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Publication numberUS286873 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 16, 1883
Filing dateSep 4, 1880
Publication numberUS 286873 A, US 286873A, US-A-286873, US286873 A, US286873A
InventorsSilvanus F. Van Choate
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electro-magnetic motor
US 286873 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

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No. 286,873. Patented Oct. 16, 1883.


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ELEGTRO MAGNETIC MOTOR. No. 286,873 Patented Oct. 16, 1883.




SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 286,873, dated October 16, 1883.

Application filed September 4, 1880.

T0 (LZZ whom it may concern.-

Be it known that I, SILVANUS FREDERICK VAN CHOATE, a citizen of the United States, now residing in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in the Mode of Constructing Electro-Magnetic Motors, of which the following is a description, which will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same, reference being made to the accompanying drawings.

My invention consists in a novel arrangement of electro-magnets and circuit-connections in electrical machines, and either as generators of motors.

In carrying my invention into practical effeet, I form two iron or steel rings, preferably hexagonal (although one simple plain ring may be used) on their periphery, as shown at A in Figure 1 and in section at B B in Fig. 2 of the drawings. On each of the six sides of this ring I place a spool or helix of wire, it being attached to the ring by a core-pin of iron or steel, as may be desired, which is secured in a hole bored through the ring, as at a in Fig. 2, while the upper or outer end of said core is provided with a flanged head or projection to hold the spool firmly down, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, the core-pin being secured to the ring by a dowel-pin, as shown at Z) Z) in Figs. 1 and 4. Two of these hexagonal rings, with their spools and cores formed in the same way, are fitted together and secured by screws or otherwise, so as to form one double ring of six spools each, the rings bein g in perfect metallic contact with each other. The spools of the two rings are arranged diagonally to each other, so as to break joints, as it were, orform staggered joints, as shown in Fig. 1that is to say, the end of the spools on one ring occupy six points in a cirele; but when both rings are put together the ends of the spools of the two rings form or occupy twelve equal points of a circle, as seen in Fig. 1. The six spools or helices of one of these rings are connected and coupled up electrically, so that on passing a current of electrieity through the wire of the helices all the cores of one ring will give north polarity and all the cores of the other ring will give south polarity. as shown in Fig. 1 by letters N and (N0 model.)

S. The flanged heads of the cores of these spools extend or project on one side, as shown at c in Fig. 3. This projection gives direction to the movement of the motor, the poles of the magnets of the outside ring being attracted toward the projecting flanges of the cores of the helices of the inside rings. electricity is permanently closed through the coils or helices of the hexagonal rings when the motor is in operation.

Instead of forming the hexagonal rings into two parts, they may be made of a single piece of iron or steel, and the hexagonal faces may be formed with a planer or otherwise, or a simple round broad ring may be used, the diagonal rows of holes being properly bored out to receive the core-pins, the latter having shoulders at their doweled ends to determine their depth in the ring and prevent crushing the flanges of the spools.

The outside ring or rings of spools or magnets are arranged in a planeeven with the inside ring or rings of spools or magnet-s, the number of the former being double that ofthe latter. The outside spools are secured to rings or hoops of iron or steel, as may be desired, by round core-pins of the same metal, (marked 1), Fi 4,) and doweled at their exterior ends, as at b, Fig. 1,while the other end of the said cores terminates with a flange or head, (I, Fig. 4, which points inwardly directly: toward the center or shaft of the sys tem, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2.

It will be observed that there are twelve spools on the outside ring, 0, Fig. 1, while there are but six on the inside ring, A, same figure, and that every other spool of the outside ring, 0, points to a space where there is no corresponding spool 011 the inside ring, A, Fig. 1. The spools on the two outside rings shown in plan in Fig. 1, and in section in Fig. 2, are arranged so as to form pairsthat is to say, the spool on the lower ring is directly under the spool on the upper ring, while the spools on the inside rings are arranged diagonally to each other, and break joints, as we have before remarked. The outside spools and rings are secured to a circular frame-of non-magnetic metal, (marked f f, Figs. 1 and 2,) while ihe inside spools and rings maybe fastened to the shaft or spindle and made to revolve in The current of 1 the center of the outside spools and rings when a low speed is required; or the outside rings may be secured to the spindle and made to revolve around the central spools and rings when a high speed is to be obtained, or vice versa, as may be desired.

The two outside rings are not in electrical contact with each other, and their spools do not form U-magnets in the usual way by being coupled together in pairs by lateral crosspieces; but they are connected together in a complete circle by means of the iron or steel rings, and form U-magnets along the line of the ring, as shown by the letters N and S in Fig. 1, where g h is one U-magnet, and hi another, 820., the ring 0 forming a part of all the U-inagnets in the circle. The spools or helices of the outside rings are coupled and connected up electrically, so that the electric current causes all the cores of the spools on one outside ring to become negatively charged,

and all the cores of the spools or helices of the other outside ring to becomepositively charged; but when the motor is in operation the electric current is not passed through all the helices of each outside ring at the same instant, but only through each alternate pair or every other spoolthat is, the current is passed through each alternate helix of one ring in such a manner as to give every second helix-core on one ring a north polarity, and every second helix-core on the other ringa south polarity, while at the same time every other alternate or second helix-core of each ring, without a current being passed through its'helix, is caused to assume theopposite polarity to that of the helix-core next to it, and through which the current at the moment is passing; but these polarities in the cores of the two outside rings break joints, as it were that is, when one helix-core on one ring is made to assume a north polarity the helixcore of the spool directly and laterally opposite on the other ring is made to assume a south polarity.

We have stated that the electric current is 1 only passed through each alternate or second helix of each outside ring at a certain time. The cores of these alternate helices through which the electric current is acting for the moment become charged or magnetic with the desired polarity-say north, as shown at N in Fig. 1while at the same instant, each other alternate core in the same ring, and through whose helix no electricity is passing at that moment, is made to assume a polarityopposite to that produced in the cores ofthe same ring through whose helices the electric current is acting at the moment-that is to say, the passing of the electric current in a certain direction through eachalternatehelix of one ring produces a certain polarity in the cores of said. helices, while it causes or induces the opposite; polarity in the other alternatecore on the same ring through whose helix no electric current at the moment is passing, the

"said helix remaining neutral, as it were, for the moment.

Motion is given to the motor by shunting or shifting the electric current from one set of helices to anotheras, for instance, the electric current is made to act on every other helix in a ring, giving north polarity to these helixcores, while the other alternate cores not acted on by the currentvat the moment are made to assume south polarity, and when the electric current is shunted or shifted into the neutral helices, their cores are made to assume north or south'polarity, as the case may be, while the cores of the other alternate helices change to the opposite polarity. But it must be understood that when the cores of th'ehelices of of an outside ring are caused to assume a north polarity'by the action of the electric current, the same agent causes the cores of the helices on the same side of the inside ring to assume a south polarity, as shown by the letters N and S in Fig. 1, whereby the proper attraction or mutual pull is produced between the various cores of the helices of each ring, which causes rotation of the motor.

The circuit through the helices of the inside ring is never broken, but is kept closed all the time the motor is in motion, thereby giving these helices and their cores the benefit of amore perfect saturation or charge from the effects of the electric current, and consequently increasing their magnetic strength or pull upon the cores of the outside rings to a wonderful extent, besides keeping the circuit through the battery or the coils of the dynamo -electrie generator permanently closed, and thereby aiding the workin g and increasing the power of the same.

Thepower of my motor is augmented by increasing size and number of helices and U- magnets on the rings, and also by multiplying or increasing the ring system and magnets of the inside and outside system of rings and magnet-s.

The drawings are half, size, and made from an actual Working-machine. v

Fig. 1 represents a plan of the arrangement of the spools or helices, together with the outside ring 0 and inside ring A, while D represents the edge of the outside supporting case. Fig. 2 is a sectional view, showing the spools or helices in pairs, and also the outside case j j and outside rings 6 e and inside rings B B and part of the shaft or "spindle.

