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Publication numberUS2870751 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 27, 1959
Filing dateSep 6, 1955
Priority dateSep 6, 1955
Publication numberUS 2870751 A, US 2870751A, US-A-2870751, US2870751 A, US2870751A
InventorsFadden Jr William J, Kuljian Harry A
Original AssigneeKuljian Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pumpless liquid heater and translator
US 2870751 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 27, 1959 H. A. KULJIAN ET AL 2,870,751

PUMPLESS LIQUID HEATER AND TRANSLATOR Filed Sept. 6, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.

HARRY A. KULJIAN I 0 BY WILLIAM J. FADDEN Jr.

Jan. 27, 1959 H. A. KULJIAN ET AL 2,370,751

PUMPLESS LIQUID HEATER AND TRANSLATOR I Filed Sept. 6, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.

HARRY A.KULJ\AN 5/ FIG lb BY W\LL|AM J FADDEN,Jr.

ATTORNEY PUIVIPLESS LIQUID HEATER AND TRANSLATOR Harry A. Knljian, Merion, and William J. Fadden, Jr., Ridley Park, Pa., assignors to The Kuljian Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application September 6, 1955, Serial No. 532,524

17 Claims. (Cl. 122-451) This invention relates to a boiler feed water heating apparatus.

" atent O One object of the invention is to produce an improved ratus of the type set forth in which the conventional feed water by-pass valves are dispensed with.

A still further object is to produce an improved apparatus in which over-all power plant piping costs are drastically reduced. l

A still further object is to produce an improved apparatus in which boiler feed water pump cavitation is eliminated or greatly reduced.

A still further object is to produce an improved apparatus of compact design whereby the space needed and the building costs are reduced.

A still further object is to produce an improved apparatus, the component parts of which can be prefabricated and hydrostatically tested in the shop so as to minimize the'time and labor needed at the place of installation.

A still further object is to produce an improved appa ratus in which the pressure in condensate receiver 6,during proper and normal operation, is "always higher than the pressure in the preceding heater. I

These and other objects are attained by our invention as set forth in the following specification and as shown in the accompanying drawings in which:

Figs. 1a and 1b constitute a highly diagrammatic illustration of a boiler feed water heating apparatus embodying the invention, only the barest essentials being shown.

The apparatus shown includes a number of superimposed open heaters 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, and a boiler feed water receiver 6 which are superimposed to form a tower. The number of heaters is optional and since, except as pointed out below, the intermediate heaters are identical, the structure and operation of only as many of the heaters as necessary for understanding the invention will be described.

Referring to the drawing, 10 designates a pipe which leads from the condenser, not shown, to uppermost heater 1. The flow of condensate into heater 1 is controlled by a diaphragm-operated three-way valve 12. Valve 12 is controlled by a Levetrol 14, which opens: valve 12 whenever the level of condensate in heater 1 is below a predetermined level. At full load operation of the prime mover, such as a turbine, not shown, valve 12 is full open. SincefLevetrol 14 is available on the market and is disclosed in Patents Nos. 2,356,970 and 2,269,846, and since the manner in which a Levetrol "ice operates a valve is well known and is not claimed as a part of this invention, the structure and operation of this level control mechanism are not described. It is deemed sulficient to say that Levetrol 14 is operatively connected to valve 12 by suitable impulse transmitting conventional means 16, so that, when the level of condensate in heater No. 1 rises to a predetermined level, valve 12 is actuated in a direction to divert condensate through by-pass pipe 18 back to the condenser or to a condensate storage tank, not shown, and so that, when the level of condensate in heater No. 2 falls to a predetermined level, valve 12 is actuated in a direction to permit the flow of condensate from the condenser into heater No. l.

Condensate flowing past valve 12 into pipe 20, falls into trough 22 from which it spills over trays 24 at the top of uppermost heater 1. Simultaneously, lowest temperature extraction steam from the prime mover is delivered through pipe 26 into heater No. 1 where itmixes with the condensate spilling over trays 24. Air and residual steam are vented through pipe 28 to the condenser or to the atmosphere. Between heater No. l and heater No. 2, there are two, separate, pressure equalizing chambers 30 and 32 which are adapted alternately to receive condensate from the preceding heater and alternately-to discharge the condensate to the succeeding heater. The pressure equalizing chambers between the remaining successive heaters are designated with reference character 30a and 32a.

