US 2876678 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 10, 1959 G. A. LYON 2,876,678
' ROCKET GUN' I Filed April 5, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 30 30 32 3.3 i 60 Q 0 47 43 47 31 i 43 24 MarchIO, 1959 G. A; LYON 2, 7
ROCKET GUN Filed April 5,1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 k F M a Q M m m i; 1 7 M; 1 g-m 1 s n 1 w 1 m m 1 i N 9 s a x l I fi a) q i Q i I I s O')\ l 1 m i 1 i i a L '1 I 1:12.: a 2* 3 v E i ER 1 i 1 m o l g 1 I w ,I 8 N m E I l A m P F v 1 I United States Patent ROCKET-'JGUN George .AlbertLyon Detroit, Mich.
Application April-5,- 1952, SerialNo. 180;777
:The :presentt'inventionrnelatesvto:improvements in guns or missile launchers, and more particularly concerns a gon -emt'struction 'iwhich :is :especially :suitable for firingand directingnrockefitype:xmissiles. t
.riAniimportant objectsofithe:present!invention is to-pro- :Yidenan :improved gun:ortmissile'alaunher of reasonably light \weight and tzcompact aarrangement and .:adapted for "rapidrfirezoperation.
. .FA'notherhobject rof :the :invention is .to "provide san im- ;provedzr-ap'id fire,:rotary magazinei-type of gunffor ordnance :purposes.
sAifurther :obiectof :the invention t'iS :to :provide in a .rapidifire guncore missile launcher Tflllill'IlPIOVd magazine construction. 7/
vStill :another object of .thejnventionzisi to rprovi'deiin 1a gamer/missile launcheraainovel quick loading,z rapid fire magazine rand :indexing: arrangement.
Xehanother-objeet of the ;invention is tosfprovid'e'a novel rocket gun ,with :novel rroeket motivated rmagazine andrindexingvstructure.
Accordirgsto the -generalrfeaturesaof themresent invention there a is provided tin :ia gunnconstruction including-ta snpportingstructureandnu guntbarrel, HOVGLIHEIgZZiIIC and indexing structure including *means :for ssnpporting ta seriessof elongated -missile-carr ying i-cartridgesaor casings in sreciprocal relation and having iindexing mechanism operable by flinterenga gement wvit-h ithe .tmissile carrying casings t-successive ly :tO index the casings vwith'ithe sgun .barreland for indexing a-succeedingmissile=carrying1cas 'ingdgpon-firingtofeachzpreeedinglmissile. v
:Another zfeature -.of tthe :invention :istto provide tin 1a ,gun :or. missileslauncher, iwhereiniaggnnibarrel issstationarily :mounted, a novel rotary rmagazine-eand missilemolti'vated ,indexing mechanism :ifOI STQPfbYL-STCP' turning of .thecmagazine to index: successive missile-carryingupoi tionsi oft the; magazine with s thetbreecht Ofrtllefgl'ln :barrl.
..A .further ,feature of :the invention i'lS nto prowide iinta 2,876,678 Patented Mar. 10, 1959 As 'shown'on' the drawings:
'A-gunconstruction asmore or less'schematicallyshown I in *Figs. land 3'is adapted tobe mounted on"any*preferre'd base such asa gun carriagefor land operationsa vehicle" for "mobile, landor amphibious operations-"an'airplane, or-'anaval vessel. While various "features'of 'the gun-maybe adapted for-firingof'projectiles'or missiles of'various kinds, the invention will be especially described inth'e adaptation thereof bestsuited for-firing or'launching rocket-type missiles, and wherein'arapid succession (if-rockets are to be fired. "To this end; the construction comprises a supporting bracket-or framework 11 carrying a: gun barrel "12,'a magazine structure 13 and indexing mechanism 1'4.
For minimizing weight consistant with adequate strength in the assembly, the framework ll may bemade from metal =p1ates-or other structurally -accept-able metallic elements represented in the exemplary' illustrationby -a"base plate 15 supporting a forward vertical gun' barrel cradle plate 17 andta 'rearvertical -gun barrel-supporting plate 18 'in spaced parallel relationto the cradle-plate fl. "Bymeans of the-jal-ates 17 and 18 the gun barrel 124s supported in fixed position 'relative to the -'-supporting "frame 11.