Fig. 3 represents an end view of one of the spools or helices; and Fig. 4 is a sidgview, with their flanged heads d and c and project;- ing pin 2),. The, outside rings are secured-to the frame or outside case f by screws marked 7 k, while the inside ring or rings are secured to the face-plate f of the case by screws marked 1 Z. The wires which connect the helices of the inside rings are secured by screws and insulation-plugs at m m, Fig. 2.. The'wire connecting with all of the helices on the outside.


rings comes out through the spindle at a, and is connected with a continuous band or ring, to be presently described, upon which ring bears a spring connected with one pole of the generator. The terminal it corresponds to the terminal Z in the diagram Fig. 11. The two terminals of the two alternate sets of helices in the two rings are indicated at 0, and each of said terminals is connected with one of the two sides of a commutator or circuit-changer, as will be presently described. These two terminals correspond to the connections k a of the diagram Fig. 11, and, as before explained, and as indicated in Fig. 11, are connected each to alternate helices in both rings Fig. 5 is a side elevation of the motor, showing the main drum or case at F and the two supports or standards-at G G, while H is a pulley, and p p set-screws and taps to hold the same, and by means of which various sizes of pulleys may be fitted to the shaft at pleasure. The base is marked I, while J is a general side view of the shunt or commutator and its supporting-arms. The ingoing wire to the inside ring of helices is marked (1, and the ingoing wire of the outside ring of helices is marked 0', while K is a resistance arrangement in section to regulate the speed of the motor.

Fig. 7 is an end view of the shaft and cont mutator, while Fig. 6 is a side view and Fig. 9 a plan view, showing the two springs con nected to the generator.

At .9, Fig. 6, is indicated the connection to the continuous ring for the terminal a, connected to all the helices of the outside rings, upon which ring bears one of the springs 6, while at t t are the connections to the two sides of the divided or shitting commutator for the two separate terminals 0 0, upon which commutator bears the other spring 0'. These two springs c c are connected, as before intimated, the one with the positive and the other with the negative pole of the generator. The dividedconnnutator-ringis constructethas shown in Fig. 6, of two metallic insulated rings with overlapping projections, so that the terminals 0 0 are alternately connected with the spring-bearing on said eonnmitator-ring. The t .vo wires a a connect at one end with their respective screw-cups c o underneath the base, while the other ends connect with the screwshal't w and the red at. The screw-cups on are the main cups of the machine, and serve for the connection of the wires leading from the battery or other generator if the machine be used as a motor, or to the work if the machine be used as a generator. The screw-shaft w and rod a" are made of a material of great resistance to the passage of the electric current. The material which I prefer to employ is made by combining copper, arsenic, and chloride of sodium in the proportions of approximately five to six parts of copper, two to three of arsenic, and chloride of sodium about equal in bulk to the other substances, the whole being fused in a sealed crucible, as I have described in another application. Other suitable hi ghlyrefractory materials that are of high resistance to the electric current might be used in place of the material specified. XVhen the movable tap 9 descends, by the turning of the thumbscrew 2, below the point of insulation on the rod x, (marked c,) the current from the generator or source passes through wires u a, and along screw-shaft w and tap 3 and rod :r, and onto screw-cup c at the right, and as the our rent to and from the generator to the helices of the motor also connects at the serewcups c v the current isthus shunted to a degree more or less corresponding to the position of the nut y, and the speed of the motor is decreased orincreascd accordingly, and when the tap 9/ is brought up above the point a, the circuit at that point is' opened and the shunt ceases to act. hen the tap y descends into contact with the metallic sleeve,in which the end of the rod '20 rests, it completely shunts the current from the motor by making direct connection between thewires aa without compelling the current to pass through the resistancerod. The broad idea of the two rods and the traveling nut toform the resistance is claimed in another application for patent filed by me. The claims in the present case are made to the improved construction, wherein the nut passes out of connection at one extreme of its movement and makes a short circuit at the other extreme, and also the arrangement of a resistance device constructed to offer a variable resistance, in the manner described, in a shunt around the motor for the purpose of varying the speed of the motor.

