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Publication numberUS2874692 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 24, 1959
Filing dateSep 14, 1955
Priority dateSep 25, 1954
Publication numberUS 2874692 A, US 2874692A, US-A-2874692, US2874692 A, US2874692A
InventorsRoberto Galeazzi
Original AssigneeRoberto Galeazzi
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Open-cycle breathing equipment, particularly for skin-divers
US 2874692 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

. Feb. 24, 1959 PARTICULARLY FOR lSKIN-DIVERS l' Y oPENfCYcLE BREATHING E QUIFMENT Fla.

l1NVENTOR R055? T0 GAL EAZZ/ 7 ATTORNEYS R. GALEAZZI Feb. 24, 1959 OPEN- CYCLE BREATHING EQUIPMENT, PARTICULARLY lFOR SKIN-DIVERS Filed sept. 14, 1955 5 Sheets-*Sheet 2 ATTORNEYS OPEN-CYCLE` BREATHING EQUIPMENT, PARTICULARLY FOP. SKIrN-DIVVERS Filed sept. 14. 1955 INVENTOR V@OBERTO GALEAZZ/ ATTORNE United States Patent i' t 2,874,692 OPEN-CYCLE BREATHING EQUIPMENT, PARTICULARLY FOR SKIN-DIVERS Roberto Galeazzi, La Spezia, Italy Application September 14, 1955, Serial No. 534,343 `Claims priority, application Italy September 25, 1954 SClaims. (Cl. 12S-142) This invention relates to open-cycle breathing equipment and particularly to underwater breathing equipment for skin-divers or frogmen viz. by divers who, without a diving suit, remain under water for considerable time (up to some hours according to the divers ability and the diving depth).

` `'Ille main object of the invention is to provide in open- `cycle `breathing Vvequipment an fairintake valve or \breathing valve (whereby the term `air is used to comprise not only the air proper, but breathing mixtures `of oxygen with helium, argon or other diluent gases) which is positively controlled yfrom the users mouth, by the users tongue, teeth or lips, according to its construction, thus avoiding either an undue excessive air consumption, as is the Acase in the continuous air ow breathing equipments, or` an objectionable breathing valve control by hand.

n Another object of the invention is to provide an under water breathing equipment inv which the outlet piece of the air-intake tube or breathing tube is attached to a conventional divers mask and thus needs not toend with an objectionable mouthpiece, while the breathing valveis provided with a control lever which is easily controllable by the divers tongue, teeth or lips.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a diie'rentialvalve partieularly adapted for use on underwater breathing equipment, of the kind above-referred to, which ensures that the air which is fed to the intake tube has `'always a predetermined pressure in excess n(say 1-2 atmospheres) of the pressure due to the head Vof water at which the diver is working, thus avoiding the noxious e'tects due to the variation of the pressure in the air-bottles during the use.

j `Other objects and advantages will become apparent from 'the following specification in conjunction with the accompanying `drawings in which:

Figure 1 is a section through `an embodiment of ian air-outlet piece of abreathing equipment, provided with a tongueor teeth-controlled breathing valve.

Figure 2Mis a plan view of the saine air-outlet piece and breathing valve, together with a `part of the flexible exhaust tube and with the exhaustvalve inserted in vau air bubble-fractionating perforated canister, said parts being also shown partly in section and partly broken away.

Figure 3 shows in section a second embodiment of airoutlet piece of breathing equipment vprovided with a controlled breathing valve attached to the intake tube andV carrying a differential `pressureredu'cing valve, and j Figure 4 is a section through another outlet piece of a breathing equipment, `iitted to a divers mask.

With reference to the drawings, 1 is the air-intake or breathing tube of a breathing equipment and which is connected to a source of air under suitable pressure, which may be either an air pump or compressed air bottles, which maybe both of conventional construction, and therefore need not to 'be shown or described.

lIn the `embodiment shown in Figures l and 3 the tube 1 is connected to -a nipple -forming an extension of an internally screw-threaded cylinder 2 in which van openended cylindrical `flange -23 of a hollow air-outlet piece '3 is screwed. The part from which this cylindrical ange projects has a centrally `perforated hub the end of whichthat opens into said cylindrical flange 23 is formed as a valve 'seating. Between this seating andtlie bottom users mouth.

2,874,692 Patented Feb. 24,

lCC

part of the cylinder 2 a spring 17 and a ball valve 9 are inserted so that said valve 9 is urged against said seating of the hub 10 and closes one end of the bore 108 of said hub. In this bore 108 a stern 8 integral with said ball valve 9 is slidably mounted with sui'licient clearance and it is of such a length as to project for a short distance above the upper end of said hub 10.

In the outlet piece 3, above said iiange 23, a chamber is formed in which a double-armed lever 4 is pivotally mounted on a pivot 5 fastened to said outlet piece 3. One arm 7 of said lever projects above the end of th'e valve stem 8 while the other end `6 projects out of an open part 12 of said 'outlet piece which is provided with a projecting member 11 and on which a conventional rubber mouthpiece is tted.

Of course, instead of a ball valve, any other type of self-closing valve might be employed. Thusin Figure 3 the ball valve is replaced by a plate valve 90, theremaining parts beingrexaetly alike those 'shown in Figure 1.

These valves, which -for simplicity shall be called breathing valves are controlled Afrom the users mouth, preferably by the users teeth, which easily shifts upwardly the lever end 6, thus depressing the valve stem v8 and opening the valve intermittently, when he wants to inhale fresh air. After some exercise, this control movement of the teeth becomes almost automatic.

According tothe embodiment shown in FigureY 4, t-he hollow outlet piece 31'co`ntaining the lever v4, which controls the air-intake or breathing valve 90, isshape'd as a curved rigid tube tightly fitted by one of its ends to a corresponding opening of a conventional divers mask 30. Thus the air outlet piece of this` breathing equipment opens into the mask and not directly into the In the upper part of said tubular outlet piece 31 a small cylinder 32 having its axis substantially at right angles to the axis of ther said upper tubular part is formed integrally or is tightly fitted. This cylinderprojects inside and outside the outlet piece 31. The inside part is closed by a centrally perforated bottom 10 through which projects the stem of a breathing valve 9% pressed by a spring 17 retained in the cylinder by a split -ring or the like 132. The outside projecting end of said cylinder 32 serves as connecting nipple for the breathing tube 1. In the upper cylindrical casing part the usual tongue, lipsor teeth-controlled lever 4 is mounted, whose control end, 6, in the example as shown, is screw-threaded and carries a small control strip V106 which may be fastened atan adjustable height between a pair of nuts.

The tubular outlet piece 31 beyond the bent part ends with a tubular projection 131 constituting a saliva collector and ending with a discharge valve 33.

In both embodiments, as'shown in Figure 2 the outlet piece is provided with a tubular connection 13 ending with an outlet valve 15 which is enclosed Vin a perforated box or canister 16, designed for subdividing -the large air bubbles let out through fthe valve 15 into a large number of very small air bubbles.

Between the source of air'supply (usually steel bottles containing air or air-like mixtures at pressures of up to 200 atmospheres) and the air intake a suitable differential valve must be inserted which supplies air-at a constant pressure of 1-2 atmospheres in excess of the pressure of the head of water above the diver. A difierential valve particularly adapted for use with the breathing equipment just described is`shown attached to the valv'ed mouthpiece shown in Figure 3.

This consists of a suitably large container 19 divided by a membrane 25 into two separate chambers 26 and 28. The membrane yis `traversed by a tube 27 'one `end of which Vis fastened to or integral with `a flanged cup 127 tightly attached to `said membrane. The free end f the tube 27 passes through a packing gland 24 and its very end is made as valve head, for example as pin valve 20, co-acting with a seat formed at the interior of the nipple 22 which can be connected to a conventional source of compressed air (not shown). A spring 21, whose force is exactly adjusted in advance, is inserted between the bottom of the cup 127 and the gland 24 and keeps normally opened the valve 20. The chamber 28 is in communication with the exterior through the holes 29, while the chamber 26 is provided with a nipple 102 which is connected to the air feed tube 1.