As shown, chamber 30 is connected in condensate flow relation to heater No. l by pipe 34, multi-way valve 36 and pipe 38, and chamber 32 is connected in condensate flow relation to heater No. 1 by pipe 34, valve 36 and pipe 40. By this arrangement, in one position of valve 36, condensate will flow into chamber 30 through pipes 34 and 38 and, in another position of the valve, condensate will flow into chamber 32 through pipes 34 and 40. In order to vent residual steam and air from chambers 30 and 32, as these chambers are alternately filled with condensate, chamber 30 also is connected by pipe 42 and multi-way valve 36a and pipe 42a to pipe 26, which leads to heater No. 1, and chamber 32 is connected by pipe 44,=valve 36a and pipe 42a to pipe 26.

The flow of the condensate into chamber 30 is controlled by a Levetrol 46 and the flow of condensate into chamber 32 is controlled by a Levetrol 46a, in the following manner: When the level of the condensate in chamber 30 rises to a predetermined point, Levetrol 46, which is connected to valve 36 by any suitable means 47, moves valve 36 to a position in which it stops theflow of condensate from heater No. 1 to chamber 30 and I to permit condensate to flow from chamber 30 through pipe 38, through valve 36 and through pipes 48 and 50 into trough 22a in heater No. 2. When the level of the condensate in chamber 32 rises to a predetermined point Levetrol 46a which is operatively connected to valve 36 by any suitable means 39 moves valve 36 to a position to stop the flow of condensate from heater No. l to chamber 32 and to permit condensate to How from chamber 32 through pipes 40, 48 and 50 to trough 22a in heater No.2. Valves 36 and 36a are connected for joint operation, by any suitable means 37 in such a man ner that, when Levetrol 46 moves valve 36 into a position to connect chamber 30 in condensate flow relation to trough 22a in heater No. 2, valve 36a is moved to a position in which steam is admitted through pipe 42, valve 36a and pipes 52 and 54 into chamber 30. Conversely, when chamber 30 is receiving condensate from heater No. 1, steam is vented from chamber 30, through pipe 42, valve 36a and pipes 42a and 26 to heater No. 1. Likewise, when chamber 32 is discharging condensate, valve 36a is in a position to admit steam into chamber which are supplied with condensate, and are vented, in l the manner above set forth in connection with chambers 30 and 32. Therefore, this operation will not be described in detail. It is, however, pointed out that the extraction steam supplied to heater No. 3 is of a higher temperature and pressure than that supplied to heater No. 2 and so on, for all successive heaters. it is also pointed out that, when chamber 36a or 32a is discharging, the pressure in heater No. 3 is equalized with the pressure in heater No. 2, so that, again, condensate will flow from heater No. 2 to chambers 30a and 32a in heater No. 3 by gravity and without any pumps.

Heater No. 2 is preferably provided with deaerating or scrubbing trays 24b and a master control for coordinating the operation of the feed Water heating apparatus with the operation of the prime mover.

This master control includes a Levetrol 53 which is operatively connected to valve 62 by any suitable means 59 and which, when the level of the condensate falls to the level indicated at 60, opens valve 62 to permit condensate to flow from a condensate storage tank, not shown, through pipe 64 and pipe 59 into heater No. 2. Conversely, when the level of the condensate in heater No. 2 rises to point 66, Levetrol 58a which is operatively connected to valve 68 by any suitable'means 69 opens valve 68 to discharge condensate through pipe 70 to a storage tank, not shown. Further, heater No. 2, and each successive heater, is provided with a Levetrol 72, which is operatively connected to valve 36 by any suitable means 73 and which is operative to throttle thevalve if condensate in any particular heater rises and to open valve 36 as the level of condensate in said heater falls. It will be understood that under maximum load operation of the prime mover, valves 12 and 36 will both be full open.

