US 2876992 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March l0, 1959 Filed Nov. 4, 1954 o. M. LINDSAY 2,876,992
DEFLECTING TooLs 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 O/70J M. Z //7 c/Jay INVENTOR.
A NeR/vf m BY ai ff MM O. M. LINDSAY DEFLECTING TOOLS March l0, 1959 4 sheets-sham 2 Filed Nov. 4. 1954 www# m yf/ 0 B March 10,1959
O. M. LINDSAY DEFLECTING TOOLS Filed Nov. 4, 1954 Jl w 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 M. Ufa/Jay INVENTOR.
United S es arent DEFLECTING TOOLS Application November 4, 1954, serial No. 466,728 12 claims. `(ci. ess-1.6)
'This invention relatesto new and'useful improvements in deecting tools."
One object of the invention is to provide an improved dellecting tool for effectively drilling va well bore at an angle from the vertical whereby directional drilling of the well may be accomplished.
Au important object of the invention is to provide au improved deiiecting tool adapted to be connected in the lower portion of a drill pipe or string and having an expansible-type means for urging the lower portion of the drill pipe and the drill bit attached thereto toward one side of the well bore, whereby subsequent rotation of the drill pipe and bit will result in drilling the well bore at an angle with respect to the remainder of the bore.
Another object is to provide a deflecting tool having an improved deflecting element which is normally in a retracted position and is adapted to be moved radially outwardly by the imposition of the weight of the drill pipe thereon, whereby said element is automatically moved into expanded or extended position when the drill pipe weight is imposed upon the bit to perform the drilling operation.
An important object is to provide an improved deecting tool having a deecting element which includes movable actuating members or rods embedded within an elastic body in such manner that when the body is in a normal undeformed position the actuating members are retracted; movement of the members to an extended or radially expanded position functioning to deform said elastic body which thereafter acts, by reason of its inherent property of tending to return to a normal undeformed position, to urge the actuating members toward retracted position.
Another object is to provide an improved deecting element for a deecting tool wherein actuating members or rods which are arranged to be operated to expand or radially extend the deliecting element are embedded within an elastic body Iof material which protects said actuating members against contact with uid or other material within the well bore; said elastic body also functioning to positively return the actuating members to re- `tracted position upon operation of vthe tool to eiect such retraction.
A particular object is to provide a deflecting tool which is arranged to be mounted in close proximity to or adjacent the drill bit whereby said tool, when expanded, maintains a constant radial pressure or force upon the bit to constantly force said bit laterally of the'well bore .to thereby accomplish a directional drilling operation.`
Still another object is to provide an improved deflect- ,ing tool, of the character described, which is Simple in construction and which comprises a unitary assembly capable of 'being readily connected in the usual drill pipe.
`Aiurther object is to provide a tool, of the character described, including an improved. orienting means whereby the deecting element of thento'ol may be located in a desired azimuthalpositionI lil 2,876,992 Patented Mar. 10, 1959 Another object is to provide a deecting to'ol, of the character described, wherein the main portion of the tool comprises a pair of telescoping members which are so Varranged that the relative movement of the members with respect to each other controls the radial extension and retraction of a dellecting element.
The construction designed to carry out the invention will be hereinafter described, together with other features thereof.
The invention will be more readily Aunderstood from a reading of the following specification and by reference to the accompanying drawings forming a part thereof, wherein an example of the invention is shown, and wherein: f
Figure l is an elevation of the lower portion of a drill. pipe within a `well'bore land showing the improved deecting tool connected therein,
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view of a deliecting tool, constructed in accordance with the invention, and illustrating the deflecting element thereof in its retracted position,
' Figure 3 is a similar view, with the dellecting element Aof the tool radially extended or expanded,
Figure 4 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line 4-4 of Figure 2,
. Figure 5 is a horizontaL'cross-sectional view, taken ou the line 5--5 of Figure 2,
Figure 6 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line 6-6 of Figurer 2,
Figure 7 is an elevation of the lower portion of the tool, illustrating the dellecting element in full elevation, and
Figure 8 is a partial isometric view, illustrating a portion -of the innertelescoping member of the tool,
Figure 8a is an isometric view of the deecting element and illustrating the orienting lug,
Figure 9 is an isometric view of the deecting shoe or block, and
Figure 10 is a transverse sectional view, taken on the line 10-10 of Figure 9. l y
In the drawings, the numeral 1l) designates the usual drill pipe or drill stemfwhich is adapted to extend through the well bore W and which is utilized to y impart rotation to the drill bit 11 connectedto the lower end of said drill pipe (Figure 1)." The improveddeecting tool A comprising the present invention is interposed' between the drill pipe 10 and. drill v bit 11 and said tool includes a deflecting element generally indicated at B. Y
As will be explainedin detail, the deecting element B includes deliecting members or shoes which are capable of movement in a radial direction from a retracted position to an expanded or extended position. The dellecting members are located on one side of the element B, wherebywhen said members are extended radially, as shown in Figures 1 and 3, said members contact the wall of the -well 'bore W at one side thereof just above and in close proximity to the drill bit 11; this contact of the deflecting members or shoes with one side of the lwell bore results in the application of a lateral force against the drill bit in a direction degrees opposite the point of contact and thus, with the detlecting mem-bers or shoes in a radially extended position during a drilling operation, the bit is constantly urged in a lateral direction to drill the well bore at an angle with respect to the axis of the bore in which the tool is located.v By proper orientation of the dellecting members orlshoes of theelement B a directional drilling operation may b e carried out.`
The deecting toolA is clearly shown in Figures 2 to l0 and'ncludes a pair of telescoping sections T and T1. The upper section T comprises a tubular suby or asi/ebbe `body 12 which is vadapted to have its upper Aend connected with the drill pipe "10. A sleeve 13 which is l. tended. 91H9 .the lgwqr Partien .of .the .Sub 1 2 .depends 'fltrawmardhasi reinar-'menuda.extendingwe Spllgxsbr keys 14 Prv'itlle Willinf hre, The slib .iS formed with an 'axial bore 12a extending entirely therehdlthandlhe antler and of the bore. sln 'Communica- Ition swith the bore a of the drilllpipe whereby circulation ofthe usual drilling iuidjn'iafy vbe directed to thev bit. "lfhelower end of the sub isreduced as indicated at 12b 'and a Viluidconductor tube 1'5 which is vthreaded into the loyer. en@ Oli the. bore. .12e depndsswm 'Still 'Sub- A tlfIsfQtwasher '12e :is rheadesfomqgthnbemahnung relationshipto the sb `'and Aactually forms the lower 'end bf thesub The tower meanrat sans r1 aanpast@ aan ..l...11ver `section. An external flan e 18. is rmed bn upperend ...Ot .tlv body ..16 and. belg'wtltis ,llanera a rlilr'alitv Of :1611'- igitudlrfaldry splirlrslr kers?? iarb rrevflefl "(Fisure 89.1. tllsplines "19. intere. .-.gemid fit .with lfllflgnsimdinal splines 14 'within the sleeve l13 of the upper section 1`4 and the engagement of the lgeys19 and 14 rotatively 'couple the bodylld tothe sleeve, while permitting relative sliding moyernent between'thefpartsein ian axialdirection. Movement of the sleeve pwardly with respect to the body is limited by thecngagenient'of'the upperends '12la`ofkeys 14 with theannularian'ge 1S of the body 116. lfhe iluid conductor tubefIS whichhas its upper'end threaded into theloys'fer end of thebore 12a ot sub 12 extends downwardly in telescopingrelationship into the ybore 17 of the body 16; suitable p ac'king20 seals oi between the lbore 17 and the exterior ofthe tube and said 1 tube'proyides a ow 4conductor for conducting fluid Hd`wnvv`z'11'dly"from "the boref10'a fof `the ldrill pipe and bore 1 2 a'o'f the vsub tothe b ore 1 7 ofthe body 16 in all positions of the itelescopingsiectionsT and T1 :with vrespect to each other. A vcoilfsprrig 21 isjinterposedy between the upper 'end' of thelbody 16 and ashoulder 12d on the lower portion of the s ub 12 and exerts Vits pressure Hto normallynrge*theseipartsjaw'ay from each other, whereby the sections T and T1 'are v'constantly urged to 'ward anexterid'ed position.
A tnbular rconpling or mandrel `22 is threaded onto thel lower end of the b ody'ldfof the lower section T1 and ,is provided withan4 axial bore ,22a which forms a continuation of bore 17. The drill bit 11 is connected to 'coupling or mandrel "22 Av and 'obyiously circulation of `drilling fluid to the 'bit maybe accomplished through the bores ofthe lvarious parts of thetool sections.
The lccnipling :22 has an annular enlargement atV its `l wer "'ed whereby an annular supporting shoulder 23 lisfornred thereon. A bearing'ring 24 rests upon the shoulderfand said lring and shoulder support the deecting element'B which'has 'delecting members which are arranged to beexpanded orradially extended to properly detiect the drill bit 11 in a'desired manner.
The deecting element' B vcomprises a tubular sleeve .or supportZS which surrounds the coupling or'mandrel 22 'and which his Yrotatably 'supported "upon 'the annular shoulder 23, said sleeve engaging the bearing ring 24. A body 26 of elastic orre'silientmaterial is'molded :to one, side of the'sleeve 25` (Figure 4) and is lgenerally raruate in cross-section with its longitudinal edges a msrslnsmtv the. exterior surface. pf. tllejsleeve. .at points aprsximately lwlesrsppppsits ash when- The elastiche?! isapretfalzlvlrmed with@ .frio 0f ribs 26e v 27 andyf28. which aresp'ac'ed approximately fequidistnt farojind'tljefbody Iand each ri associated therewith a refnncaeeeting "shoe or blekza. Althongn three longitudinal. ribs, .are illustrated, the intenti@ .is fat fo l: -e liniitdfto this ber andiactually, theiuvention .'nuld. agreable namely, 'die single.. Central .rib 27- *s "is "clerIYslTownin ^Fig`ures "9 and 10," 'each shoe" or block 'includes an elongate body `30 "having outwardly directed side flanges 3l. The block is formed with slots or recesses 32 and 33 which extend from the ends of the block to the central portion thereof. Within the central portion of the block, an inclined opening 32a forms a continuation of the recess 52 while a second inclined opening 33a forms a continuation of the recess 33. The openings 32a and 33a may bein communication with each other (Figure 2)- Each deflecting shoe or block 29 is embedded, as by molding, within the elastic or resilient body portion'26 and is .disposed at substantiallymid-height of said portion. For 'actuating said shoe or block a pair ofactuating members or rods 34 and 35v are provided and these rods are also embedded or molded within the elastic body portion. The upper rod 34 has its lower end extendinsthrguah the recess. 32 in the S1109. and isngagefl within the opening'32tz, 'while the upper endof the lower rod 3S i s cgnti n ed within the slot33 and 'jisengage d within tiiejopeningia. Whenthe'felastic 4orjresilientbody 26 is in anormal unrlistort'ed jposition, each pair of rods is in the kposition shown in figure 2, whereby the deflectingshoepr block as sociated `with *the ro'dsis in a rctracted position; at such time the upper end of each upper rod 3 4 projectsina plane above theelastic body 26 and the Alower end of'each ^lower rod extends below the lower fend of said body and. the rods are disposed vat anincline relative toltheaxis ofthe sleeve. This inclination of 'the rods vlocates the abutting endsy of each pair of rods further outwardly 'i n a jradial direction than their respective oute rends, "whereby anjendwise Apressure on said riads will cause the abutting portions thereof, which ar'ejconneted to the associated deliectinglShOe, to tn ovc further outwardlyiinfa radial direction. In other words the nonnaldispositionf'of each pairof yrods is such that upon an endwisepressurefbeing applied, said roclsact much fin the manner of vato'ggle linkage tn` movethe'deectin'g shoe radially outwardly toan extended position. A bearingring 56 of suitable bearingmaterial issecured tozthe lower end o f the sleeve "13 'andmisadaptedntq'enme a. ring a@ `which. engages 'the .upper ends. of the upperrods'34 when thesections T and T1 are telescoped v'ithspect tofach vfher.-
iWhe'n thegs'e'ctions T fand `Tl are moved to a telescoped lposition,jthe sleeve 13 appliespressure to the upper'ends o l'each pair of 'actuating rods 34 and 35 throdgh'itheringsff and 36a 'and said'rods are, 'in tact, conlinedbetween 'the sleeve 1 3 ofthe uppersection land :tliesupporting shoulder 23 ofthe lower section; the endwise pressureso applied results in the abutting endsv of each "'p'aufof rods moving radially outwardly to accomfpliisharatiial'extensionof eachjdeecting shoe 29 (Figure 3). This movement'oftberods and deiiectingshoes is :permitted because the elastic or resilient material of the body "26 'which, 'in etect,`supports these parts, deforms suicientlyto allow such'rnov'ein'ent. Theinherent elasticity "of the elastic body tends to constantly urge the rods anddeecting shoes toward their retracted position, 'but so long as 'the'sections T and T1 are tele- SCDPd @mi Pfesll? maintalledl? aidfods: he: deecvt' ing fshoes arejheldin theirextendedposition. Each shoe is provided with hardfacing material 37 o nritws external surfaceand when saidshoes lare moved to va radially extended position, the hardtacing material thereof engages the' w'all of thefwell bore. 'Since all of thejdelectingshoes are V'o'nuotrre side 'of the sleeve, 'it is Vevident `tlzlattheir radial extension results in'applying-alateral pressueto .the drill tilt which presurfeis .inl'a disctionsubstantially degrees '.pPOSit tlefitlcctins shoe .molinledllitlte central rib 27 of the body portion 26 'of Athe'dehecting element.
and 35 to their normal position, whereby a retraction of the deilecting shoes 29 is effected. The coiled spring 21, of course, assists in moving the telescoping `sections T and T1 to their extended position. It is noted that the elastic body 26/not onlypacts in the manner of a spring means to retract the deecting shoes but since the shoes, as well as the actuating rods aremolded or otherwise embedded therein, said body 26 protects these parts against contact with uids and other foreign matter within the well bore. l
To provide means for orienting the deecting element, the sleeve 25 on which the deecting element is mounted is provided with an enlargement 22b within which an arcuate recess 38 is formed. An arcuate orienting lug or member 39 is slidable within said recess and coil springs 40 constantly urge the lug in'an upward direction. 4'The orienting lug 39 (Figure 8) is adapted to engage a recess 41 which is formed in the exterior of the body 16 of the lower telescoping section T1. As shown'in Figure 8, the recess 41 is formed by removing portions of certain of the splines 19 on the body and when the lug 39 is engaged within the recess, the sleeve 25 of the deflecting element B is non-rotatable with respect to the body 1 6 of the lower telescoping section T1. When the members are fully telescoped to effect a radial extension of the" deecting shoes as shown in Figure 3, the lower end of sleeve 13. of the upper section T has engaged the orienting lug `39 and has moved the same downwardly, thereby disengaging said lugfrom its recess 41. At suchtime the telescoping sections T and T1 may be rotated with respect tothe deecting element so that a drilling operation may be carried out. During such drilling the dellecting element B remains stationary so far as rotation is concerned and the radially extended deilecting shoes 29 merely slide downwardly on the wall of the well bore as drilling progresses. i
In the operation of the device the parts are normally in the position shown in Figure 2 with the sections T and T1 in an extended position. In such position, the deilecting shoes of the element B are in a normal retracted position and the orienting lug 39 is engaged with its recess 41 to latch the deflecting shoes in aixed radial position relative to the section'Tl. The drill' pipe is, of course, connected to the upper section T which is coupled to the lower telescoping section T1 through the drive splines 14 and 19.
By locating a magnet (Figure 1) in the drill pipe in i a knownradial position or relationship, to the shoes 29 of the dellectingelement B, it is possible to determine the radial position or azimuth of the deecting shoes by known methods of bottomhole orientation. For example, a method of orientation which may be employed is that shown in the patent to Miller 2,327,658 or Hyer 2,120,670. With the magnet 50 in a known radial rela tionship to the deflecting shoes of the element B when the same is in latched position with respect to the drill pipe, a suitable surveying instrument illustrated in dotted lines in Figure l may be lowered through the bore, then operated and its record subsequently examined so that the compass position of the deecting shoes may be readily determined after the tool has been lowered into position and just prior to the commencement of the drilling operation.
Upon reaching bottom, the drill bit 11 strikes the bottom of the well bore and thereafter the weight of the drill pipe is imposed upon the tool. This causes a telescoping of the upper section T with respect to the lower section T1 and such movement applies an endwise force to the extended ends of the actuating rods 34 and 35, whereby the deecting shoes 29 move to the radially extended position shown in Figure 3. At the same time the orienting lug 39 is disengaged from its recess 41 to render the sections T and T1 rotatable with respect to the detlecting element.
When the deilecting shoes of the element B are moved radially outwardly, said shoes contact the wall ofthe bore and apply a'radialor lateral pressure-to the drill` bit to urge the bit in a direction which is opposite the position of the deecting shoes and thus the bit is urged to one side ofthe bore. By properly orienting the deecting element, the bit is urged laterally in a desired compass direction, fand thereafter it is only necessary to impart rotation to the drill pipe to efect a direct drive from the upper telescoping section T, through the drive splines to the lower section T1 and to the drill bit, wherebya drilling operation may be performed. It is evident that so long as the weight of the pipe is imposed upon the tool, the sections T and T1 remain in telescoped position and maintain the shoes of the deflecting element B in their expanded position. Since the orienting lug 39 is .disengaged from its recess 41 when the parts are fullytelescoped, the deecting clement B may remain stationary while the remaining parts of the tool may rotate with the bit. Therefore, as the drilling operation proceeds, the de'-y flecting shoes of the deilecting element merely slide downl the wall of the well bore, but at the same time maintain a-constant lateral pressure on the drill bit to constantly urge it toward the opposite wall of the bore being drilled. It is pointed out that the deecting element B is located in close proximity or adjacent to the drill bit so that the required constant lateral pressure may be maintained throughout the drilling operation.
The tool -is extremely simple in construction and comprises a minimum numberof parts. It is manipulated solely by the application or removal of weight by means of the drill pipe and with the particular orienting lug arrangement, may be re-oriented without the necessity of the removal from the well bore. The inherent elasticity of the resilient or deformable material of the body portion 26 is utilized to assure the retraction of the deecting shoes and also said material provides a simple method of mounting the actuating rods and deecting shoes; at the same time the elastic material eiectively protects the various parts from direct contact with the uids or other matter within the well bore. The actuating members or rods which are embedded within the deformable material assure proper control of the movement of the, deilecting element, since said members are disposed so that upon endwise compressive force applied to said members, radial extension of the deflecting shoes is assured.
The foregoing disclosure and description of the invention is illustrative and explanatory thereof and various changes in the size, shape and materials, as well as in the details of the illustrated construction may be made, within the scope of thev appended claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What I claim is:
l. A deflecting tool including, a'n upper telescoping section, a lower telescoping section, said sections being movable relative to each other from a rst position in which the sections are extended to a second position in which the sections are retracted, means for rotatively connecting the sections in all positions of said sections, a deecting element supported upon the lower section and comprising a tubular sleeve having a body of elastic material attached to one side thereof, a deecting shoe molded to the central portion of the elastic body, a pair of actuating rods embedded within the elastic material and having their inner ends connected with the dellecting shoe and their outer ends projecting beyond the upper and lower ends of the elastic body, and means carried by said upper and lower telescoping sections for engaging the outer ends of said rods as the sections are moved to retracted position, whereby when the sections are moved to said second position an endwise compressive force is applied to the rods to eiect a swinging outward movement of the inner ends of said rods to move the deflecting shoe radially outwardly.
2. A deilecting tool as set forth in claim l, wherein the actuating rods are slightly inclined with respect to "37 the longitudinal axis ofthev sleeve withtheir inner -cnd'sa greater distance outwardly in a-radi'aldirection than Vtheir outer ends when tbe relastic body -is in a normal undistorted position.