According to. the present invention; the magazine' 13 -is of the rotary type and is 1 supported by the frame 11 in operative rotary position behind-the gun barrel breech.
gun construction, a rotary. magazine-.comprisingaa tpairiof a concentric zsupporting-.rings having 2a SCIiCS'Ldf missilesupporting. tubes, iiandameans for rotatably supporting the magazine .for i successive indexing t of the --'missileacarr ying .tubes withthe;breech'.oia gun barrel.
Qther objects, ;features --and advantages -.of :the :present invention will be ,readily 'Pappare-nt from the rfdllowing detailed :descriptionzof a preferred-embodiment :taken in conjunction Z'With ithe accompanying drawings,:in\-Which:
L Figure 1 is tarmore \orlless schematic ,front elevational view oft-a,gumconstmctionembodying the: featuresaofethe present invention;
-Figure 2..is ansenlanged fragmentarydetail sectional view ,takensubstantially iontthe tline-II=II'.of .Fgl g. 51;
'Figure 3 is an enlarged :vertic-al sectional detail -view taken substantially on the line III-+III:of Fig.1;
Figure A v is ,a fragmentary -.sectional ,plan view 3 taken siibstantiallyzonstheline I-V--.IV1 of Fig. 3 and IEig'ure ;5 .is an enlarged :fragment-ary -vertiealrisectional detail view taken substantially ion zthe line V-V:of..*Fig- To this-'eni the frame plate 18' Whichsupports thebreech end portion of the gun barrel 12 is preferablyfifwvidth and height greater 'than the requirements for supporting the-g1tinfbarrel"and.'as shown may be of generally triangular shape with a gun barrel receivin'g and supporting aperture 159therein, while adjacentltowits opposite sides respective horizontally aligned :and :parallel "coextensive rearwardly textending 'isha'fts i. 20 -are supported. fl he rear end :portions 10f:thecshaftsiare=supported 'by a frame structure'Zl which rnray bEJEIEII lHIlgUlZIIJPIZiW similar to the .platew1-8: and supportedini-vertical spaced/parallel relation thereto upon the baseiplate 15. :The 'shafts:20scar-ry= adjacent-i to :their forward :ends r-respectivezgroove i rollers 22, 'an'd' spacedtrearwardly frornitlre roliens 22trespectivorolier means :23 providing zarroller :cra'dleifor athe magazine 313. Inna light-weight: but sturfdy construction; theimagaz'ine 18 comprises -a pair $.01 substantially 1. similari'spaced' ip arai-lel frontqand rear body, platesr2s4 and:25,:the:outer. peripheries of which :are iarranged'i to *Iide cnadlejdxrotanyzrelation inponttheifrontrrollers.zziand thesrear rollers; 23', respectively. v
i- Prefei-iably nthe magazine plates 24 sand '25 are Yringshaped so as to -tprovide YlIl-HBI peripheries 'wliich aare adapted to the engaged :rotatably vby *srespec'tive ifronteand rear grooved rollers-27 eand, 28,-:respectively,con;avsupponting ,shafti29'rearriedi by and between: the upperzporti'onsudf theiframe members 18aand '21. Thereby the magazine Z16 is held againstdisplacernentfrom the-rollerscari'iage'.
v he magazine platesszfii andflSaremaintaineii inzspaced relation @rigidly by -.a series 2 of preferably ;unifomily rannularly .spaced magazinestubes. -30 the front endrportions of *Which areappropriately-secured itoitheimagazineuplate 24in concentrics alignment with asseries ofteircular ports 31 intthet-front magazine ;-plate. The :IGHlzCHdS ofith'e magazine -.tubes :30 are secured in ("concentric t-rel'ation --.-to respectiveicircularapertures32:in theirearzmagazinqplate 25. Throug'hthis arrangement, :the magazine'tubes are adapted to receive operatively respectivescasingsnr.cartridges "33 slidably therein for successive.fregistration with the breech ofthe gun barrell2' for firing o'fa missile mounted in theregistere'd cartridge into the gunbar'rl. In Fig.' 3 a rocket type'rnissile M is shown schematically within t-he registered-cartridge Z lnclexingof the magazine 1-3 to reg'isterthe successive cartridges-33rcarriedtherby with the gun barrel is efiectefi by the indexing mechanism 14. To this end the indexing mechanism 14 is so constructed and arranged that it will operate by recoil force imparted thereto through rearward thrust of the cartridge 33 from which firing takes place to rotate the magazine by one magazine chamber increment automatically to bring the next succeeding magazine chamber into aligned registration with the gun barrel. Herein this is accomplished by providing the indexing mechanism with a thrust plate 34 disposed vertically behind the lower portion of the magazine 13 and in forwardly spaced relation to the fear frame member 21 and provided with tubular bearing bosses 35 by which the thrust plate is slidably reciprocably mounted upon the shafts and 29. In a convenient form the thrust plate 34 may be of generally triangular shape as indicated in Fig. 1. Means such as respective compression springs 37 disposed about the respective shafts normally bias the thrust plate 34 forwardly by bearing at their rear ends against the frame member 21 and at their forward ends against the rear face of the thrust plate about the bearing apertures through the thrust plate.
Carried by the thrust plate 34 is a centering and thrust block 38 having a forwardly opening taper walled centering pocket 39 centered with respect to the axis of the bore of the gun barrel 12 and arranged to engage a complementary tapered butt or base end formation 40 on the shell or cartridge 33 in firing position. The center ing and thrust block 38 may be generaly ring-shaped to afford access therethrough for appropriate firing pin or igniter means (not shown) associated with a firing device 41 that may be carried by or in association with the thrust plate 34.
The central opening in the thrust and centering block 38 may register with a primer or fuse boss 42 at the center of the butt end of the cartridge.
One of the functions of the thrust plate 34 is to thrust or drive the engaged cartridge 33 forwardly so that a flared lip flange 43 at the mouth of the cartridge will engage about a complementary beveled tail flange 44 de fining the breech opening to the gun barrel bore. Thereby a centered relation of the month end of the cartridge with the gun barrel breech is effected.
In order to avoid side flash and escape of smoke from around the gun barrel breech it is preferably provided with a guard plate 45 which may be formed integrally with the gun barrel or formed as a separate attached piece, as preferred. This guard plate as best seen in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 may be generally symmetrically kidney-shaped to extend equally to opposite sides of the gun barrel breech in such a manner as to extend into overlapping and closing relation to both of the immediately adjacent magazine chambers. Further, the guard plate 45 is disposed in face-to-face sliding engagement with the opposed outer face of the front magazine body plate 24, not only at the opposite sides but also above and below the gun barrel 12. It will be observed that the gun barrel tail flange 44 is disposed in a transverse plane forwardly from and clear of the magazine front plate 24.
As an incident to firing of the missile M from the cartridge 33 disposed in firing position, the cartridge 33 recoils and drives the thrust plate 34 rearwardly against the compression springs 37 which thus become loaded to rebound instantaneously upon dissipation of the recoil force. To accommodate such recoil of the cartridge 33, each of the magazine chamber tubes 30 is provided at its forward end portion with an enlarged diameter portion 47 into which the lip flange 43 moves during recoil.
As the thrust plate 34 moves rearwardly during recoil, it draws with it a rack bar 48 attached to its lower end portion and operative to rotate a one way friction clutch pinion 49 in non-clutching direction, that is, counterclockwise as viewed in Figs. 3 and 5. Then, as the rack bar 48 thrusts forwardly with the thrust plate 34 during rebound, the clutch pinion 49 is rotated in clockwise direction as viewed in Figs. 3 and 5 thereby engaging ball clutch mechanism 50 and turning a drive shaft 51 to which is operatively keyed a bevel gear 52. In turn a bevel gear 53 meshing with the bevel gear 52 turns a driven shaft 54 to which is keyed a drive gear 55 meshing with gear teeth 57 provided on the outer periphery of the rear magazine plate 25, thereby turning the magazine by one chamber increment as indicated by the directional arrow in Figure l to bring the next succeeding magazine chamber into registration with the gun barrel bore. It will be understood, of course, that appropriate supporting brackets carried by the base structure 15 are provided for supporting the respective shafts 51 and 54 of the gear assembly rotatably. As shown, for example, a bracket 58 is provided for the shaft 51 and a bracket 59 is provided for the shaft 54. In order to accommodate the peripheral gear teeth 57, the rear roller carriage rollers 23 are preferably toothed to provide idler gears supporting the rear panel 25 of the magazine.
It will thus be apparent that in the operation of the gun, as each missile is fired, the recoil automatically disengages the cartridge casing 33 thereof from the breech of the gun barrel, and automatically as an incident to the recoil thrust of the cartridge 33 actuates the indexing mechanism 14 to actuate the magazine 13 in the rotary direction indicated by directional arrow in Fig. 1, to index the next succeeding magazine chamber 30 with the gun barrel breech. The thrust force developed by the rebound of the springs 37 drives the centering and thrust block 38 against the butt end of the newly indexed cartridge 33 and drives the same into forward end engagement with the breech of the gun barrel 12. Thereupon, automatically or under selective control, the newly indexed and registered missile is fired and the indexing cycle is repeated. This may be accomplished in rapid fire sequence or by selective firing as desired.
Automatic reloading mechanism (not shown) may be employed to eject the empty cartridges 33 from the magazine chambers and reload the magazine chambers, or the magazine may be manually reloaded as particular service requirements may dictate. Since the cartridges 33 are longer than the depth of the body of the magazine 13, the butt end portions of the cartridges provide ready means for pushing the empty cartridges out of the front end of the magazine chamber tubes 30. Then a loaded cartridge can be quickly inserted in the cleared magazine tube 30. By having butt ends 40 of the cartridges 33 tapered, and the front or mouth end portions of the magazine tubes 30 of larger diameter than the cartridges and by having the inner end portions of the enlarged mouth portions 47 of the cartridges tapered inwardly as indicated at 60 case of insertion of the elongated cartridges 33 into the magazine chamber tubes is facilitated. Overthrowing of the loaded cartridges 33 into the magazine tubes 30 is avoided by the stop presented by the beveled shoulder 60 engageable by the lip flange 43 of the cartridge being loaded. Of course, rear end stop means could readily be supplied at the loading station to assure limitation upon rearward projection of the cartridges as loaded to a maximum predetermined extent.
Further ease of loading of cartridges into the magazine chambers is assured by having the edges defining the respective ports 31 in the front panel 24 of the magazine beveled or round tapered as shown in Figs. 2 and 3 so as to ease the butt end of one of the cartridges 33 being inserted thereinto into concentric relation.
It will be understood that modifications and variations may be elfected without departing from the scope of the novel concepts of the present invention.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a gun construction including a barrel, a magazine structure having a plurality of successive chambers each of which includes a cylindrical tubular portion adapted to be concentrically aligned with the breech of the gun barrel and having adjacent to the front end thereof a forward end portion providing a counterbore like enlarged diameter mouth, a reciprocable cartridge for supporting a missile slidably disposed in said cylindrical tubular portion and having an enlarged front end portion reciprocably received retractably and protractably in said enlarged mouth of the cylindrical tubular portion, and means for moving the cartridge toward said breech to protract and engage said enlarged front end portion of the cartridge in operative firing relation to the breech.
2. In a gun construction including a barrel, a magazine structure having a plurality of successive chambers each of which includes a cylindrical tubular portion adapted to be concentrically aligned with the breech of the gun barrel and having adjacent to the front end thereof a forward end portion providing a couterbore like enlarged diameter mouth, a reciprocable cartridge for supporting a missile slidably disposed in said cylindrical tubular portion and having an enlarged front end portion reciprocably received retractably and protractably in said enlarged mouth of the cylindrical tubular portion, and means for moving the cartridge toward said breech to protract and engage said enlarged front end portion of the cartridge in operative firing relation to the breech, said mouth having at the inner end thereof a stop shoulder opposing the enlarged front end portion of the cartridge to determine the extreme retracted position of the cartridge.