The relatively low-pressure, low-temperature steam delivered to the earlier stages is not appreciably superheated and, therefore, its heat can be quite efficiently extracted by contact with the condensate in open, or direct contact, heaters. This is exemplified by heaters l 2 and 3 of the present disclosure. On the other hand, the superheat component of superheated steam is most efiiciently extracted by means of a desuperheating coil submerged in the condensate. This is exemplified by desuperheater 78 which is immersed in the condensate in receiver 6 and to which superheated steam is delivered through pipe 30 and from which the desuperheated steam is delivered by pipe 82, to preceding heater No. 5. By this arrangement, the superheat of the steam is efiiciently transferred to the condensate in the receiver 6 and its latent heat is given up in direct contact heater No. 5. While we have associated'the desuperheater 78 with receiver 6 only, it is within the scope of this invention to associate additional desuperheaters with any preceding stage heater to which appreciably superheated steam is admitted.

Boiler steam, or steam under pressure higher than the pressure of the steamadmitted into heater No. 5, or the last of the heaters, is admitted, simultaneously, through pipe 84 into receiver 6 and into one, or the other, of the immediately preceding chambers Etta or 32a. C0ndensate is delivered from receiver 6, through pipe 76 to. suetion pumps 77 which deliver thecondensate into boiler 81.

While We have illustrated a feed water heating apps, ratus which includes a number of heaters superimposed (M in the form of a tower, it is obvious that the essential features of the invention can be incorporated in other systems.- For example, receiver 6 and the pressure equalizing chambers immediately thereabove, with or without desuperheater '78, can be placed at the beginning, at the end, or at any other desired point in a conventional system, regardless of the number or arrangement of heatersemployed. This eliminates the present practice of placing the receiver of the storage tank at con siderable elevation above the boiler feed water pumps, which has heretofore been necessary to provide the suction head necessary to prevent cavitation, or steam binddelivers boiler, or other high pressure steam, to the receiver and tothe equalizing chambers in advance thereof, will operate to insure a supply of condensate to the pumps such as to prevent cavitation, or steam binding, even when said unit is placed substantially on the same level as the pump regardless of the nature, or disposition or location of the other components of the boiler feed water apparatus itself, or of the load on the prime mover from which the extraction steam is derived.

From the foregoing it will be seen that, by admitting high, and preferably boiler, pressure steam into the receiver, the horsepower requirement of the condensate translating pumps is reduced to that" required to overcome static pressure and friction thus effecting considerable saving in the cost of the original installation as well as in the running and maintenance costiof the pumps. In conventional constructions, the receiver had to be placed thirty feet, more or less, above the pumps so as to insure a sufficient net positive suction head; By admitting high, or boiler, pressure steam into the receiver, we can place the receiver at the same level as the pumps and still insure a sufii'cient net positive sue tion head. This saves construction and piping costs which would be otherwise neededand it improves the efficiency by reducing thermal losses which would be present if the receiver is located at'a great height above the pumps.

In the-absence of a sufficient net positive suction head, and when the pumps are Working" at less than full ca? paci-ty, the condensate tends to flash with resultant cavitation of the pumps. By insuringsuflicient pressure in the receiver, we eliminate the danger of flashing and cavitation. p

By the arrangement disclosed which includes equalizing chambers wand 32, inter-related'valves 36' 'and'36a, and Levetrols l4 and 72, we" insure controlled and, for practical; purposes, constant flow of condensate through the system regardless of pressure differentials between the various stages. p

The construction disclosed is' very flexible inithat any number of heaters and any number of receivers and desuperheaters can be combined for best results for any given installation depending on the load and on the temperatures and the pressures encountered;

The venting of'steam from chambers 39 and 32, while either of them is receiving condensate, facilitates the flow of condensate int ov these chambers and the admission of the same pressure steam into these chambers-and into the succeeding heater, while either of these chambers is discharging, permits the condensate to flow-between .successiveheaters without the use .of any pumps.

The arrangement disclosed is capable of operation at all pressures that may be encountered in any practical installation. In other words, the system is not limited to operation under relatively low pressure, such, for example, as the construction disclosed in the Krieg Patent No. 2,566,732 of September 4, 1955, in which the apparatus can operate under a pressure which is a function of static pressure of the water legs which seal off successive stages from each other.

The use of four-way valves 36 and 36a to control the flow of steam or of condensate into or out of successive chambers 30 and 32 effects considerable saving in the cost of numerous separate shut off and control valves which would otherwise be needed together with the piping of such valves.

By using Levet-rols 14, 58 and 72, which control valves 12, and 68, the demand of the system is anticipated and the flow of condensate throughout the system is automatically regulated accordingly.