3. As a sub-combination in 'a'deiiecting tool, a deecting element for mounting between telescopic elements comprising, 'an annular supporting sleeve, a body of elastic deformable material which'is arcuate in crosssection secured to one side of said sleeve, a delecti'ng shoe molded within the body at substantially mid-height thereof, and a pair of actuating rods molded within'the resilient body, the inner end of one rod lbeing pivotally connected Ito theshoe withits outer end lprojectin`gbe-V yond one end of the body, and the second-rod-havingiits inner vend pivotally connected with the shoe with its outer end-projecting beyond the opposite'end of the body.
4. lThesub-combination set forth in-claim'3, wherein the rods are'dsposed at an inclination with respectto the longitudinal -axis of thedeectingelement, with the inner ends vofthe rods being located-at agreater outward radial position than the outer ends thereof when the 'elastic-body is in Va normal undeformed position.
5. The sub-combination set forth in claim 3, wherein the outer surface of the body of Vvresilient material -is formedwith longitudinal ribs, said deiiecting shoe bein-g mounted in one of said longitudinal ribs.
6. A dee'cting tool including, an upper section, a lower section telescoping said upper section, said sections being `rmovable axiallywith respect to each vfother to a first position in which the sectionsfar'e extended and to a second position in which the sections rare moreffully telescoped, a deflecting element mounted on one of the sections and including a body of elongate deformable material disposed on' one side thereof, said body being in anormal undeformed state when the sections are 'in `said first position relative to each other, and means embedded in said body and'engageable by the sections when said sections are moved to* said vsecond positionfor deforming said body radially outwardly toy engageits outersrface with the wall of the' bore-in which said tool isdisposed.
7. A deecting tool as set forth in claim 6, uwherein the deecting element surrounds one of said sections and is rotatably supported with respect to the tele'scopingsections when in at least one of said positions, :whereby'said sections may be rotated relative to the deflecting element.
8. A deecting tool asset forth in claim 6, wherein the deliecting element is 5 rotatably supported vvwith -reispe'cti'to the `tele'scoping sectionsy when said sections are in I said second position, and' means 5 forlv locking *"s'aideleinent Y against rotation relative t'o the'sections when s'aidsections are in saidA iirst position.
9. A d'eecting tool as set forth yin Vclaim 6, together with spring means Vfor constantly urging the teleseoping sections toward said rst.positiomfandmeans for setting up a rotative driving connection between said .sections in allpositions of the sections.
lO. A deiiecting tool vincluding an -upper section, Aa lower section having a telescoping connection with the upper section, said sections being `movable axially with respect to each other to a iirstposition in which 'thesections are extended and to a second position in which .the sections are more (fully telescope'd, spring means `normally urging the sectionstoward said irsty position,u means for -se'tting up airotative driving .connectionbetween the sections in all positions of the sections, a de'ecting elenient supported upon thelower section and including an elongate v`deft'nmablc lbody portion on one side thereof, adeecting member embeddedinthesurface f tlzlebo'dy portionfsaid deilecting element .being in ianorxnalnndeformed'` position when the sections are insaidfiirstposition relative-to-each other, and means co-actng l--wth .said deformable body and engageable'by said sections .when said ksections are moved to said second position for deforming'the body `portion radiallyoutwardly .tomove said deecting member radially outwardly into lengagement with the wall of Athe well bore in which'the tool'is disposed.l
11. uA deecting tool as set forth in `clairnlofwherein the deecting element surrounds one of .saidsections .and is rotatably supported-upony the lower-section whensaid sections are in said second position, and meansfor locking said element against rotation with respectrto ,both sections when said members arev in said' trst position.
l2. rrdeiecting tool as set forth in claim 10, wherein the upper section-is connected toa drillrpipe .andthe lower section is connected to a drill bit, whereby` the sections may betelescoped into saidY second positionl by the weight of the drill pipe when `the-drill bitengages the bottom of a well bore.
'References Cited inthelle of'ths patent UNITED STATES PATENTS