longitudinal edge 95 of the base panel 62.
The aft portion 61 of the nose element is formed as a plurality of tube-forming panels 96, 97, 9S and 99 joined to the base panel 62 upon the folding score 64 and foldable seriatim to rectangular, box-like, tube form upon intermediate folding scores 100, 101 and 102, and upon lthe folding score 64,v so that the panel 99 will be superimposed inwardly upon the base panel 62 to provide a double-thickness bottom wall, the panel 97 will provide a top wall, and the panels 96 and 98 will provide side walls for the tube. It will be noted that the rear edges of the base panel 62, top wall panel 97, and side wall panels 96 and 98 are provided with rearwardly extending tab means 103, 104, 105 and 106, respectively, these tab means serving to provide a telescopic connection between the nose element and the fuselage element in the assembly of these parts.
In substantial alignment with the folding score 100, locking slits 107 are provided for locking engagement by locking tabs 108 which project from the free edge 109 of the base panel 62, thus providing ameans ,whereby 75 maintenance of the' tube structure of the aft portion of the nose element may be had.
As hereinbefore stated, the various parts of the toy airplane may be suitably and characteristically ornamented by coloring, and distinctive insignia and emblems may also be applied to them, as indicated in Figs. l to 3. Also, as shown in Fig. 3, an additional emblem 110 may be furnished, 4with cuts providing its outline so that it may readily be separated from the sheet and pasted, or otherwise aixed, in appropriate location upon the airplane, for example upon the under side of a wing.
It will be noted that all of the locking tabs which are so located as to fasten together the longitudinal edge portion of the fuselage and nose elements, namely the tabs 19, 94 and 108 are provided with forwardly projecting lobes which, when these tabs are inserted through their complemental locking slits 20, 93 and 107, respectively, will producea tenacious and normally inseparable connection of the parts. Furthermore, in view of the nature of the interlock afforded by these tabs ,and their complemental locking slits, it will be seen that forces or shocks to which the nose of the airplane may be subjected will tend to increase, rather than diminish, the tenacity of the interlock, thus making unnecessary the provision of glued, or otherwise adhesively or fastener secured, connections.
However, should the assembler of the airplane wish to augment the tab and slit connection of the parts, the flaps 4, 15, 38, 53, 71, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 91, 99, 103, 104, and 106, and the mid portion of the wing element 40, may be supplied with adhesive.
Obviously, as is common in the formation of erectable blanks as knock-out portions of sheets, the cuts which dene in the sheets of Figs. l to 3 the outlines of the various elements of the airplane will be provided with breaks to furnish readily severable connections between the edges of the blanks and the sheets.
Referring now particularly to Figs. l to 13, erection and assembly of the several elements of the airplane may be performed as follows: Bend the flaps 4 and the tabs 8 of the fuselage element downward, and then, while bowing the `body portion of this element upward about its longitudinal axis, fold the flaps 3 and 4 into juxtaposition, with the flap 3 exposed, and insert the locking tabs 8 into their complemental locking slits 9. This operation will erect the `fuselage element to the condition illustrated in Fig. 4, with the flap 3 providing a horizontally disposed 'bearing surface. Next, flat-fold the rudder element upon its foldscore 30 and insert its locking tab 35 into the complemental slit 36 (Fig. 5). Then insert the flat-folded mounting flaps 32 of the rudder element through the fuselage slit 27 until the edges 31 of the members 29 limit such insertion, `and with the support and templet members 45 of the stabilizer elements fiat folded inwardly upon the folding scores 46 against the bodies 44, insert the thus folded parts of these stabilizer elements through the slits 28 at opposite sides of the fuselage element and unfold and erect the support and templet members 45 so that they stand upward normal to the stabilizer bodies 44 and insert their positioning and mounting tabs 47, in pairs and in opposite directions from the two stabilizer elements, through the registered slots 33 in the mounting flaps 32 of the rudder element. The form of the assembly of the rudder and stabilizer elements is shown in Fig. 6 apart from the fuselage element, and Fig. 7 illustrates the assembly of the parts thus far described.v It will be noted that the edge contour of the support and templet members 45 when thus assembled in the tail portion of the fuselage impart an approximately cylindrical form to the fuselage in simulation of a tail pipe (see Fig. 13).
Next, the wing element is put in place (Fig. 9), wit the forward edges of the wings 'at their junction with the wing panel 40 tight against the nips of the cuts 25 which form Vthe positioning tabs 24 and the similarly disposed parts of the rear edges of the wings bearing tightly against the vertical edges 10 and 11 ofthe fuselage parts 12 and 13. The wing element will-v thus bear upwardly against the horizontally disposed flap 3 of the fuselage element. Also, itwill be seen, by reference to Fig. 12, that when thus put in place the aft end of the rearward projection 42 of the Wing element abuts against the fixed forward edges of the mounting flaps 32 of the rudder element, thus giving fore and aft stability to the wing element with respect to the fuselage element.
Now, to assemble the nose element the aft portion 61 thereof is folded into tube form, as hereinbefore explained, and locked in such form by the cooperating tab and slit connection means 108-107, and then, bowing the fore portion 60 upwardly, and folding the flap 91 inwardly upon its folding score 92, the locking tabs 94 are engaged with the locking slits 93 from the outside inwardly. This presents the cockpit parts in such position that the locking tabs 79 thereof may be inserted in their complemental locking slits 80 with the positioning aps 75 and 82 disposed inwardly of the cockpit, substantially as shown in Fig. l2. Thereupon, after gathering together the retaining flaps 83, 84 and 85 the nose element proper 65 is wrapped around them to its nearconical shape, the parts 71 and 72 are bent toward each other upon their respective folding scores 69 and 70, and the locking tab 73 is inserted in its complemental locking slit 74. The completed assembly of the nose element thus far described is shown at the left in Fig. 10.
The nose element is so formed as to receive the nose weight element, the form and assembly of which has hereinbefore been described, and it is inserted in the nose element through the rear opening therein, as indicated by the arrow a, Fig. 10, so that its pointed front end ts snugly within the nose proper 65 and the rear edges 52 of its side portions 49 abut against the forward edge of the top wall panel 97 of the box-like tube of the aft portion 61 of the nose element, same being positioned for such abutting engagement by the feet 51.
Next, the fuselage element is slipped over the tube of the aft portion 61 of the nose element so that the wing element will bear upon the top wall panel 97 thereof, with the forward projection 41 of the wing element extending between, and axially centered in the nose element by, the side wall portions 49 of the nose weight element, the positioning tabs 24 of the fuselage element disposed inwardly of and against the inner faces of such side wall portions, and the positioning tab 26 of the fuselage element underlying the complemental positioning tab 86 of the nose element; whereafter, with outward bowing of the air duct forming members 21, their locking tabs 22 and 23 are inserted in t-he complemental locking slits 89 and 90 of the nose element; and finally the members 12 and 13 of the fuselage element, with their aps 14 and 15, are folded around the tab means 103, 104, 105 and 106 of the aft portion 61 of the nose element, and around the assembly of the rudder and stabilizer elements, and the locking tabs 108 inserted into the complemental locking slits 107. This completes the assembly as shown in Figs. 11 and 12.
It will be seen, particularly by reference to Fig. l2, that the design and assembly of the several elements is such as to provide outer surface contours best adapted to impart to the airplane the desired flight characteristics, while at the same time affording a marked similarity in appearance to the actual airplane that it is intended to represent, that shown being the F 11F Tiger Jet.
The assembly features of the elements, and the cooperation of internally disposed parts thereof, or applied thereto, provides a toy airplane structure which has'both longitudinal and lateral strength or rigidity capable of resisting the forces and shocks to which it will lbe subjected in repeated flights.
If-it is found, during flight, that the airplane stall the trailing edges of the stabilizer elements 44 may be bent downward, and if it dives these edges may be bent upward. Any tendency for the airplane to roll to one side or the other may be corrected by appropriate upward or downward bending of the trailing edges of the tips of the lwings 39.
Various changes and modifications are considered to be within the principle of the invention and the scope of the following claims.
What I claim is:
l. A toy airplane, comprising a plurality of assembled elements of paperboard blank form provided with appropriate cuts and folding scores defining in said blanks the characteristic airplane parts of said elements, the elements including a fuselage element, a nose element, a wing element, a rudder element, a pair of similarstabilizer elements, and a nose weight element, the cuts and folding scores of said fuselage element defining therein a main body portion and a tail portion and air duct forming member projecting forwardly from said main body portion and adapted in the completed assembly to overlie side wall surfaces of the nose element, said tail portion being provided with flaps, and interlocking securing means for said flaps, and capable of being assembled thereby into tube form in simulation of the tail pipe'of a jet airplane, and its body portion being provided with aps provided with interlocking securing means which upon being folded upon their folding scores and secured beneath the body portion will impart to the body portion an upwardly bowed contour and will thus maintain it, said last named flaps also providing beneath the body portion a wing element engaging and positioning surface, and said nose element having interconnected and relatively separately assemblable fore and aft portions, the fore portion comprising the nose proper and a simulated cockpit, and being provided at its opposite longitudmal edges with a base panel, having a rearward extension, and an assembly ap, said base panel and assembly flap carrying complemental locking securing means and bendable upon their respective folding scores into engagement beneath said fore portion to secure the same in'upwardly bowed and hollow forwardly 'tapering condition, and said nose proper comprising a top portion and securing flaps having complemental securing locking means and capable of being assembled in substantially hollow conical form, positioning tabs extending forwardly from the fore portion of the nose element for embracing engagement by said conically assembled nose proper, and the aft portion of said nose element comprising relatively foldable panels secured to the rearward extension of said base panel and serving, when relatively folded, to provide a box-like tubular member for telescoping association with the forward portion of said fuselage element and having a top wall panel providing a seat for the wing element complemental to the wing element engaging and positioning surface of said fuselage element, said sides of the fore portion of the nose element and the forwardly projecting air duct forming members of the fuselage element being provided with complemental interengaging locking elements serving to secure the nose element and the fuselage element relatively assembled, and the tail portion of the fuselage element and said rudder and stabilizer elements being provided with cor operating positioning and securing means whereby their assembly may be effected.
2. A top airplane constructed as claimed in claim 1, in which the nose weight element comprises a substantially pyramidal forward end portion and a supporting portion extending rearwardly from its said end portion, said weight element being insertable into the hollow interior of the fore portion of the nose element with its end portion extending into and embraced by said nose proper.
*3; lA toy airplane constructed as claimed in claim l,
' 2,867,941 9 Y 10 1n which the said complemental securing locking means References Cited in the le of this patent of the fuselage element, the fore and aft portions of the UNITED STATES PATENTS nose element and the nose proper, respectively, comends of said sum Y 2,397,364 Myers Mar. 26, 1946