US 2875602 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
2,875,602 HEAVY DUTY WASHING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE Fild Feb. 15, 1957 March 3, 1959 R. GALINSKI 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
ROMA/V GAL/A/S/(l March 3, 1959 R. GALINSKI 2,375,602
HEAVY DUTY WASHING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE Filed Feb. 13, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. flow/AN 6/44 //v5/(/ ATTO/PA/EYS March 3, 1959 R. GALINSKI HEAVY DUTY WASHING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE Filed Feb. 13, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 x 2 N5 w m; m w W ATTORNEYS United States Patent HEAVY DUTY WASHING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE Roman Galinski, New Britain, Conn., assignor to The Edro Corporation, New Britain, Conn., a corporation of Connecticut Application February 13, 1957, Serial No. 640,055 1 Claim. (Cl. 68-19) This invention relates to a heavy duty machine for handling fabrics in liquid, and this application is a continuation-in-part of my application Serial No. 544,250, filed November 1, 1955', now abandoned. While the invention will be described with particular reference to an improved washing and extracting machine, it will be understood that the improved machine of this. invention can be used as a dry cleaning machine, as a machine for dyeing and bleaching fabrics in liquid solution and for other specific purposes including the chemical treatment of fabrics.
An important object of the invention is to provide a machine of the aforementioned type having a higher capacity than any generally similar machine heretofore known and to provide for such greater capacity without corresponding increases in material and construction costs and in operating costs.
Another object of the invention is to provide such a high. capacity machine which is adapted to wash the fabrics in a liquid bath and to extract the liquid therefrom without transferring the load and without requiring re-arrangement of the load.
Another important object of the invention is to provide a washing machine of the aforedescribed type which is particularly characterized by its balanced operation, i. e., dynamic balance which substantially eliminates vibration, and undesirable stress and strain.
A further object of the invention is to provide a washing machine which has. a particularly advantageous and desirable washing action, i. e., an excellent action in handling fabrics which reduces the time involved in a satisfactory washing cycle and which results in a more thorough wash.
An additional object of the invention is to provide a washing machine which will extract more water from a washing load than other washing-extracting machines heretofore known.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a washing machine having all of the foregoing characteristics and which is particularly strong and durable.
The use of combination washing-extracting machines has heretofore beenlimited to small capacity or home use. applications. The attempts at providing high ca- .pacity washer-extractors have failed because of inability to provide dynamic balance resulting in excessive vibrationand structural failure. Some high capacity machines have been designed which do approach dynamic balance in operation, but these machines have other disadvantages such as poor washing and/ or extracting operation inherent in their design. Therefore, for successful high capacity service it has heretofore been necessary to provide separate washing and extracting machines. The washer-extractor of this invention overcomes the known disadvantages, is more efiicient, stronger, and more economical in operation than any combination high capacity washer-extractor heretofore known.
The drawings show a preferred embodiment of the invention and such embodiment will be described, but it will be understood that various changes may be made from the construction disclosed, and that the drawings and description are not to be construed as defining or limiting the scope of the invention, the claim forming a part of this specification being relied upon for that purpose.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a washing-extracting machine constructed in accordance with the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the washing machine.
Fig. 3 is a front elevational view with the front wall removed;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged perspective view of the rotatable washing drum, parts being broken away to reveal def tails of construction;
Fig. 5 is a rear elevational view of the machine. constructed in accordance with this invention;
Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view taken as indicated by the line 6--6 of Fig. 5; and
Fig. 7 is a perspective view (from the rear) of the Washing drum.
The invention in a washing machine shown in the accompanying drawings may be described generally as including a frame which supports a substantially horizontally disposed generally cylindrical shell or tank for receiving the water and soap, or other solution, and which also supports a substantially cylindrical perforate inner or washing drum which is rotatable on. a substantially horizontal axis and which carries the fabrics to be washed or otherwise processed. Suitable drive means are provided for rotating the washing drum within the tank containing the water and suitable drain means are provided for removing the water from the said tank. While not forming a part of the present invention, automatic control means are provided to rotate the washing drum at a relatively slow rate during a washing cycle, to drain the tank at the completion of the washing cycle, and then to rotate the washing drum at a relatively high rate to extract a maximum quantity of water from the fabrics. As a part of the control means there is included a timer for timing the washing, rinsing, draining and. extracting cycles and any other cycles, and there is also included brake means for slowing the drum and for stopping the drum in selected rotated positions.
