US 2871802 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Febf3, 1959 A. J. FlsHLER TANK TYPE DISASTER 'sHEmERy 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR 4l/ey L/ ,C75/af@ Filed June 18, 1956 Feb- 3, l959 A. J. FISHLER TANK TYPE DISASTER SHELTER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 18, 1955 Y INVENTOR VE/Py L/ s//4 7 A'I'I'CRNEYS TANK TYPE DISASTER SHELTER Avery J. Fishler, Flint, Mich. Application June 18,1956, serial No. 592,169
s claims. (ci. 109-1) disadvantage of requiring excavation and erection of the structure at the point of use. The time required for installation was necessarily great and the expense of fabrication at the point of use was high. When the old shelters were used they were damp and the air was generally fouled by the damp atmosphere. Debris tended to be shaken into the shelter on the occupants on the occasion of near misses in wartime. Once positioned such shelters could not be moved without dismantling.
Since World War II the people of the United States of America have become increasingly conscious of the threat of air bombardment. Recently the tendency to erect homes having no basement and a slab oor has emphasized the need for safe quarters in the event of natural or wartime disaster.
Accordingly it is one of the objects of the present l invention to provide a metal tank disaster unit.
Another object is to provide a disaster unit which is capable of high efciency mass assembly, which tank type unit is functionally reinforced against damage and sound against leakage.
Still another object is to provide a structure which is completely assembled and ready for installation upon preparation of a suitable earth opening and in such a form as to be adaptable for use in almost any type of soil.
Another object is to provide a prefabricated cylindrical metal disaster unit incorporating all of the strength characteristics inherent in a reinforced tubeform and which adapts itself to selective location and relocation.
Figure 2 is a cross section elevation taken on line II-II of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is an end elevation view illustrating an entry to the disaster unit where it is bricked into an existing foundation or basement.
Figure 4 is a perspective view illustrating the recom- 2 `Figure 6 is a section elevation on the line VI--VI of Figure 5 showing the internal rugged construction of the breather.
Figure 7 is an enlarged partial end elevation showing details of the escape hatch installation with lock in place and caulking.
Figure 8 is a detail view of the lock and latch illustrating the simplicity and rugged operativeness of the escape hatch lock.
Figure 9 is an end view of a modified tank-type unit showing the use of eyes and angle irons through the eyes to provide a suitable stabilizing anchor for the disaster unit.
General description In general the structure of the present invention comprises a metal cylinder sealed, as by welding, against any leakage to comprise a metal tank. An entry way provides access to the tank. Reinforcement of the tube or cylinder is accomplished by the transverse end closures as well as the positioning of internal structural elements such as benches and the like. A breather tube extends outwardly from the tank communicating the interior of the tank to the outside atmosphere. An escape hatchway is provided which is normally sealed against'the leakage of ground water or debris and which opens inwardly so that the occupants of the tank can escape if the entry is blocked. The tank type disaster unit is easily and economically fabricated from sheet.
or plate metal using ordinary forming tools available to any tank fabricator. Sealing of the unit is accomplished preferably by welding. Corrosion is inhibited by the application of an exterior coating of plastic material such as tar,- for example,` and the interior s provided with a paint coating to resist any corrosion from the interior. The entire unit is adaptable to mass fabrication processes and is directly installable at desired locations merely upon provision of a suitable ground opening. Testing of such structures has indicated an indeterminate useful life, high shock strength, low installation cost, great ease of moving or relocating the units, and high satisfaction by test users under tornado conditions and in areas where tornados are or have been occurring with relative frequency. The form of the devices make them adaptable to protective shielding against radioactive penetration and protect against damage from explosive shock waves. In areas where basementless homes are being built-units of this type have also served a useful purpose as a storage cellar or produce cellar while not marring the landscape arrangements, and at a fractional cost compared to providing a suitable basement. In the broadest sense the present invention encompasses the sinking of a tank structure in the earth, which tank structure is provided with entry means, emergency escape means, and with suitable breather. It will be understood that actual positioning of the structure may be varied as desired. Such a tank unit, for example, might be stood on one of its ends, but the results of testing has indicated that maximum space utilization is obtained along with strength when the tank type unit is installed horizontally as illustrated.