The operation is apparent: The force of the spring is adjusted so that when the air pressure in the chamber 26 is in excess of a predetermined pressure (for example 1 to 2 atmospheres) above that of the external pressure filling the chamber 28, this excess of pressure promotes the closure of valve 20. When however this excess of pressure sinks under a predetermined limit (for example 1 atmosphere), the spring 21 opens said valve 20, which remains open until the predetermined working pressure has been built up in the chamber 26.

From the foregoing, it is apparent that the breathing equipment is particularly adapted for skin divers as it permits to open a mouth-controlled breathing valve each time the diver wants to effectively inhale fresh air, thus avoiding an excessive air consumption and increasing the efficiency time of the bottles containing the compressed air. Furthermore, a ydifferential valve has been provided which, by working in combination with the mouth-controlled breathing valve permits of feeding fresh air at the constant required plus pressure above that due to the head of water at which the diver works.

I claim:

1. An open-cycle breathing equipment, particularly for skin-divers, comprising a flexible breathing tube, means for feeding compressed air to the exible breathing tube, an outlet piece fitted at the end of said breathing tube; a breathing valve fitted in said outlet piece and so constructed as to remain normally closed and to close in the direction of flow of said compressed air from the said breathing tube toward the said outlet piece, a lever fitted in said outlet piece and having a part co-acting with said breathing valve and adapted to open same, said lever having a part projecting outwardly of the said outlet piece shaped to t into a users mouth and to be moved under control of a mouth part (tongue, teeth or lips) of the user so as to open said breathing valve and allow the same to be closed at will, and an outlet valve for exhaled air fitted on said outlet piece in a position as not to be intercepted by said breathing valve, said breathing valve being a ball valve and having a stem integral with the ball valve and projecting into said outlet piece.

2. A breathing equipment according to claim 1, in which the said outlet piece is in form of a tubular member and is tightly fitted to a portion of a divers mask adjacent a mouth position of the mask, the outer end of said lever being screw-threaded; a pair of screw nuts screwable on said threaded lever part and a control member adapted to be held in position between said screw nuts and to be adjusted along said screw-threaded lever part so as to be in the-best position to be controlled by a part of the divers mouth, preferably by the divers teeth.

3. A breathing equipment according to claim l, in which between a source of compressed air and the breathing tube a membrane valve is fitted whose membrane is on one side adapted to be under the combined influence of the outside pressure and of a spring, and on the other side under the influence of a compressed air pressure and which membrane carries a valve acting on the inlet of said compressed air source which valve opens, and puts the source of air pressure into communication with the said side of the membrane under the influence of the air pressure until the pressure of said air exceeds the outside pressure by a predetermined amount, and when such predetermined excess of air pressure has been built up, it acts on the membrane to close the said valve carried thereby and intercept the communication with said source of compressed air.

4. An open-cycle breathing equipment, particularly for skin-divers, comprising a flexible breathing tube, means for feeding compressed air to the flexible breathing tube, an outlet piece fitted at the end of said breathing tube; a breathing valve fitted in said outlet piece and so constructed as to remain normally closed and to close in the direction of flow of said compressed air from the said breathing tube towards the said outlet piece, a lever fitted in said outlet piece and having a part co-acting with said breathing valve and adapted to open same, said lever having a part projecting outwardly of the said outlet piece adapted to fit into a users mouth and to be moved under control of a mouth part (tongue,

teeth or lips) of the user so as to open said breathing valve and allow same to be closed at will, and an outlet valve for exhaled air fitted on said outlet piece in a position as not to be intercepted by said breathing valve, said outlet being in the form of a tubular member and being tightly fitted to a portion of a divers mask adjacent a mouth position of the mask with the outer end of said lever being screw-threaded; a pair of screw nuts screwable on said threaded lever part and a control member adapted to be held in position between said screw nuts and to be adjusted along said screw-threaded lever part so as to be in the best position to be controlled by a part of the divers mouth, preferably by the divers teeth.

