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Publication numberUS2876585 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 10, 1959
Filing dateJul 21, 1955
Priority dateJul 21, 1955
Also published asDE1064405B
Publication numberUS 2876585 A, US 2876585A, US-A-2876585, US2876585 A, US2876585A
InventorsFrank Zaic
Original AssigneeFrank Zaic
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Flying devices
US 2876585 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 10, 1959 'F. zAlc FLYING DEVICES 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 21, 1955 INVENTOR Frank 2016 i. j m f l I 4 11 i1 it U m a m MB 6 .m a a March 10, 1959 F. zAlc 2,876,585

' FLYING DEVICES Filed July 21, 1955 s Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig.6

INVENTOR. Fran k ZOIC March 10, 1959 l ZAIC 2,876,585

FLYING DEVICES 3 Sheer.s s 3 INVENTOR. rank Zai BY M United Stes Patent FLYING DEVICES Frank Zaic, Ridgewood, N. Y.

Application July 21, 1955, Serial No. 523,576

11 Claims. (Cl. 46--79) This invention relates to the control of flying devicesparticularly, although not exclusively, to control means for model airplanes. The invention is especially directed to flying devices that are launched or propelled initially at high speeds, and which must descend or glide downwardly at relatively lower speeds after the initial propelling force has been dissipated.

In flying toys or model airplanes it is the general practice to give prime consideration to the requirement that there be a slow or buoyant descent, so as to obviate the danger of a break-up or damage on landing. This result has heretofore been accomplished at a sacrifice of'the initial or launching speed. It is primarily within the contemplation of this invention to improve upon flying devices of the above-mentioned category by providing devices that will permit high launching speeds, with an automatic adjustment for effecting reduced speeds upon descent.

In the conventional method of constructing flying devices of said category with relatively safe slow speeds for landing, the aerodynamical balance of the device is so fixed with relation to the center of gravity that the airplane assumes a high-lift condition under all conditions of flight or speed. As is evident, such a highlift aerodynamical balance is detrimental during the initial period when the device is operating under the launching force, which is several times greater than that required merely to overcome the force of gravity. It is because of the drag incident to such set high-lift conditions that conventional devices are unable to achieve the heights that would be possible if there were no such retarding force.

Moreover, in such conventional devices having excessive initial drag, the lift generated at launching speedswith the balance set for highliftis of such a magnitude as to cause looping or spiralling. The aerodynamical balance about the center of gravity of an airplane is usually obtained by having the center of the wings lifting force positioned behind the center of gravity; but inasmuch as, in this position, the wings lift tends to produce a diving tendency, the stabilizer is negatively angled, so that the downward force resulting from the airflow reaction on the upper surface of the stabilizer will offset the diving tendency. Since, as aforesaid, it is the practice in conventional devices to fix the stabilizer in a position that will cause the wing to react at high angles of attack throughout the flight, it is evident that such fixed-balanced flying devices are adapted only for certain flying conditions, and not for others. In other words, due to the fact that the conventional model airplanes operative surfaces are in fixed relative positions, the normal aerodynamical forces associated with highspeed and high-lift conditions are factors which cause undesirable looping or spiralling. Hence, a flying device with such a fixed aerodynamical balance, when launched at high speeds, will follow an unpredictable projectory, which may terminate in disaster.

It is an important object of my device to provide a 2 variable rather than fixed aerodynamical balance, so as to give a generally definite direction to the course of the device, in addition to providing desirable launching and gliding speeds. v

More specifically, it is an important object of this invention to enable the aerodynamic balance to be changed during flight in accordance with changing speeds and flying conditions. For example, at low or descending speeds, the control of my invention will provide highlift conditions; and at high speed or launching condi-. tions it will provide zero lift, so that the device, when launched, is enabled to follow a straight line or arrow flight trajectory. In this manner, the said disadvantage of unpredictability of conventional devices is eliminated.

It is further within the contemplation of my invention to enable the automatic control of the plane elevating device to be effected without adversely aflecting the longitudinal balance of the plane. In the accomplishment of this objective, I employ a movable control vane disposed in a plane substantially with respect to the wing or equivalent member, whereby the horizontal balance is not disturbed.

Other objects, features and advantages will appear from the drawings and the description hereinafter given.

Referring to the drawings,

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a form of my invention, showing the control components at low speed positions.

Fig. 2 is a frgamentary perspective of the rear portion of the device of Fig. 1, showing the control components at high speed position.

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary plan view of the rear part of the device of Fig. l. i

Fig. 4 is a plan view of Fig. 2.

Fig. 5 is a rear view of Fig. 1.

Fig. 6 is a rear view of Fig. 2.

Fig. 7 is a somewhat enlarged longitudinal section of the rear portion of the device when at its low speed position, the section being taken substantially along line 7-7 of Fig. 8.

Fig. 8 is a side view of the device of Fig. 1 showing the forces acting thereupon at low speed. i

Fig. 9 is a side view of said device showing the forces acting thereupon at high speed.

Fig. 10 is a perspective view of the rear portion of a somewhat modified form of the device of Fig. 1, showing the control vane in spaced relation to the rudder, the device being shown in low speed position.

Fig. 11 is a plan view of Fig. 10, the dot-dash lines showing the control vane and associated flexible member at high speed position.

Fig. 12 is a perspective view of a unitary control device according to my invention, adapted for attachment to the stabilizer and rudder portion of a plane shown by.d o t dash lines.

Fig. 13 is a plan view of the wing portion of the flying wing form of my invention when the device is at low speed position.

Fig. 14 is a rear view of the device of Fig. 13 looking in the direction of arrows 27-27.

Fig. 15 is a section of an airplane embodying the structure of Fig. 13, the section being taken substantially along line 28-28 thereof, the view showing the forces acting.

on the plane at low speeds.

Fig. 16 is a view like Fig. 15, but showing the forces acting thereupon at high speed conditions.

Fig. 17 is a fragmentary perspective of the rear portion of Fig. 13.

In the various forms of my invention illustrated, a control vane is employed for operating the plane-elevating component, whether it be a stabilizer, a movable trailing edge'flap, or the entire wing itself. In the forms illustrated, the said control vane is movable between a predetermined high speed position and low speed positions. In thepreferred forms of my invention said control vane is hinged, is disposed in a plane substantially at right angles to the plane-elevating component, and in most forms it is yie'ldably urged into its low speed limiting position. The yieldable means normally urging said control vane into its said low speed position is an elastic band or equivalent member. For purposes of convenience, said resiliently operated control vane is at times referred to herein as a spring loaded member.

In the particular form of my invention illustrated in Figs. l.-9,.showing a model airplane, a wing component extends transversely from opposite sides of the fuselage 11, a fixed rudder 12 being disposed at the rear of the fuselage. The stabilizer, referred to generally by the reference numeral 13, contains a forwardly disposed'fixed portion 14 and a rear movable portion 15, equivalent to an elevator. For the purpose of the present specification, said movable portion 15 will, where convenient, be re ferred to herein as the stabilizer. In the form illustrated, the said movable stabilizer portion 15 is attached by hinge means 16, to the stationary portion 14, whereby the former is movable between upper and lower limiting positions. The upper limiting position is defined bybottom surface 17 of said rudder 12, stabilizer portion 15 being lift position; and under these conditions, the plane will follow a substantially arrow-like path.

After the launching force will have dissipated itself and the speed of the plane accordingly reduced, the tension in resilient member 24 will pull the control vane outwardly away from the rudder 12. The length of flexible member 28 is such that, as the control vane 21 moves outwardly under the action of resilient member 24, it (flexible member 28) will apply an upward pull to the stabilizer 15 tothc position shown in Figs. 1 and 5the upper limit being, as aforesaid, the plane of contact of the stabilizer 15 with the bottom edge 17 of the rudder 12. In this position the airplane is caused to fly with its wing at a high angle of attack, the action of said resilient member 24 being such as to hold it in such position. This results in the maintenance of low speed conditions for descent and landing.

Referring to Figs. 8 and 9, it will be noted that the gravitational pull G at the center of gravity 31 is disposed forwardly of the wing lift W, the stabilizer 11ft being indicated by the arrow S. In Fig. 8 the angle of attack is identified by the reference letter A, the flight path being indicated by the arrow B, and in Fig. 9 the a flight path is indicated by the arrow C. By referring disposed therebelow. Positioned below the stabilizer is the stop bar 18 which is substantially in the plane of rudder 12 and, because of its vertical disposition, may be regarded as coacting with said rudder. Said stop bar 18 contains the recessed portion 19, the base 20 of which is positioned and proportioned to receive the said hinged stabilizer 15 when it reaches its lowermost position. In other words, said stabilizer portion 15 is movable between the aforesaid surfaces 17 and 20.

The control vane of this form of my invention is identified by the reference numeral 21, said vane having at the leading edge thereof a front hinge 22 attached to one side of rudder 12, the hinge member containing a plate 22a which carries thereon a book 23. Mounted over said hook 23 is the resilient member or elastic band 24, the rear portion thereof being anchored to book 25 at the rear of surface 26 of said control vane 21. Extending from the opposite surface 27 of control vane 21, transversely with respect to rudder 12, is the flexible member 28, the terminal 29 thereof being attached to the upper surface 30 of stabilizer 15. It should be noted that flexible member 28 and resilient member 24 are on opposite sides of the control vane 21.

The control vane 21 is urged outwardly away from the rudder by said resilient member 24, the outer limiting position being determined by the length of flexible member 28. When the plane is propelled upwardly through the air, by known mechanical means, at the relatively high launching speeds, the pressure due to the air-flow acting against surface 26 of the angularly positioned control vane 21 will tend to move said vane inwardly toward the rudder 12 against the action of the resilient member 24. The area of said vane 21, the length of flexible member 28 and the length and elastic properties of resilient member 24 can be predetermined to meet predetermined conditions. In other words, the area of the control vane can be calculated, in known manner, so that for given speeds the force directed thereagainst will be sufficient to overcome the tension of the resilient member 24 under specific or predetermined conditions.

It is evident that at high launching speeds the said control vane 21 will move to its inner limiting position against rudder 12, as shown in Figs. 2 and 4. The length of flexible member 28 is so designed that when the control vane 21 is disposed in its said inner position against rudder 12, it will become slack or limp as shown in Fig. 2, thereby permitting the stabilizer 15 to assume a neu ral or to Fig. 8, it will be seen that the lift W of the wing is balanced about the center of gravity 31 by the downward force S of the stabilizer. The aerodynamic balance will be preserved as long as the lifting surfaces remain at their particular angle of attack. In Fig. 9, where the stabilizer 15 is in neutral angle position, and vane 21 against rudder 12, the wing has no lifting force to counteract the force of gravity G. Under such conditions, it is only necessary that the launching force be suflicient to overcome the profile and skin friction drag, and the force of gravity, whereby an arrow-like flight is possible. Under these conditions, due to the slack condition of the flexible member 28, the stabilizer is permitted to float, and thus will have no influence on the wing during such high speed conditions. It should be noted that this slack condition of flexible member 28 also allows the control vane 21 to be moved slightly outwardly or opened somewhat by the tension in the resilient member 24, without affecting the stabilizer when the device is operating under high speed or launching conditions. As the speed slackens, vane 21 gradually opens and pulls the stabilizer into negative position, so that it is in full negative position by the time the device reaches gliding speed.

The neutralizing force which overcomes the force of the resilient member 24 has been caused by aerodynamic means, whereby complete control has been effected of the stabilizers operative movement. Since the neutralizing force is applied against the control vane 21 which is disposed in a plane from the plane of the wing, the said aerodynamic neutralizing force will have no effect on the longitudinal balance of the plane. Actual tests with the above-described device have shown that the vertically disposed control vane 21 has a negligible directional effect during high speed flying. During descent or gliding conditions, a circular descent is elfectedwhich is generally considered desirable in a model airplane so as to bring it close to the launching site. If, however, a circular descent is not desired, it is possible with my invention to obviate this effect, in a manner to be hereinafter set forth.

In the form of my invention illustrated in Figs. 10 and 11, the control vane 21a, resilient member 241: and flexible member 28a, are substantially similar to the corresponding parts of the form of my invention first above described, the hinge member 32, however, having a plate attached to the stationary stabilizer portion 140. The arrangement is hence such that the control vane 21a is in spaced relation to the rudder 12a. The said control :embodiment of Fig. 1. -However, since the .rudder .1212

is unobstructed by the controlvane 2111, the rudder will tend to keep the airplane along the flight path with relatively littleturning eflect under the influence ,of the control vane 21a.

Fig. 12 illustrates a unitary device 45 whichis .adapted for attachment to conventional model airplanes adapted to receive at the rear of the stationary stabilizer 14d a movable stabilizer portion 15d. Device 45 comprises a forwardly extending bracket portion 46 comprising abottom plate 47 and a top plate 48, both plates being adapted to embrace the rear portion of said stationary member 14d. Plate 48'has an upwardly extending flange 4 9 which carries the hinge member 56 upon which -,is pivotal-1y mounted the control vane 21d. The hinge member 50 is operatively associated with a hook 51 for flexible member 28d, .it will operate substantially in the manner of the device of Fig. 1.

Figs. 13-17 show the applicability of my invention to a flying device known as a flying wing. The main wing member 57 contains two laterally opposite fins S8 and 59, both recessed at 60 to accommodate therein the trail- .ing edge flap 61 hingedly mounted at 62 to' the rear of said main wing 57. A control vane 21:: is hingedly mounted at 22c along fuselage 63 above the wing. Aresilient member 64, anchored at 65 and attached to-the control member 21.9 at 66, normally urges the control member .21e outwardly fromthe fuselagea fiexiblemember 26a connecting saidvaneZlie to the flap 61.

In this device, the aerodynamic balance, when the wing is angled to the air-flow at the desired angle of attack, is achieved bylocating the center of gravity 67 (Fig. 15) forwardly of the lift center '68 of the said Wing 57. speed conditions (Fig. 15), the downward force F due to the air pressure on flap 61 will counter-balance the wing lift W, as illustrated. The resiliency of the member 64 tends to maintain said control vane in its open position illustrated in Fig. 13; and in such position the flexible member 282 pulls the flap 61.upwardly, as clearly indicated in Figs. 15 and 17. At launching speeds, however, the control vane 21a is forced backin the line of flight, permitting the trailing edge flap 61 to find its neutral position, substantially in the manner above described.

It is thus apparent that in the various forms of my invention above-described and illustrated, the control of the plane is effected through a movable control vane which is connected to a plane-elevating device, such as a stabilizer, trailing edge flap or wing. In each case, high launching speeds are attainable, with no looping tendency, to produce an arrow-like flight; but when the launching force has been dissipated and the speed reduced, the control vane operates so as to permit the elevating device to assume a neutral position for gliding or descending operation.

In the above description, the invention has been disclosed merely by way of example and vin preferred manner; but obviously many variations and modifications may bemade therein. It is to be understood-therefore, that the invention is not limited to any specific form or manner of practicing same, excepttinsofar assuch limitations :are specified in the appended claims,

When the flap is upwardly angled, for low '6 .I claim:

1. ,In a flying'device, a wing member, a plane -elevat ing member movable between a predetermined highspeed non-lifting position and a range of low-speed lifting positions, a control vane member movable between a high-speed position substantially in the path of flight and a predeterminedrrange of low-speed positions angu larly disposed with respect to the path of flight, resilient means on one of said members urging it away from its said high-speed position, and actuating means on said device disposed between and adapted for operatively connecting said elevating member and said control member, said actuating means being so proportioned and positioned that the movement of one of said members within a predeterminedportion of its operative pathin a direction away from. its said high-speed position will actuate the other member in a direction away from its said high-speed position along a predetermined portion of its operative path, the said elevating member being free floating in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of. said wing member and independently movable relative to vsaid control member in the region ofsaid elevating members non-lifting position outside-of said predetermined portion of the latter members operative path.

.2. In a flying device, a wing member, a plane elevating .member movable between a predetermined highspeed non-lifting-position and a range of low-speed lifting positions, a control vane member movable between a high-speed position substantially in the path of flight anda predetermined range of low-speed positions angularly disposed with respect to the path of flight, resilient means -onone of said members urging it away from its said high-speed position, and actuating means on said device disposed between and adapted for operatively connecting said elevating. member and said control member, said actuating means being so proportioned and positioned that the movement of one of said members within, a predetermined portion of its operative path in a direction away from its said high-speedposition will "actuate the-other member in a direction away fronrits said high-speed position along a predetermined portion of, its operative path, the said elevating member being free floating in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of said wing member and independently movable relative to said control member in the region of said elevating members non-lifting position outside of said predetermined portion of the latter members operative path, said resilient means being attached to said control vane member and urging it away from its said high speed position.

3. In a flying device, a wing member, a plane elevating member movable between a predetermined highspeed non-lifting position and a range of low-speed lifting positions, a control vane member movable between a high-speed position substantially in the path, of flight and a predetermined range of low-speed positions angularly disposed with respect to the path of flight, resilient means on one of said members urging it away from its said high-speed position, and actuating means on said devicedisposed between and adapted for operatively connecting said elevating member and said control member, said actuating means being so proportioned and positioned that the movement of one of said members within a predetermined portion of its operative path in a direction away from its said high-speed position will actuate the other member in a direction away from its said high-speed position along a predetermined portion of its operative path, the said elevating member being free floating in-a plane substantially parallel to the plane .of said wing member and independently movable relative-:to'said control member in the region of said elevating members nonslifting position outside of said predetermined portion of thelatter members operative path,

said. control vane member having a front leading edge a and extending generally rearwardly therefrom, and hinge means connected to said control member in the region of said leading edge.

4. In a flying device, a wing member, a plane elevat- I ing member movable between two limiting positions, one of said positions being a predetermined extreme highspeed position and the other being a predetermined extreme low-speed position, stop means engageable with said plane elevating member at said two limiting positions, a control vane member movable between a highspeed position substantially in the path of flight and a predetermined range of low-speed positions angularly disposed with respect to the path of flight, resilient means on one of said members urging it away from its said high-speed position, and actuating means on said device disposed between and adapted for operatively connecting said elevating member and said control member, said actuating means being so proportioned and positioned that the movement of one of said members within a predetermined portion of its operative path in a direction away from its said high-speed position will actuate the other member in a direction away from its said highspeed position along a predetermined portion of its operative path, the said elevating member being free floating in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of said wing member and independently movable relative to said control member in the region of said elevating members said extreme high-speed position outside of said predetermined portion of the latter members operative path.

5. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 4, said device having a body portion, a rudder member above the rear of said body portion, and a recessed portion between said rudder member and said body portion, said plane elevating member extending transversely within said recessed portion between said rudder member and body portion and being engageable therewith, whereby said rudder member and body portion constitute said stop means.

6. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 1, said device having a body portion and a fixed rudder at the rear thereof, said rudder being disposed substantially in a vertical plane, said control vane member being hingedly connected at its leading edge to said body portion and extending generally rearwardly from said leading edge.

7. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 1, said device having a body portion, a fixed rudder at the rear thereof, and a stabilizer component comprising a stationary support and said plane elevating member, said latter member being hingedly connected to said support.

8. In a flying device, a wing member, a plane elevating member movable between a predetermined high-speed non-lifting position and a range of low-speed lifting positions, a control vane member movable between a highspeed position substantially in the path of flight and a predetermined range of low-speed positions angularly disposed with respect to the path of flight, resilient means on one of said members urging it away from its said highspeed position, and actuating means on said device disposed between and adapted for operatively connecting said elevating member and said control member, said actuating means being so proportioned and positioned that the movement of one of said members within a predetermined portion of its operative path in a direction away from its said high-speed position will actuate the other member in a direction away from its said high-speed position along a predetermined portion of its operative path, the said elevating member being free floating in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of said wing member and independently movable relative to said control member in the region of said elevating members non-lifting posi- ,tion outside of said predetermined portion of the latter members. operative path, said control vane m'emberbe- 35 .8 ing disposed in a plane substantially normal to that of said plane elevating member.