Specic description Referring more particularly to the drawings a body `11 is provided which is tubular in character, the Walls comprising metal plates made integral and strengthened at the joints as by welding. The most desirable metal is steel because of its high strength and relatively low cost in plate or sheet form. Disc-like end closures 12 and 13 are provided which are integrally connected to the body 11. The end closures 12 and 13 are provided with peripheral anges 14 as shown best in Figure 1. The end closures 12 and 13 resist crushing stresses thus strengthening the cylindrical structure and sealing the cylinder, when Welded, against seam leakage. Benches and 16 are provided which are Welded or otherwise attached to the walls of the body 11 and which run longitudinally of the body 11 to internally. abut and strengthen the end closures 12 and 13 and laterally stabilize the tubular body 11. This arrangement has also proved highly beneficial in strengthening the structure against outside radial shock. In their preferred form the benches 15 and 16 are formed of an elongate folded plate or sheet of metal and the edges of the plate are then secured to the Walls of the body 11 as shown in Figures l and 2. A breather pipe 17 communicates with the interior of the cylindrical structure and extends outwardly therefrom. A flange fitting 18 is welded to the body 11 to form the connection for the breather pipe 17. As best illustrated in Figures 5 and 6 a protective hood 17a is spacedly positioned above the pipe extension shrouding the pipe 17 against debris and weather. The spaced relationship between pipe 17 and hood 17a is maintained by hood struts 17b. A screen 17C assures the elimination of insects from the disaster unit. An escape hatch 19 is provided through the upper wall of the cylinder body 11 (Figures 7 and 8). The hatch 19 opens inwardly on hinges 20. A hatch lock 21 pivoted from the inside of the body 11 and secured by a latch 22 secures the hatch against accidental dislodgment While assuring sufficient operational simplicity as to avoid jamming. The hatch margin is caulked againstleaking or seepage by a suitable frangible plastic patch or seal 23 which may be broken through from the inside of the cylinder if emergency escape is necessary.
Normal ingress and egress are accomplished by entries to the structure as illustrated in Figures l, 3 and 4.
Where the cylinder is installed adjacent to a building having a basement, the entry is preferably provided through the end closure 13. An outwardly flanged portal 24 is provided integrally with the closure 13 and a door 25 is hinged to form an access opening for the disaster unit. Where such an arrangement is provided the llanged portal 2d is bricked into the side Wall 26 of the basement-of the adjoining building or structure as in Figure 3. lf no adjoining basement is available, or if it is desired to remotely postion the disaster unit from a dwelling, the ingress and egress to the unit is accomplished through modified entries as best illustrated in Figures 1 and 4. In all of the arrangements for entry ways it is signicant that the entries are all made structurally integral with the cylindrical body portion of the disaster units. This structural integrity contributes greatly to the overall strength of the units.
Where a staircase entry is desired, the flanged portal 24 is utilized for the attachment, as by welding, of a staircase element 27. The staircase element 27 is provided with metal stairwell sides 28 and metal stairs 2%. A weather tight door 30 provides an entry to the staircase element 27'. The disaster unit door 25 appears as previously described in the end closure 13 at the foot of the staircase element 27. A man-hole type entry is also possible without departure from the spirit of the invention and is best illustrated in Figure 1 showing the invention in its simplest form. A tube sheath 31 extends upwardly from the unit and a hinged cover 32 is provided at or above the ground level. A ladderway 33 extends down into the disaster unit. For ease in positioning the structure a handling eye 34 is provided as shown in Figure l so that hoisting apparatus can easily assist in placing the unit in an earth opening or in removing the unit therefrom.