5. An open-cycle breathing equipment, particularly for skin-divers, comprising a flexible breathing tube, means for feeding compressed air to the flexible breathing tube, an outlet piece fitted at the end of said breathing tube; a breathing valve fitted in said outlet piece and so constructed as the remain normally closed and to close in the direction of flow of said compressed air from the said breathing tube towards the said outlet piece, a lever fitted in said outlet piece and having a part co-acting with said breathing valve and adapted to open same, said lever having a part projecting outwardly of the said outlet piece adapted to fit into a users mouth and to be moved under control of a mouth part (tongue, teeth or lips) of the user so as to open said breathing valve and allow same to be closed at will, and an outlet valve for exhaled air fitted on said outlet piece in a position as not to be intercepted by said breathing valve, there being between a source of corpressed air and the breathing tube a membrane valve whose membrane is on one side adapted to be under the combined influence of the voutside pressure and of a spring, and on the other side under the inuence of a compressed air pressure, and which membrane carries a valve acting on the inlet of said compressed air source which valve opens and puts the source of air pressure into communication with the said side of the membrane under the influence of the air pressure until the pressure of said air exceeds the outside pressure by a predetermined amount, and when such predetermined excess of air pressure has been built up, `it acts on the membrane to close the said valve lcarried thereby and intercept the communication with said source of compressed air.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 439,093 Barian Oct. 2S, 1890 2,484,044 Metzger Oct. 1l, 1949 2,485,908 Morrow Oct. 25, 1949 2,695,609 Nourse Nov. 30, 1954 2,810,387 Arpin et al. Oct. 22, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,078,875 France May 12, 1954

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US439093 *Mar 1, 1890Oct 28, 1890 Fireman s safety-helmet
US2484044 *Apr 2, 1947Oct 11, 1949Metzger Robert MChin-operated diving apparatus
US2485908 *Mar 26, 1946Oct 25, 1949Us Executive Secretary Of TheDiving gear
US2695609 *Jan 28, 1952Nov 30, 1954Garrett CorpBreathing apparatus
US2810387 *Oct 6, 1954Oct 22, 1957Arpin Jr Leon GUnderwater breathing devices
FR1078875A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3415245 *Mar 8, 1965Dec 10, 1968Y2 AssociatesNoise-suppression diving apparatus
US4090511 *Mar 23, 1977May 23, 1978Mine Safety Appliances CompanyMouthpiece valve for escape breathing apparatus
US5379762 *Sep 3, 1992Jan 10, 1995Grand Bleu International, Inc.Mouthpiece unit of diving respirator
US5660172 *Sep 22, 1995Aug 26, 1997Hatton; Norman E.Auxiliary breathing apparatus and method
US5868130 *Nov 4, 1997Feb 9, 1999Sea Turtle Scuba, Inc.Underwater emergency breathing device
DE102005011821A1 *Mar 15, 2005Sep 21, 2006Thomas KwapisPerleator for exhaled air e.g. for divers has perleator unit which is connected at base of breadth controller whereby base is connected by detachable connection which can be made as screw, plug-in or clamp connection
DE102008011110B3 *Feb 26, 2008Dec 10, 2009Thomas KwapisAusblaseinheit
WO1998022186A1 *Nov 4, 1997May 28, 1998Sea Turtle Scuba IncScuba mouthpiece having mouth activation of gas supply
Classifications
U.S. Classification128/205.24, 128/206.22, 128/201.27, 128/201.28, 128/206.29
International ClassificationB63C11/22, A62B9/00, A62B9/06, B63C11/02
Cooperative ClassificationB63C11/2236, A62B9/06
European ClassificationA62B9/06, B63C11/22C