Fig. 8 is a front elevation of my motor, L being the side of the revolving ease, and M the standard or support. N is the base, and O the resistance or shunt for regulating the speed, while I) and c are the wires connecting the spools or helices. P is the rack frame or support for the commutator or shunt contacts, (1 and (1 being screws to regulate the pressure of the contacts, and Q the frame to support the rack, while B is a tangent-screw and connection with the racksupport, arranged to 0seillate the rack-frame by turning the thumbscrcw d.

Fig. 9 is a plan of the commutator or shunt, showing its supporting arms, the contactpieces 0 c, and their snpportingarms.

Fig. 10 is a plan of the inside ring flattened out like a band or ribbon, and showing the two rows of helices of six each and the manner of connecting the wires. It will be no ticed that all the helices or magnets on one side give positive polarity, while all the magnets on the other side give negativepolarities, as indicated by the letters N S. These two rows of magnets are marked numerically from 1 to 12, and they may be distinguished also by the elongated flanges or heads of their core pins. In this figure (Fig. 10) the diagonal or straddle-joint arrangement of these helices or magnets is plainly shown. The spools or helices shown in dotted lines in Fig. 10 represent the relative position of each alternate helix of the outside ring. There would be a like spool or helix immediately over each one of the helices or magnets with the elongated core-heads of the inside ring, andwhen, by the movement of the motor in the direction of the arrows, these spools or magnets arrive perpendicularly over the magnets of the inside ring they are said to be at their dead-centers, and the'current is then shifted or shunted from them to the next alternate helixas, for instance, from 1 to f, and'from 7 to g, and so on through the whole serieswhile the helices from which the current has just been shifted remain neutral until theyarrive at the center points between the magnets or helices of the inside ring, when the current is again shifted or shunted through them, which again causes a magnetic pull between them and the magnets of the inside ring; but it must be noticed that when the magnets or helices of center, as it were-that is, the moment of shifting or shunting the currentthe cores of the outside ring, which are approaching the cores of the inside ring, have opposite polarities from those of the inside ring. This produces attraction between the two systems of magnets; but the moment the magnets of the outside ring arrive at their dead-centers, the current being shifted or shunted, they are caused to assume the same polarities as the magnets of the inside ring. This produces repulsion between the two systems, and prevents the magnets of the inside ringv from holding fast those of the outside ring, and instead of the magnetism holding the cores together and forming a so-called dead-center it helps to push the two systems of magnets apart, and so aids or increases the strength of the motor. The connecting-wire h commences at the outside layer on spool 1, Fig. 10, and forms the six helices 011 the left-hand side of the figure, and comes out at the inside layer on spool 6, and then passes around and enters the inside layer of spool 7 at the right hand, and so on through the six helices on that side, and out' at the outside layer of helix 12, where it is marked 6.

Fig. 11 represents the manner of forming the loops or electrical circuits through the helices of the outside rings. Starting at j and going in the direction of the arrows, an embranchment is made at k, where the lefthandwireinclosessix alternatehelices(marked 1) of one'of the first outside rings, whilethat to the right incloses six alternate helices (marked 2) of the other or second outside ring; but when the current enters at the terminal m it divides at n, passing to the left through the other six alternate helices of the first outside ring, while the right passes through (ach other alternate six helices of the second outside ring, and at Z the current is conveyed into one conductor. The alternate pull or attraction and repulsion between the two systems of magnets is produced by chang ing the current from o to j, and from 0 tom, the system of the inside rings being coupled up in tension, while the system of the outside rings are coupled up in multiple arc.

- I have now fully and clearly explained my invention, so that with the drawings, which represent exactly a working-machine, I presume any person skilled in the art of electricity 7 5 can construct and operate it without any difiieulty. whatever.