As will be described in greater detail, thewashing drum has longitudinally extending perforate partitions which divide the said inner drum into three substantially identical fabric-receiving compartments which are radially spaced from the axis of rotation. The washing drum is perforate to facilitate the flow of water during rotation of the drum and the aforesaid partitions are particularly arranged to define compartments within the inner drum wherein the fabrics are tumbled and flexed in a highly desirable manner so that they can be uniformly and properly washed.
Referring now in greater detail to the drawings wherein the same reference numerals are employed to designate the same parts in the various views, the numeral 10 designates the substantially cylindrical tank which receives the Water and the detergent or other chemical solutions or solvents. As will be best observed with reference to Fig. 1, the cylindrical tank 10 is sub stantially horizontally disposed and is closed at its ends by a front plate 12 and a back plate 14. The plates 12 and 14 comprise a supporting frame and they may be welded or bolted or otherwise secured to the opposite ends of the tank 10 and, preferably, one or more braces 16 extend between the plates 12 and 14 to make the con struction particularly strong and rigid. The front and rear plates 12 and 14 are substantially vertical and 18, 18 which can be detachably connected with the floor to prevent undesirable movement of the machine.
Water or any other liquid may be introduced to the tank from the top thereof through means not shown. At one side of the tank, one or more openings are provided for receiving soap or other chemicals through one or more chutes 20 which are preferably provided with normally closed covers which may be hermetically sealed. At the bottom of the tank, there is provided a generally tangentially disposed drain sump 22 having drain conduits 24, 24 projecting therefrom and extending to a drain valve 26.
The vertical front and rear frame plates 12 and 14 are provided with suitable journals indicated at 28 and 30', respectively, ,to support a horizontally disposed shaft 32 upon which a rotatable washing drum is mounted as will be described in greater detail hereinafter. The front end of the shaft 32 does not project beyond the journal 28 but the rear end of the shaft 32 extends beyond the journal 30 in the back plate 14 and a driven pulley 34 is fixed upon the projecting end of the said shaft. The pulley 34 is connected to a drive pulley 36 by a belt 38, the drive pulley 36 being fixed to a drive shaft 40 of a motor 42 which is mounted on a platform 44 supported in a horizontal position at the top of the machine on the tank 10. It will be observed that the motor drive shaft 40 extends through the motor 42 into a gear housing 46 wherein the drive shaft 40 is connected with a drive shaft 48 on another motor 50 supported on the platform 44. Either of thejmotors 42 and 50 will drive the shaft 40 thereby rotating the drum shaft 32. However, the motors 42 and 50 are selectively energized to drive or rotate the said drum shaft. That is, during a washing cycle the drive motor 50 may be energized and the drive motor 42 deenergized to turn the drive shaft 40 and the drum shaft 32 at a desired relatively slow speed. After the washing cycle and after the water has been drained from the washing tank, the motor 50 may be deenergized or disengaged from the shaft 40 and the motor 42 energized to drive the said shaft and thereby to turn the drum shaft 32 at a relatively high speed to extract additional water from the fabrics.
The washing drum referred to above is best shown in Figs. 3 and 4 being indicated generally by the reference numeral 52. The said washing drum includes a circular front wall 54 and a circular back wall 56 both of which are secured to the drum shaft 32 on their centers adjacent and inside of the front and rear frame plates 12 and 14 forming a part of the liquid-receiving tank. The end walls 54 and 56 of the drum 52 are imperforate, but the frontplate 54 has three equally circumaxially spaced access openings 58, 58 which are normally closed by manually operable hinged doors or covers 60, 60. The openings 58, 58 are provided so that the fabrics can be placed in compartments within the drum 52 as will be described hereinafter. The drum 52 is further defined by a substantially cylindrical perforate shell 62 which extends between the end walls 54 and 56 and which is welded or otherwise rigidly connected thereto.
There are preferably three longitudinally extending compartments defined within the washing drum 52. The means employed to define the aforesaid compartments include a plurality of longitudinally spaced similar transverse partitions which are secured to the drum shaft in the same rotated positions and which have at least three substantially equal angularly related straight sides. Longitudinal partitions are supported on the sides of the transverse partitions and extend between the end walls of the drum. The longitudinal partitions also have longitudinal edges extending into engagement with the perforate shell thereby providing three longitudinal compartments of generally D-shaped cross section. The said transverse and longitudinal partitions cooperate to provide a rigid internal frame structure upon which the end walls 54 and 56 and the shell 62 are supported.
In the preferred embodiment shown, the transverse partitions 64, 64 are triangular, having sides of equal length. A plurality of such partitions are provided all being secured on the drum shaft 32. Two of the partitions 64, 64 are located adjacent but inside the drum end walls 54 and 56. The triangular partitions 64, 64 do not extend to the cylindrical perforate shell 62, their sides being spaced a substantial distance inwardly from the shell. The said triangular transverse partitions provide the support structure for the longitudinally extending perforate partitions 66, 66 which are welded or otherwise secured to the side edges of the transverse partitions 64, 64. It will be observed that each of the partitions 66, 66 is provided with a right angle offset 68 along one longitudinal edge portion which portion is indicated at 70, the said longitudinal edge 72 of each partition being welded or otherwise rigidly secured to the perforate shell 62. It will also be observed that a perforate longitudinally extending plate 74 is welded to the shell 62 and to the partition extension 70 at an angle to provide further support for the said partition and to provide a longitudinally extending wall in each of the compartments formed by a longitudinally extending partition 66 and the shell 62. The plate 74 and angular offset 68 will assist in tumbling and flexing the fabrics in the desired manner during rotation of the washing drum. Each partition 66 has its offset 68 and extension 70 projecting in the same circumaxial direction. That is, a partition 66 has one longitudinal edge secured to the transverse partitions 64, 64 at the intersection of two sides of the trans verse partitions while the other longitudinal edge of each longitudinal partition 66 extends into engagement and is secured to the shell 62. Thus, there are defined within the washing drum 52 three longitudinally extending compartments which are generally D-shaped in cross section or end view. In each such compartment, the flat side of the D is provided by a partition 66 and the rest of the D is formed by a segment of the shell 62 and by the plates 74, angular olfsets 68, and extensions 70.
As mentioned hereinbefore, the washing machine is preferably automatically operated and includes control means (not shown) for rotating the washing drum 52 in one or in opposite directions at a relatively low speed during a timed washing cycle at the end of which the liquid is automatically drained from the tank. This process can be repeated any desired number of times.
Then, the control means effects high speed rotation of the washing drum 52 to extract additional liquid from the fabrics. This extraction can be performed at any desired time as, for example, after rinsing, blueing or starching.
Since the washing drum must be rotated at a relatively high speed during the extracting cycle or. cycles, it is highly desirable to balance the washing load around the drum shaft 32 so as to minimize vibration of the machine. A balanced or substantially balanced washing load also serves to minimize the power requirements needed and thereby provides for economical operation. This prime requirement for eflicient operation of a heavy duty washer-extractor is attained in accordance with this invention by providing the three identical and equally circumaxially spaced compartments within the drum 52 and locating the compartments in radially spaced relationship to the shaft 32. That is, when a load is divided into three substantially equal parts and located within the respective compartments, a severely unbalanced condition is avoided. All of the load cannot drop to the bottom of the washing drum so that the entire load must be lifted at any one time at a waste of energy. The distribution of the load in the three compartments makes it possible for centrifugal force to distribute the fabrics substantially uniformly against the peripheral wall of the shell 62 in high speed extracting operation.
In addition to the foregoing, the three compartments are constructed and arranged to facilitate agitation and tumbling of the fabrics during the slow speed rotation of the washing drum. That is, the compartments are so constructed and arranged as to cause tumbling, squeezing, flexing and drop-ping of the fabrics. This will be understood from the following description of the fabric action during slow speed rotation.
As the inner or washing drum slowly rotates, each compartment is rotated through the water standing in the tank. When a compartment leaves the water, the water rapidly drains through the perforate walls of the compartment, carrying away loose and dissolved dirt and decreasing the load to be lifted. In passing over center, the fabrics drop within the compartment causing them to be flexed and squeezed. As the compartment reenters the standing supply, the water sprays in through the perforations upon the fabrics which are then immersed and tumbled and further agitated within the water.
It is important to observe that with the three D compartment construction described, the load or portion of a load in one compartment helps to balance and move the load portion in another compartment, thus saving power. That is, a dropping load in one compartment tends to lift a load in another compartment on the other side of the shaft.
The washing load is placed within the compartments and removed therefrom individually. That is, the drum 52 is automatically controlled to selectively stop in any one of the three rotated positions wherein a partition 66 will be disposed horizontally. This is best shown in Figs. 1 and 4. When stopped in the aforedescribed position, the cover or door 60 on the uppermost compartment can be opened through a doorway 76 provided in the front frame plate 12 and which is normally closed by a side opening sealed door 78. After one compartment has been filled or emptied, the door 60 thereto is closed and the washing drum 52 is rotated until the next adjacent compartment can be filled or emptied by opening its door 60 through the opening 76 in the front frame plate 12. As each compartment is raised for access, the fabrics drop to its partition 66 to be readily available at the door 60.
The washer-extractor of this invention is adapted particularly for unusually efiicient extracting operation. As mentioned previously, after a washing cycle water is drained from the tank and the washing drum 52 and then the washing drum is rotated at a relatively high speed to extract additional water from the fabrics by centrifugal force. It has been found that high speed rotation for water extraction creates a partial vacuum in the longitudinally extending central portion of the washing drum 52. That is, the high speed rotation of the drum creating centrifugal force which draws water from the fabrics within the compartments into the sump 22 and then into the drain valve 26 also moves air in the same path. This creates a low pressure region or partial vacuum along the drum shaft 32 and within the longitudinally extending compartment or chamber defined within the interconnected longitudinal partitions 66, 66 and further defined between the triangular transverse partitions 64, 64. This partial vacuum retards water flow in the centrifugal pattern.
It has been ascertained that more eflicient water extraction can be obtained by eliminating the partial vacuum in the aforedescribed area and by providing an air stream into said area whereby the increased air supply will carry with it more water from the fabrics.
The desired and improved result is obtained in the washer-extractor by providing a plurality of air-moving vanes or blades on the washing drum 52 which direct air into the central interior portion of the drum. More specifically, a plurality of the said blades or vanes 100, 102 and 104 are secured externally of the drum 52 on its rear wall 56 in equally eircumaxially spaced relationship, the blades being shaped to move air from the radially outer or peripheral portion of the drum 52 radially inwardly thereof and to the interior of the drum when it is rotated in the direction of the arrows shown in Figs. 5 and 7. The air supply for the said blades is provided within the tank 10 by providing an aperture 106 in the upper portion of the rear vertical wall or frame plate 14 adjacent the upper end of the drum 52. As the blades 100, 102, and 104 are rotated past the opening 106, they scoop air therefrom and direct the same into the apertures 108, 110 and 112, respectively, provided in the rear Wall 56 of the drum 52 and the rearmost triangular partition 64. Thus, air is effectively scooped or drawn into the central interior portion of the washing drum 52 during rotation thereof. In order to assure that air will be provided in all portions of the central interior compartment defined between the longitudinal partitions 66, 66, the interior triangular transverse partitions 64, 64 are made perforate.
The air stream thus provided to the interior of the washing drum during high speed extracting operation thereof flows into the centrifugal pattern and is discharged through the sump 22 and the drain valve 26 carrying with it water from the fabrics within the various washing compartments.
The invention claimed is:
In a heavy duty washing and extracting machine, a generally cylindrical imperforate tank, substantially vertical end walls extending radially of the tank to close the ends thereof, a horizontal shaft extending axially of said tank and journalled by said end walls for rotation, an inner perforate washing and drying drum disposed on said shaft for rotation therewith, said drum including a substantially cylindrical perforate shell concentric with said tank and imperforate end plates closing the ends of said shell, three longitudinal perforate partitions supported within the drum and extending between the ends thereof in angular relationship to each other to define three longitudinally extending peripheral compartments in the shell for the washing load and also to define a longitudinally extending central compartment radially c0mmunicating with each of said three compartments, a pair of interior support plates positioned at the ends of said central compartment within said shell and in flatwise engagement with the adjacent imperforate end plates, said end plates and the associated interior support plates being secured to said shaft to extend radially thereof and to lie generally parallel to and spaced from the imperforate end walls, one of said end walls having an air inlet opening therein located remote from and substantially above the shaft, the adjacent imperforate end plate and interior support plate having a plurality of radially located apertures closely adjacent said shaft, the apertures on said end plate and said support plate being in registry to establish communication between said tank and the interior of said shell, and a plurality of arcuate air directing blades secured to said adjacent end plate to project axially therebeyond and into spaced relation to the adjacent end walls, each of said blades terminating at its radially inner end adjacent one of said apertures and said blades each having a radial extent suffrcient to bridge the radial distance between said air inlet opening and the associated one of said apertures to positively direct air from said inlet opening to said apertures and hence into said central compartment.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,825,651 Barrett Oct. 6, 1931 2,098,066 Sibson Nov. 2, 1937 2,400,726 Wright et al. May 21, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS 289,617 Italy Oct. 22, 1931