3. In a missile launcher comprising a supporting structure and a barrel fixedly supported by said structure, a magazine having a tubular cartridge support open front and rear and with the front end thereof registrable with the breech of the barrel, a cartridge shell for supporting a missile therein, said cartridge shell being substantially longer than said tubular support and being reciprocably slidably disposed in said tubular support and with the rear end of the shell providing a butt portion normally extending substantially beyond the rear end of the tubular support but the shell being movable forwardly to project beyond the front end of the tubular support, said shell butt end portion having a central attachment structure for a primer of a missile housed within the shell, and means including a thrust block structure having a complementary recess engageable with the butt end portion of the shell to afford a thrust backing and centering means for the firing aspect of the missile launcher and operating to thrust the shell toward the breech of the barrel and with the front end of the shell projected beyond the front end of the tubular support into engagement with said breech, said block structure having firing means cooperatively related through said recess with said central primer attachment structure of the shell.
4. In a gun construction including a barrel, a magazine structure having a plurality of successive chambers each of which includes a cylindrical tubular portion adapted to be concentrically aligned with the breech of the gun barrel and having adjacent to the front end thereof a forward end portion providing a counterbore-like enlarged diameter mouth, a reciprocable cartridge for supporting a missile slidably disposed in said cylindrical tubular portion and having a taper flared mouth flange reciprocably received retractably and protractably in said enlarged mouth of the cylindrical tubular portion, the breech of the gun barrel having an annular groove therein opening rearwardly and defined by a taper flange structure engageable centeringly by said mouth flange of the cartridge in the firing aspect of the gun, and means for moving the cartridge in said cylindrical tubular portion toward said breech to protract said taper flared mouth flange into engagement within said annular groove and into engagement with said taper flange structure of the gun barrel breech.
5. In a gun construction including a barrel, a magazine structure having a plurality of successive chambers each of which includes a cylindrical tubular portion adapted to be concentrically aligned with the breech of the gun barrel and having adjacent to the front end thereof a forward end portion providing a counterbore-like enlarged diameter mouth, a reciprocable cartridge for supporting a missile slidably disposed in said cylindrical tubular portion and having an enlarged front end portion reciprocably received retractably and protractably in said enlarged mouth of the cylindrical tubular portion, means for moving the cartridge toward said breech to protract and engage said enlarged front end portion of the cartridge in operative firing relation to the breech, the magazine structure having a forwardly facing surface through which the chambers open, and a guard plate fixedly disposed in generally planar alignment with the rear end portion of said gun barrel breech and extending in all directions about the breech and having a portion extending into overlapping and closing relation to the next adjacent magazine chamber, said plate being in face-toface sliding engagement with the opposed forwardly facing surface of the magazine structure, said plate coacting with the magazine structure forwardly facing surface to avoid side flash and escape of smoke from around the gun barrel breech.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 509,091 McCullough Nov. 21, 1893 946,351 Haeghen Jan. 11, 1910 1,215,255 Davison Feb. 6, 1917 1,342,358 Storle June 1, 1920 2,390,688 Bradberry Dec. 11, 1945 2,421,752 Jones June 10, 1947 7 2,426,239 Renner Aug. 26, 1947 2,450,929 Ashworth et al. Oct. 12, 1948 2,485,715 Eastman Oct. 25, 1949 2,503,578 Burney Apr. 11, 1950 2,587,672 Whitson Mar. 4, 1952 2,717,534 Atherton Sept. 13, 1955 FOREIGN PATENTS 20,275 Great Britain of 1914 125,126 Great Britain Apr. 17, 1919 402,680 Italy Mar. 18, 1943 632,599 Great Britain Nov. 28, 1949 639,712 Great Britain July 5, 1950