The inclusion of receiver 6 and desuperheater 78 through which superheated steam is passed before it goes into the preceding heater increases the efiiciency of the installation.

While it is true that a pump is used to transfer condensate from the receiver into the boiler, the fact remains that the condensate moves from heaterv No. 1 to the receiver without the use of any pumps.

What we claim is:

1. An apparatus for heating feed water of a boiler, said apparatus including a first open-type heater, controlled means fordelivering condensate to be heated to said first heater, means for admitting extraction steam to said first heater, means in said first heater for intimately intermingling said steam and said condensate, a second open-type heater, a first pressure-equalizing chamber interposed between said first. heater and said second heater, a second pressure equalizing chamber interposed between said first heater and said second heater, means for admitting the same pressure steam into said second heater and said first pressure equalizing chamber for equalizing the pressure between said first pressure equalizing chamber and said second heater during the flow of condensate from said first pressure equalizing chamber to said second heater, means for admitting the same pressure steam into said second heater and said second pressure equalizing chamber for equalizing the pressure between said second pressure equalizing chamber and said second heater during the flow of condensate from said second pressure equilizing chamber to said second heater, a control means for alternately connecting, firstly, said first pressure equalizing chamber in condensate receiving relation to said first heater and venting said first pressure equalizing chamber into said first heater, while placing said second heater in condensate receiving relation to said second pressure equalizing chamber and admitting the same pressure extraction steam into said second heater and said second pressure equalizing chamber, and then, secondly, interchanging these conditions by connecting said second pressure equalizing chamber in condensate receiving relation to said first heater, venting said pressure equalizing chamber into said first heater while placing said second heater in condensate receiving relation to said first pressure equalizing chamber, and admitting the same pressure extraction steam into said second heater and said first pressure equalizing chamber during the flow of condensate from said first heater to said second pressure equalizing chamber, whereby condensate flows from said first heater alternately to said pressure equalizing chambers and from said pressure equalizing chambers alternately to said second heater by gravity.

2. The structure recited in claim 1 in which said con trol means comprises two multiway valves, the first of said valves serving to place either of said pressure equalizing chambers in condensate flow relation with either of said heaters, and the second of said valves serving to place either of said pressure equalizing chambers in steam flow relation with'either of said heaters and with different sources of extraction steam.

3. The structure recited in claim 1 and a valve for controlling the flow of condensate into said first heater, and means responsive to the level of the condensate in said first heater for operating said valve in response to the level of the condensate in said first heater to regulate flow of condensate into, or from, said chambers.

4. The structure recited in claim 1, and a liquid level responsive device in said second heater, a condensate dis charge pipe leading from said second heater, a valve for controlling said discharge pipe, and means connecting said valve to said level responsive device whereby said valve is opened to discharge condensate from said second heater when the condensate level in said second heater reaches a predetermined level.

5. The structure recited in claim 1 and a liquid level responsive device in said second heater, a valve connected to a source of condensate to the second heater and to said chambers, and means operatively connecting said liquid level responsive device to said valve, whereby said valve is opened to permit additional condensate to flow directly into said second heater whenever the level of the condensate in said second heater falls below a predetermined point.

6. A multistage apparatus for heating condensate prior to its re-introduction into a boiler containing steam under pressure of a first, relatively high order, said apparatus including a plurality of superimposed heaters, control means for admitting condensate at least to the uppermost or" said heaters, a first chamber and a second chamber located between successive heaters, means selectively and alternately connecting either of said chambers in condensate flow relation with a preceding, and with a succeeding, heater, means for admitting steam under progressively increasing pressures into successive heaters and alternately into the first and second chambers preceding the respective heaters simultaneously, the highest pressure steam admitted simultaneously into any of said heaters being less than the pressure of said first order, means in each heater for intimately intermingling the steam and the condensate, a receiver, means for admitting steam into said receiver and, alternately, into the immediately preceding first and second chambers, the pressure of this steam being of a second order which is higher than the highest pressure of the steam admitted into any of said heaters, and means alternately connecting said last mentioned chambers in condensate flow relation with the receiver whereby the condensate will flow from said last mentioned chambers into said receiver by gravity.

7. The structure recited in claim 6 in which the steam admitted into said receiver is under pressure substantially equal to the pressure of the steam in said boiler.

8. A multi-stage condensate heating apparatus including a plurality of superimposed open heaters, a first valve connected to a source of condensate and to the uppermost of said heaters, a second valve connected to a lower heater and to said source of condensate, a third valve connected to a lower heater and to said source of condensate, a first liquid level responsive device associated with said uppermost heater and said first valve and operable to open, or to close, the first valve according to the level of condensate in said uppermost heater, a second liquid level responsive device associated with a lower heater and with said second valve and operable to open said second valve only when the liquid level in said lower: heater falls below a given value, to admit additional con densate into said lower heater, and a third liquid level responsive device associated witha lower heater and with said third valve and operable to open said third valve to discharge condensate from said apparatus only when the level of the condensate in said lower heater rises to a predetermined point.

'9. In combination, a boiler, and an apparatus for heat ing condensate prior to its reintroduction into a boiler, said apparatus including an open heater adapted to receive condensate to be heated, a condensate receiver, means conducting the heated condensate from said heater to said receiver, a desuperheater immersed in the condensate in the receiver, means for delivering superheated steam into said desuperheater, means for conducting the desuperheated steam into said heater and means forin: troducing steam into the receiver under a pressure substantially equal to the pressure in the boiler to reduce l the power needed to translate condensate from the receiver into the boiler.

10. In combination, a boiler, a heater, means delivering condensate to said heater, means delivering extraction steam to said heater, means in said heater for intimately intermingling said steam and said condensate to heat the latter, a receiver, means for delivering the heated condensate to said receiver, a pressure equalizing chamber between said heater and said receiver, a pump for translating the condensate from said receiver to said boiler, and means for delivering boiler pressure steam simultaneously to said pressure equalizing chamber and to said receiver to prevent flashing of said condensate and consequent cavitation of said pump and to reduce the horse power requirement of said pump.

11. A condensate heater including an open heater, controlled means for delivering condensate to said heater, a first pressure-equalizing chamber located below said heater, a second pressure equalizing chamber located below said heater, a first multiway valve connected to said heater and to said pressure equalizing chambers and movable to a first position in which one pressure equalizing chamber is connected in condensate receiving relation to said heater while the other. chamber is connected in condensate discharging position, and a second multiway valve also connected to said pressure equalizing chambers and to a source of extraction steam, said second valve being movable to a corresponding first position where said first pressure equalizing chamber is connected in venting relation to said heater While the second pressure equalizing chamber is supplied with steam from said source, said multiway valves being movable to second positions in which the condensate receiving and the venting relations of said first chamber, and the condensate discharging and extraction steam receiving relations of said second chamber are interchanged.

12. In combination, a boiler, a heater, means delivering condensate to said heater, means delivering extraction steam to said heater, means in said heater for intimately intermingling said steam and said condensate to heat the latter, a receiver, means for delivering the heated condensate to said receiver, a pump for translating the condensate from said receiver to said boiler, means for delivering steam under pressure higher than the pressure of the extraction steam and higher than atmospheric pressure to said receiver to prevent flashing of said water and consequent cavitation of said pump and to reduce the horse power requirements of said pump, and a desuperheater in said receiver, means for supplying superheated steam to said desuperheater, and means for delivering the desuperheated steam to said heater.

13. A condensate heating and pumplessly translating apparatus including a plurality of superimposed heaters, means for admitting condensate to be heated to said heaters, first and second pressure equalizing chambers between successive heaters, means admitting extraction steam of successively increasing pressure to said heaters with the lowest pressure extraction steam delivered to the uppermost of said heaters, means in each of said heaters for intimately intermingling the steam and the condensate in said heater, a receiver below the lowermost of said heaters, first and second pressure equalizing chambers between said receiver and said lowermost heater, a plurality of first control means for alternately venting all of said first pressure equalizing chambers, but not necessarily simultaneously, and then venting all of said corresponding second pressure equalizing chambers, but not necessarily simultaneously, and a plurality of second control means for alternately, and in the same order, connecting all of said heaters and said receiver in condensate flow relation to the first of their related pressure equalizing chambers immediately thereabove, but not necessarily simultaneously, and then connecting all of said heaters and said receiver in condensate flow relation with the second of their related pressure equalizing chambers immediately thereabove, but notnec'essarily simultaneously, whereby condensate flows by gravity from the uppermost to the lowermost heater and from the lowermost eater to said receiver.