9. In a flying device, a body portion, a wing member,

a plane elevating member movable between a predetermined high-speed non-lifting position and a range of lowspeed lifting positions, a control vane member movable between a high-speed position substantially in the path of flight and a predetermined range of low-speed positions angularly disposed with respect to the path of flight, resilient means attached to said body portion and said control member and yieldably urging the latter from its said high-speed position, and a flexible member attached to said control member and to said elevating member, said flexible member being of a length whereby it is slack when said elevating member and control member are in the regions of their respective high-speed positions and taut when said elevating and control members are in predetermined other positions, the said elevating member being free floating in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of said wing member and independently movable relative to said control member in the region of said elevating members non-lifting position when said flexible member is in its said slack condition.

10. A control vane assembly for attachment to a flying device having a Wing member, a fixed support, an elevating member hingedly attached to the rear of said support and movable through a range of predetermined lowspeed positions in angular relation to the plane of said wing and a high-speed position in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of said wing member, comprising a hinge member with a front and rear plate secured together by a hinged connection, said front plate being adapted for attachment to said support and said rear plate being adapted for attachment to said elevating member, a second hinge connection secured to said front plate and at right angles to said first-mentioned hinged connection, a control vane having its front edge mounted on said second hinged connection and disposed in a plane substantially normal to said first-mentioned hinged connection, whereby said vane is movable between a high-speed position substantially in the direction of flight and other positions angular with respect thereto, elastic-band anchoring means on said vane and said second hinged connection, an elastic band anchored to and extending between said respective anchoring means, and a flexible member attached to said vane and adapted for attachment to said elevating member, said flexible member being of a length whereby it is slack when said elevating member and said vane are in the regions of their said respective high-speed positions, and taut when said elevating member and vane are in predetermined other positions.

11. In a flying device, a body portion, a wing component substantially rigid throughout its extent extending laterally from opposite sides of said body portion, two laterally opposite fins on said wing component, a trailing edge elevator hingedly connected at the rear of said wing component, said elevator being movable between a predetermined high-speed non-lifting position and a range of low-speed lifting positions, a control vane member hingedly connected at its front edge to said body portion and movable between a high-speed position substantially in the path of flight and a predetermined range of low-speed positions angularly disposed with respect to the path of flight, resilient means attached to said body portion and said vane member yieldably urging the latter away from its said high-speed position, and a flexible member attached to said vane member and anchored to said movable elevator, said flexible member being of a length whereby it is slack when said control vane member and said elevator are in the regions of their respective high-speed positions and taut when said control vane member and elevator are in predetermined other positions, said elevator being free floating and in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of said wing component and independently movablerelative to said control vane References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 927,815 Ruppin July 13, 1909 1,078,888 Windel Nov. 18, 1913 10 Bliesath Apr. 15, 1919 Baylis Sept. 1, 1931 Crane July 16, 1935 Jacobs Mar. 17, 1936 Witte Nov. 8, 1938 De Port Feb. 21, 1939 Thompson Aug. 6, 1940 Pemberton et a1. May 20, 1952

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4125960 *May 31, 1977Nov 21, 1978Bacca Charles RToy glider
US4282675 *Jul 16, 1979Aug 11, 1981Stripling Jr Sheldon AAutomatic elevator control for model glider
US4708682 *Jul 31, 1986Nov 24, 1987Schentrup Lawrence MHelicopter toy
US5271579 *Jul 10, 1992Dec 21, 1993Luca Nicholas J DeFlight course control means
US5423706 *Jan 28, 1994Jun 13, 1995Chase; George W.Toy aircraft glider with rotating and folding wings
US6497600Oct 5, 1999Dec 24, 2002Alejandro Velasco LevyAutomatic pilot system for model aircraft
US7550864 *Mar 18, 2004Jun 23, 2009Renewable Devices Swift Turbines LimitedWind turbine
DE1291478B *Jan 25, 1967Mar 27, 1969Kinkead IndustriesInsbesondere durch Stossen zu betaetigende Teppichspannvorrichtung
Classifications
U.S. Classification446/66, 244/82
International ClassificationA63H27/20, A63H27/00
Cooperative ClassificationA63H27/00
European ClassificationA63H27/00