What I claim as my invention is- 1. In an electromagnetic or magneto-electric machine, two circular rows of electro-inag- 8o netic helices of opposite polarity, whose cores project radially from a common ring or hub of magnetic material, and which are arranged with the poles of one .row or series opposite the spaces between the poles of the adjoining row, substantially as described.

2. In an electromagnetic or magneto-electric machine, an .outer ring or casing of nonmagnetic material, to the inner side of which are secured two independent rings of magnetic o material, .each provided with a series of magnetic cores projecting inwardly on radial lines, substantially as described. y

3. In anelectro-magnetic or magneto-electric machine, two parallel rows of electro- 5 magnetic helices whose cores project inwardly on radial lines from two independent rings of magneticmaterial, the alternate helices of each ring being connected in tension or series, and each set connected independently to the commutator, substantially as described, so that each set of alternate helices in each ring may be independently and successively charged.

4. In an electro-magnetic or magneto-electric machine provided with two independent rings of magnetic material, each carrying electro-magnetie helices whose cores project inwardly on radial lines, circuitconnections from one set of alternatehelices in each ring to one side of a shifting-commutator, circuit-connections from the other set of alternate heliccs to theother side of said shifting-commutator, and an unbroken connecting-ring on the commutator-shaft, to which are joined-the free ends of the wires of the several sets of helices, substantially as described.

5. In an electromagnetic or magneto-electric machine, two inner parallel rows of helices of opposite polarity, arranged so that the poles of one row or series are opposite the spaces between the poles of the other row, in combination with two outer parallel rows, the alternate helices of each. of which rows are connected in two sets and in series to the commutator, and whose poles are arranged on lines parallel to theshaft of the machine, substantially as described.

6. In an electromagneticor n1agneto electric machine, an inner ring or hub carrying two parallel rows of radially-projecting electro-magnets, the poles of the two rows being of opposite polarity and arranged to break joint, in combination with two outer inwardlyprojecting parallel rows, the alternate helices of which are connected in series or tension in independent circuits, substantially as described, to a shunting-commutator, whereby said sets of alternate helices may be connected independently and successively to the outside circuit, substantially as described.

7. In an electromagnetic motor, two parallel rows of helices of opposite and constant polarity, arranged to break joint, substantially as described, in combination with two parallel and opposing rows of helices of double the number of said first row, the cores of which are secured to independent supports or rings of magnetic material, and which are charged in the operation of the machine, the alternate ones successively in sets with magnetism of the same name, substantially as described, so as to produce in each magnet changes of polarity by direct charge and by inductive charge from the charged adjoining magnet, substantially as described.

8. In an electromagnetic motor, a series of electromagnetic helices whose cores are connected to a common plate or base of magnetic material, independent circuit connections from the alternate helices, and means whereby the alternate helices may be alternately connected to an electric generator, so that the core of each helix is alternately magnetized by the direct action of its own helix and by magnetic induction from the core or cores of its adjoining helix or helices.

9. In an electromagnetic motor operated by reversals of magnetic polarity, a series of electromagnetic helices whose cores are connected to a common plate or support of magnetic material, ind ep en dent circuitconnections from the alternate coils of the series, and means whereby said alternate sets may be connected alternately or successively to a generator, so as to produce change of polarity by direct charge and by induced magnetic charge from the core of adjoining helices.

10. The combination, with an electric motor, of a shunting-switch, constructed in the manner described, to variably shunt the motor by means of a sliding nut or contact sliding upon a rod of resistance material, as and for the purpose set forth.

11. The combination, with an electric motor, of the shunting-switch, constructed in the manner described, and serving to break the shunt at one extreme of its movement to completely short-circuit the motor at its other extreme, and in intermediate positions to interpose a resistance varying with its distance from an extreme point of movement.



SETH J. Trrorms, WM. S. Brown.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5519267 *May 26, 1994May 21, 1996Pentecost; J. R.Energy saving electromotive engine
Cooperative ClassificationH02K25/00