14, The structure recited in claim 13 and means for delivering steam under pressure higher than the pressure delivered to the lowermost of said heaters to said receiver and, alternately, to the pressure equalizing chambers immediately thereabove.

15. The structure recited in claim 13, and a desuperheater immersed in the condensate in said receiver, means for admitting superheated steam to said desuperheater, and means for leading the desuperheated steam from said superheater to a heater above said receiver.

16. A condensate heating and pumplessly translating apparatus including at least one heater, means admitting steam to said heater, means in said heater for intimately intermingling the steam and the condensate, first and sec- 0nd pressure equalizing chambers, a first control means for alternately venting said first and said second chambers to said heater, a second control means for alternately connecting said first and second chambers in condensate receiving relation to said heater in the same order in which, and at the same time as, said chambers are vented, a receiver, means alternately connecting said chambers in condensate discharge relation to said receiver, means for admitting steam to said chambers, alternately, and in the same order in which said chambers are connected in condensate flow relation to said receiver, and means for removing the condensate from said receiver.

17. Apparatus for heating, and for pumplessly trans l'ating a liquid, said apparatus including at least one heater, a receiver therehelow, means for delivering liquid to be heated to said heater, a pair of pressure equalizing chambers intermediate said heaterand said receiver, a first valve means for connecting one of said chambers in liquid receiving relation to said heater while connecting the other of said chambers in liquid discharge relation to said receiver, and a second valve means admitting steam into said chambers alternately to expel the liquid therefrom at the time that these chambers are in liquid discharge condition and venting said steam alternately from said chambers to said heater when these chambers are in liquid receiving condition and means in said heater for intimately intermingling said steam with the liquid in said heater.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 804,827 Corbitt Nov. 21, 1905 1,508,985 McDermet Sept. 16, 1924 1,887,000 Wooten et al Nov. 8, 1932 2,141,899 Bennett Dec. 27, 1938 2,489,345 Welch Nov. 29, 1949 2,566,732 Krieg Sept. 4, v1951

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3046956 *Jun 3, 1959Jul 31, 1962Kuljian CorpPumpless liquid heater and translator
US3116876 *May 19, 1960Jan 7, 1964Palm William WHot water heating system
US3134543 *Sep 20, 1961May 26, 1964IttPressurized medium temperature hot water system
US3136299 *Apr 25, 1961Jun 9, 1964Regazzi Romualdo BertoluzziBoiler feeding apparatus
US4165718 *Oct 12, 1977Aug 28, 1979Chen Thomas Y CMethod and apparatus for feeding condensate to a high pressure vapor generator
US4211188 *Mar 23, 1979Jul 8, 1980Chen Thomas Y CMethods and apparatus for feeding liquid into apparatus having high pressure resistance
US4227489 *Jan 22, 1979Oct 14, 1980Regamey Pierre EMethod and device for feeding a system for generating and distributing vapor condensable into make-up liquid
US4242988 *Jan 22, 1979Jan 6, 1981Regamey Pierre EMethod and device for transferring condensates from a low pressure network into a high pressure network in a system of generation, distribution and utilization of condensable vapor
US4404930 *Jul 7, 1980Sep 20, 1983Chen Thomas Y CMethods and apparatus for transferring liquid against high pressure resistance
US20140047841 *Oct 20, 2011Feb 20, 2014Joo Hyuk YimPumping device using vapor pressure for supplying water for power plant
WO1979000202A1 *Oct 10, 1978Apr 19, 1979T ChenMethod and apparatus for feeding condensate to a high pressure vapor generator
WO1985001338A1 *Sep 19, 1983Mar 28, 1985Thomas Y C ChenMethods and apparatus for transferring liquid against high pressure resistance
Classifications
U.S. Classification122/451.00R, 122/457
International ClassificationF22D1/28, F22D1/00, F22D11/00, F22D1/30, B01D19/00, F22D11/06
Cooperative ClassificationF22D1/30, F22D11/06, B01D19/0042, F22D1/28
European ClassificationF22D1/30, F22D11/06, B01D19/00P, F22D1/28