Testimy has proved that in many instances the tank must be anchored against oat or movement.- Such a tendency varies with particular ground conditions. A
The keel of the body 11 and may, where necessary, be firmly anchored in earth or cement grouting 36. In Figure 9 modied keels or anchors 35a are shown as structural angles passed through anchor eyes 37. The modified anchors 35a positioned at either end of the structure extend transversely therefrom and provide excellent stability where they extend substantially into the undercuts in the earth opening and are securely cemented in place. The anchor eyes 37 are securely welded to the structure adjacent the ends 12 and 13 and the anchors 35a are passed through the openings therein.
Operation Tank type units as described are prefabricated using ordinary metal working equipment, the parts being subject to a high degree of standardization and consequent speed and economy of production. The assembled structure is easily tested for leakage, before shipment by ordinary air pressure tests for improper seams. The tank type disaster units are economical to fabricate and ship. They are amenable to storage without deterioration and easily handled by portable crane equipment. They are adaptable to mass shipment by truck, rail, or navigational transport services. An earth opening is prepared in a selected position and preferably undercut at the lower margin as shown in Figure 4. A desired depth is selected for positioning and requires mere alteration of the length of the breather pipe 17 so as to extend to clear the hood 17a above ground level. Drain tiles may be installed as shown in the drawing Where exceptionally damp ground conditions are encountered. The tank unit is preferably lowered into the cement to anchor the structure against oatf The anchoring effect is facilitated by the use of the keels and anchors as described. The ingress and egress provisions emerge from the surface as desired or may be bricked into or otherwise sealed to existing subsurface structures. The units are equipped with basic accessories as shofi in the drawing, extinguisher, spade, and pick for emergency usage. it will be appreciated that other accommodations such as food .storage and power pack provisions may also be inserted in the units as desired by the user.
ln actual disaster usage the occupants are secure against natural or wartime devastation except in the event of a direct bombing strike. 1f debris blocks the normal means of ingress and egress an alternative escape means isprovided secured against normal seepage. lf it is desired to more the unit the learth is reopened and simple crane manipulation allows speedy relocation. The, units -are generally cool and have provided excellent storage facilities in periods of normal conditions. Shielding against atomic radiation by the external attachment of radiation filtration equipment is extremely adaptable to use with the units described, for example by hanging armor plate (lead for example) to the body or coating the structure upon fabrication.
lt will thus be appreciated that the invention .described comprises a novel and highly useful contribution to national security and human welfare by providing a prefabricated disaster shelter for a reasonable price and providing extremely high resistance to deterioration and damage with attendant personal security to the users. Having thus described my invention it will be readily appreciated that modifications within the skill of the art are intended to be included in the scope of the hereinafter appended claims.
l. In a prefabricated semiportable disaster shelter. tne combination including: a tank; an entry providing ingress and egress to said htank; a breather tube communicating the interior of said tank'with the outside atmosphere; a normally closed escape hatch selectively cpenabe 4inwardly into said tank; and a frangible caulking patch normally covering said escape hatch and sealed to the body of said tank.
2. In a disaster unit the combination including: an underground horizontally disposed metal tubular chamber; an entry providing ingress and egress to said chamber; means to communicate the interior of said chamber With the outside atmosphere; a normally closed escape hatch selectively openable inwardly into said chamber; a frangible caulked patch normally covering said escape hatch and sealed to the body of said chamber; hori` zontally disposed downwardly extending keel-like stabiling means provided under and integral with said chamber.
3. In a disaster unit, the combination including: an underground horizontally disposed metal tubular charnber; an entry providing ingress and egress to said chamber; means to communicate the interior of said chamber with the outside atmosphere; a normally closed escape hatch selectively openable inwardly into said chamber; a frangible caulked patchnormally covering said escape hatch and sealed to the body of said chamber; horizontally disposed outwardly extending stabilizing means provided on and integral with the lower portion of said chamber.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS