US 2868584 A
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Jan. 13, 1959 D. G. FAUs- SPRAY SYSTEM Filed June 28, 1954 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOA De/ber G. Faust BY ATTORNEYS Jan. 13, 1959 Y D. G. FAUST 2,868,584
SPRAY SYSTEM Filed June 28, 1954 5 sheets-sheet 2 58f"Ll d L* 0 #Tl- 82 1 ao 57 8/a 74 T I g.- 6
Delbert G. Fausf BY L ATTORNEYS D. G. FAUST `SPRAY sYTEM Jan. 13, 1959 vsheets-sheetA 3 Filed June 28, 1954 l.. Il Il INVHVTOR.
Delbert G. Fausf ATTORNEYS e 2,868,584 Ice Patented Jan. 13, 1959 SPRAY SYSTEM Delbert G. Faust, Arapahoe County, Colo., assigner to Q. A. Norgren So., Englewood, Colo., a corporation of Colorado Application lune 28, 1954, Serial No. 439,785
4 claims. (ci. ziaso This invention relates to spray systems and more pan ticularly to pressurized air-liquid spray systems which provide distribution of a spray'or aerosol to multiple point, and which includes means for controlling the spray at the individual points of use. f
While many types of spray systems for many different uses have been known, recently interest has grown in oilair spray systems, especially for use in metal working industries which use cutting, drawing, forging, pressing, and like operations. Common practice in metal cutting dictates the use of a deluge of a mixture of cutting oil and water, in an attempt to cool the cutting tools. Recently, however, there has been considerable interest and investigation in the art of metal cutting, for the purposes of increasing tool life, increasing `feeds and cutting speeds,
improving finish, and in the overall picture of increasing production and reducing costs.
Investigations in the metal cutting art have followed many paths; studies include various types of cutting compounds, revised tool geometry, and methods of applying cutting compounds. The information collected from the various sources is, to a large extent, conliicting.` There does seem, however, to be well substantiated agreement among the authorities that improved tool life, with increased rates of feed and speed, and improved surface nish, is possible by applying cutting oil as a finely divided spray, as compared to the past practice of deluging the tool and work with a free flowing stream of cutting oil composition.
The fundamental theories which underline and support the conclusions that a fine spray application of cutting oil is anv improvement in the metal working industry appears to be sound. Theprincipal problems in metal cutting operations are (l) the dissipation of heat resulting from the metal shearing action and (2) the maintenance of a lubricating film between the surfaces of the metal being cut yand the cutting tool. Generated heat is inherent in the operation, and cutting or shearing metal cannot be performed without developing considerable heat. Therefore, the best that can be done is to try to rapidly dissipate the heat generated by this shearing or cutting action so as to maintain the cutting portion of the tool at a temperature sufficiently low to prevent damage to the cutting edges.
After the metal has been sheared by the cutting tool, the chip thus produced curls back across the face of the cutting tool. The unit load between this removed metal and the tool face is quite high, obviously, depending on 'the feed, speed and depth of cut. lf no effort is made to lubricate the contacting surfaces of tool and chip, the friction, between these two rubbing surfaces, 'creates considerable heat, raises the tool tip temperature beyond safe limits, and results, normally, in early tool failure. By providing a suitable lubricant film between the surface of the tool and the metal being worked, this source of heat can be substantially reduced.
AThe current practices of deluging the work from above fails to lapply lubricant to the points of gratestn'eed.
Large quantities of cutting oil from a nozzle are discharged over the tool and the entire work surface, and it is only by a very obscure route that any of the cutting oil reaches the interface between the tool and the removed metal where it is most desired and where it will be most beneficial. The improved techniques of applying cutting oil by a spray directly onto the tool and worked metal assure a greater quantity of the cutting oil contacting the surfaces between the tool and the metal.
The surface temperatures at the point of shear of the metal `are very high; therefore, the cutting oils which are applied do not provide lubrication in the manner of the lubrication of a bearing, for example. The lubrication of these heated interface surfaces depends upon the instantaneous decomposition or vaporization of these cutting compounds to provide a dry lubricant on the surface of the metal which has just been removed, as well as on the tool face and cutting edges themselves. This reaction or decomposition of the cutting oils is considerably speeded on its way by breaking up the cutting oil into very fine particles, such as a spray, prior to applying it to the heated surfaces. The use of a spray gives two important results: (l) the finely divided liquid `particles expose more surface area of the cutting oil to the high temperature metal surfaces, therefore, the reaction between the cutting oil and these hot surfaces occurs more rapidly, and a heavier layer of dry lubricant is built up between the surfaces, and (2) a higher rate of heat extraction from the work surface and the cutting tool is possible because these finely divided particles of cutting oil, with more surface exposed to the heated metal surfaces, will decompose or vaporize at a much more rapid rate, since the heat of vaporization must come from the work piece and the cutting tool. Tue greater the heat extraction, of course, the lower the temperature of the work piece, and more important, the lower the tool temperature.
According to the present invention there is ,provided a spray system which utilizes a central liquid feed reservoir and common air line to supply a plurality of spaced spray nozzles or outlets. The spray system provides an individual spray control for each outlet, as well as a general control for the overall system. The simplified system includes a positive pressure liquid supply, which permits substantial adjustment of individual outlets. The spray systempermits the use of water or water soluble oils, as well as petroleum base oils, and other liquids, and
further permits such liquids to be dispensed as a very fine spray or aerosol. The individual outlets are very sensitive to control so that very fine adjustments may be accomplished at each individual outlet to provide the desired spray.
Included among the objects and advantages of the present invention is a simplified, aero-sol spray system, having a central pressurized liquid supply reservoir for feeding multiple outlets or spray nozzles, and which provides a sensitive control for adjusting individual outlet nozzles. The invention, furthermore, provides a spray system which is controllable for providing various types of sprays at various individual points of use. The invention includes a novel piping system and corresponding fittings, including' spray nozzles, for utilizing the piping system to produce a series of spray or `aerosol streams from the central liquid dispenser and central air pressure line. Novel valve means are provided to control the spray issuing from individual nozzles without disturbing the operation of other outlets along the line. The spray system is adapted to utilize water, water soluble compounds, oils and similar types of compounds, which may be desired as aspray or aerosol.
These and other objects `and advantages of the invert# tion will be apparent from the following description and appended illustrations, in which:
'Figure 1 is a general layout of a pressure system according to the invention, including a central liquid dispenser, interconnecting piping, and individual spray nozzles;
Figure 2 is a cross `sectional view yof a control valve for individual spray nozzles along the lines;
Figure 3 is a cross sectional view of a nozzle for utilizing the spray system of the invention;
IFigure 4 is a `cross sectional view `of a modified nozzle or nozzle tip according tothe invention;
Figure 5 is a schematic `view of a modified spray system utilizing a concentric .pipe in a pipe for transporting two fluids which are used to form the aerosol or spray;
Figure 6 is a cross sectional view of a central liquid reservoir with an integral pressure regulator for use in the pipe in a pipe syst-em;
-Figure 7 is a cross sectional view showing the details of a yconnector and la multiple T takeoff for a pipe in a pipe system;
yFigure 8 is an end elevation view of the `device of Figure 7;
Figure 9 is a cross 'sectional view `of an individual T takeoff for the pipe in a pipe system;
Figure lO is an end elevation of the -device of Figure 9 illustrating the position of the various passages in the takeoff from the pipe in a pipe system;
Figure l-l is a cross sectional View of a modified spray nozzle; and
Figure 12' is an end elevation of the device of Figure ll taken along `section line 12--12.
In the system illustrated in Figure ll, compressed air from a primary air supply `line l@ is filtered =by means of an air lter l2. The filtered primary air is divided by means of a T 14, part of which passes through an upper regulator A16 and part through a lower regulator 18. The upper regulator i6 controls the air pressure in a secondary air supply line 29, and lower regulator i8 :controls secondary air pressure in line 21 leading to a central liquid supply tank 22. The liquid supply tank 22 4includes a filler plug 23, a sight glass 24, to ascertain the level of the liquid in the tank, and a feed supply line 25 which extends to the bottom of the tank for withdrawing liquid from supply tank 22. Air under pressure, introduced into the supply tank by means of conduit 21, forces liquid from the tank 22 through supply line 2% into central feed line 2e. As the spray outlets of the system are quite small, the liquid issuing from the tank is. preferably filtered, as by a filter 27 in the line, to aid in preventing clogged outlets by yforeign matter. The
' air line, and the companion liquid line 26 are extended along a prescribed route, and at the point of first use, a mixing and adjusting valve 28 is inserted across the lines to mix liquid and air Vfor exhausting as an Iaerosol through a spray nozzle 30.
The mixing valve 28, shown in detail in Figure 2, comprises a body 31 having an air passage 32 and a liquid passage 33 extending therethrough. The air passage 32 and the liquid passage 33 are internally threaded on each end thereof so that the valve lmay be inserted into the air line and the liquid line. When assembled in the lines, the valve provides a passage for the air and liquid therethrough. The passages extending through the valve will, under normal conditions, provide passage lof substantially full ow of the yfluid through the lines. A lateral passage 34 extends between the liquid passage 33 and the air passage 32., and a tube 35 secured into the passage 34 extends the passage through the air passage 32 and exhausts into a lateral air outlet 36. The side outlet 36 is threaded to accommodate a connector 37 to which is attached a spray nozzle. A needle-valve assembly 3S is secured to the valve by means of a valve gland 39 and a packing nut 4i?. A packing ring 41, 'secured in place by the packing nut Liti, is provided to prevent leakage through the needle valve assembly. The needle valve 38 passes through the liquid passage 33 and seats in the end of the lateral passage 34 forming therewith a controlled outlet orifice for liquid. A retaining ring 39a prevents accidental removal of the needle.
A -spray nozzle, suitable for use with the spray system, is illustrated in detail in Figures 3 and 4. The nozzle of Figure 3 comprises a main tube `42 and a atten section yor orifice 43 of the tube. The tube-42 is substantially smaller than the air passage 32. :The flattened end provides a smaller cross sectional outlet than the tube 42, so that the nozzle provides the principal restriction to the air ow from each branch or lateral line. The nozzle orifice 43 may be varied in Isize to meet individual requirements, and provid-es means for controlling the amount of air exhausted at each outlet. The spray at each individual outlet is adjusted 'by controlling the amount of liquid and air issuing from each nozzle.
'ln lFigure 4, a modified nozzle tip is illustrated. In this modification, a nozzle tip 46 is telescoped into a nozzle tube r42. The end -of the tube 42 is rolled into a groove 47 near the end of the tip 46 thereby securing the parts together. T o prevent leakage between the tube 42 and tip 46 an O ring seal 45 is seated in an annular groove 49 in the tip 46. A passage `55 through the tip 46 exhausts the mixture of liquid and lair in the tube 42. The size of the passage and the velocity of the mixture determines the type of spray issuing from each such nozzle.
A mixture of liquid and air passes through the nozzle or nozzle tip, and being under pressure and moving at a relatively high velocity the mixture breaks up into a spray. To produce a spray, the mixture must exhaust from the 4system at a velocity sufficient to break up the globs or masses of liquid intermixed `with air in tube 42. The nozzle and nozzle tips constrict the nozzle `tube 42 thereby increasing the velocity of the mixture as it exhausts from the nozzle tube. The pressure in the air 'line of the system must, lobviously, be maintained sufficiently high to provide a sufficient velocity of `air to form a spray or aerosol.
yIn using the system, primary air is filtered, and the air pressure in the central air line 2t) is adjusted to the desired pressure. The pressure of the air `entering into the central Iliquid supply tank 22 is adjusted to suit `the conditions of use. At each individual station or outlet, the mixing valve 28 is opened to dispense the amount of liquid required for the desired` spray. rPhe individual outlets may thus be adjusted independently to provide a spray to suit the requirements of individual points of application.
Solenoid valves 44, in the central air and liquid supply line, may be utilized for stopping and starting the entire spray system. The solenoid valves may be connected so as to be actuated by the machine controller. In this manner, the spray will 4only operate when the machine is operating, and eliminates the need for manually starting and stopping the spray system independently of starting and stopping of the machine.
In the modified system illustrated in Figure 5, a primary air supply line 10 is passed through an air filter 12 into a pressure regulator 16, and then into a unitary regulator-liquid supply reservoir 48. A concentric pipe in a pipe conduit 50 transports air and liquid separately from the supply reservoir 48 to a single T fitting 51, ya multiple T fitting 52 and a straight line fitting 53. From each outlet of the fittings, a tube 54 extends to a nozzle 30 which may be directed to the point of application of the spray.
The regulator-tank 48, Fig. 6, comprises a body 56 having a passage 57 therethrough. The inlet 58 of the passage 57 is threaded to accommodate an air line from the pressure regulator 16, and the outlet exhausts through an exteriorly threaded annular opening 59. A small lateral passage 60 intersects air passage 57 and extends upwardly in the body 56. A valve seating cage 61 is set cured in the upper end of the passage 60, and the cage 61 1s seated against an Oring seal 62 to prevent leakage between the cage and the body. A spring loaded ball 63 seats against the valve seat of the cage and provides means for closing the passage 60. A bonnet 64 is secured to thebody 56 by means of a threaded clamp ring 65. AA flexible diaphragm 66, backed by a lower spring rest 67, 1s .sealed between the bonnet 64 and the body 56. An adjustmg spring 68 is supported on the lower spring rest 67 and extends into an adjusting screw 69 threaded in the bonnet. A valve stem 70 extends through the diaphragm 66 and is secured to the lower spring rest 67. The stem 70 has an extension 71 which normally rests on the ball 63. The force of the spring acting on the ball regulates the pressure of the air passing through passage 72 into the reservoir 74. The lateral bore 72 through the body 56 extends from the regulator assembly to a liquid reservoir 74 mounted beneath the body 56. The reservoir is secured to the body by means of a clamp ring 75, and the reservoir seats against a gasket 76 to form a tight enclosure. A supply tube 77 extends from the body to about the bottom of the reservoir for conducting liquid from therreservoir to the spray system. The tube is iuterconnected with a passage 78 which exhausts centerwise of the annular air outlet 59. A ball check Valve 79 prevents liquid from liowing back from the liquid conduit into the reservoir and thereby maintains liquid in the passage 78 for immediate ow. The bore 78 exhausts into a liquid conduit 80 which is sealed in a tube 4connector 81 which. fits within an enlarged outlet of the bore 78. The connector 81 is sealed in the enlarged outlet to `prevent leakage by means of an O-ring seal 84. An air conduit 82 is sealed in `a tube connector 81a, and is retained in place by means of a clamp ring 83. An O-ring seal 84a between the connector 81a and the outlet 59 prevents leakage from the connection. The unitary regulator-reservoir provides means for regulating the pressure of the central fluid supply which flows in conduit 80, and, also, provides a means for introducing liquid into the center pipe and air into the outer pipe of a pipe-in-pipe conduit. To `provide for a lateral -takeo for a pipefin-a-pipe conduit system, the fittings illustrated in Figures 7 through l0 may be used. In the multiple T fitting illustrated in Figure 7, a fitting `85 is secured to` the liquid conduit 80. The air conduit 82 -is secured into the large bore of the fitting 85. The tti'ng seats `into a connector body S6, and is sealed therein by means of an 0-ring seal 87 around the small end and an 0-ring seal 88 around the large end of the fitting. A clamp ring 89 secures the fitting 85 into the body 86. The liquid pipe 80 communicates with a passage 90, and the air conduit exhausts through a plurality of lateral ports 91 in the fitting 85 into an annular space 92 in body 86. Multiple passages 93 provide an air passage from the annular space 92 through the body S6. A pair of bolts 94 provide means for securing the connector body to a mounting panel or the like. A series of lateral outlet Ts are secured together and to the connector body S6. When the pipe-in-pipe conduit is to be extended beyond the multiple Ts, another connector 86 is placed on the opposite end, and the assembly is secured together by means of bolts 96 which pass through the entire assembly. Gaskets 73 are provided between each body to prevent leakage. The T 95 has a series of passages 97 passing therethrough which align with the four passages 93 through the connector body 86, and, also, has a central liquid passage 98 which aligns with liquid passage 90 in the connector body 86. A series of lateral passages 99 intersect the four passages 97 in the T body. The lateral passages 99 are substantially smaller than the passages 97 through the body, and provide a reduced flow of air from the main passages. A small lateral liquid passage 100 intersects the liquid passage 98, and the lateral passage 100 being substantially smaller than the main liquid passage provides a reduced iiow of liquid from the main passage. A connector 101,
6 sealed tothe end of asmall liquid tube .102, is secured in the side outlet of the T body 95. An Oring seal 103 prevents leaking of the connection. A connector 104 sealed to a small air conduit 105, is secured in the body and an O-ring seal 106 prevents leakage of the connection. The connector unit is removably secured to the body 95 by means of a threaded clamp ring 107. The small lateral pipe-in-pipe conduits are then conducted to a point of use, where a nozzle or nozzle tip may be attached to the end thereof to provide a spray or aerosol.
An adjustable spray nozzle for use with the pipe-inpipe conduit is illustrated in Figures l1 and 12. In this modification, a body has a centrally aligned liquid passage 121 therethrough. A tapered plug valve 122, retained in the body 120 by a retaining ring 123, provides a control for the flow of iiuid through the nozzle. The inlet end of the spray nozzle 120 includes an annular space 124 adapted to accommodate a fitting for a lateral air conduit 105, e. g., fitting 104. A smaller annular space 125, internal of space 124, is adapted to accommodate a fitting, e. g., tting 101, for a lateral liquid conduit 102. External threads 126 are provided to engage a clamp ring 107 for securing the connector unit to` the body 120.` A series of passages 127 interconnect annular space 124 with an annular outlet space 12.8 and provide an air passage through the body 120. The annular space 128 is substantially closed by a disk 129 which is secured in place in an annular rabbet 130 by rolling or spinning the edge 131 thereover. The disk has a centrally aligned aperture 132, which is slightly larger than a tubular outlet 133 for the liquid passage 121. The tubular outlet 133 extends a short distance into the aperture 132. Liquid and air exhausting through the aperture 132 above a critical velocity forms a spray or aerosol.
The single T connector, illustrated in Figures 9 and l0, is similar in construction to the multiple connector of Figure 7, except that it is a single outlet, and is useful in a pipeinpipe spray system where the individual nozzles of lthe system must be dispersed over a substantial distance along the course of the conduits. The single T comprises a body`1'10 having a liquid passage 111 centrally therethrough. Each end of the passage is enlarged to an annular space 112 and a smaller annular space 113. A pipe-in-pipe connector, as described in Figure 7 maybe utilized with the single T.
A fitting S5 `is sealed to an air conduit 82 and a liquid conduit 80. The iitting is secured into the annuiar spaces 112 and 11.3 at both ends of the `T. A clamp ring 89 retains the fitting in position in the body 116i. O-ring seals 8S and 87 are used to prevent leakage of the connector units. Annular spaces 112 are interconnected by a series of passages 114i. A series of lateral passages 116 intersect the passages 114 and provide means supplying air into a lateral outlet. A small lateral liquid passage 115 intersects liquid passage 111 and extends to a lateral annular space 1.18. A tube connector 101 sealed to a tube 102 seats in the space 118, illustrated for a similar lateral outlet for the multiple T of Fig. 7. A fitting 10ft, sealed to a tube 105 seats in space 119. The O-ring seals lto prevent leakage and the clamp ring 107 complete the connection for the lateral outlet. A spray nozzle as illustrated in Figs. ll and l2 may be used for forming a spray at the desired point.
In the systems described, the air line and liquid line, whether they are parallel lines or concentric pipe-in-pipe lines, are extended together from the central control position to the various points of use. Individual spray nozzles are connected across the two lines so as to provide a spray at any desired point. When the system is extended as far as desired, the ends of the two tubes are blocked off. The pipe-in-pipe system is valuable for equipment where space is at a premium and the complicity of a dual pipe lead for the air and liquid and a series of mixing valves would be too cumbersome. The pipe-in-pipe system is also val'uble in machines where 7 the spray system is built in as part of the original equipment, whereby the individual spraystations may be preset at the point of need.
While the invention has been illustrated by specil'ic examples, there is no intent to limit the invention to the precise details shown, except insofar as set forth in the following claims.
1. A spray system comprising a compressed air conduit and a companion pressurized uid conduit, spaced mixing means interconnecting said companion conduits at intervals along the extent thereof for admixing a portion of the ows therethrough, said mixing means including a body having extending therethrough a fluid passage and an air passage spaced therefrom, a small lateral bore of variable dimensions extending from said fluid passage to a small fluid tube to provide a lateral lead for a small ow of liquid, a small lateral passageway of fixed dimensions extending from said air passage to a concentric air tube around said small fluid tube, and nozzle means for mixing substantially an equal portion of air from cach said mixing means with a variable portion of liuid from said small lateral tubes to form a spray of air and liquid.
2. A mixing valve for connection across a pressurized gas conduit and a pressurized liquid conduit for forn'b ing a spray from a portion of the flows in said conduits comprising a body, a liquid passage extending through said body adapted for connection in said liquid conduit, an air passage extending through said body for connection in said gas conduit, a needle valve in said body intersecting said liquid passage adapted to release a portion of liquid from said liquid passage, a lateral outlet orifice of fixed dimensions for releasing a portion of the gas passing through said gas passage, a small bore extending from said valve to said gas passage, and a tube extending through said air passage from said bore and terminating in said gas outlet orifice whereby a variable amount of liquid is admixed and dispensed with gas issuing from said outlet.
3. An adjustable, multiple spray system comprising a first conduit for air under an independently controlled pressure, a second conduit for liquid under an independently controlled pressure, spaced mixing means interconnecting said first and second conduits at intervals along their extent for admixing a portion of the flows therethrough, each said mixing means including a body having a uid passageway therethrough and a separate air passageway therethrough, a lateral bore communicating with the fluid passageway at one end and a uid tube at the other to provide a small lateral ilow of fluid from said tluid passageway, means for varying said lateral bore for Varying the liuid flow therethrough, said lateral bore communicating with a fluid tube, a second lateral bore communicating with said air passageway and terminating at about the end of said iiuid tube in air and fiuid mixing relation, and a nozzle means interconnected with each said mixing means for mixing a portion of air with a variable portion of iiuid to form a spray of air and liuid.
4. An adjustable, multiple spray system comprising a first conduit for air under an independently controlled pressure, a second conduit for liquid under an independently controlled pressure, spaced mixing means interconnecting said iirst and second conduits at intervals along their extent for admixing a portion of the liows therethrough, each said mixingA means including a body having a fluid passage and a separate` air passageway therethrough and forming a continuation of the respective passageways, a lateral bore communicating with the fluid passageway at one end and a fluid tube at the other to provide a ow of a portion of the fluid in said fluid passageway, valve means operable in said lateral bore for Varying the fluid llow therethrough, a second lateral bore communicating with said air passageway and terminating at about the end of the fluid tube in air and uid mixing relation, and nozzle means interconnected with each said mixing means for mixing a portion of air from `each said mixing means with a variable portion of uid to form a spray of air and fluid.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 591,576 Thompson Oct. 12, 1897 1,040,986 Bastian Oct. 8, 1912 1,535,406 Eynon Apr. 28, 1925 1,603,572 Andrew Oct. 19, 1926 1,777,453 Serry Oct. 7, 1930 1,982,137 Hanley Nov. 2-7, 1934 1,997,481 Buttner Apr. 9, 1935 2,146,808 Flint Feb. 14, 1939 2,270,637 Komar Ian. 20, 1942