US 2877645 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 17, 1959 C. H. NEALY TORQUE INDICATING WRENCH ADAPTER Filed Sept. 26, 1956 INVENTOR.
CLAUDE H. NEALY BY ,e u).
-,MU. QA n United States Patent roRQUE INDICATING WRENCH ADAPTER claude H. Nealy, Edwardsville, lll. Application september 26, 1956, serial No. 612,302
i 9 claims. (cl. 73-139) This invention relates to hand tools equipped with torque indicating devices and, more particularly, to an adapter, which can be fitted-to conventional wrenches including those of the ratchet ltype, having an extension handle with a torque pressure indicating gauge incorporated therein.`
The importance in industry of the torque wrench as a precision tool is well known to all persons familiar with the general arts of mechanical fabrication and assembly, but asis also well known to persons familiar with the tooling industry, the spring tensioned mechanically actuated torque pressure indicators incorporated in many of the presently available wrenches leave much to be desired from the standpoints of accuracy and consistent operation. i 5' My linvention has been made" with the foregoing considerations'in mind and can be said to'have a plurality of important objectives. Y
One irnportant'object of my invention is the provision of a device 'adapted to indicate accuratelythe amount of torque pressure applied by a' conventional wrench.
' Another important object vof my invention is the provision of a device of the character described which is adapted to utilize a iluid pressure gauge in the measurement of effective torque pressure. y
A further important object of my'invention is 'the provision of a device of the character described having means for translating the torque of a wrench under tenvsion into lineal pressure and the lineal pressure, in turn, into fluid pressure. y
An additional object of my invention is the provision of a device of the character` describedv being adapted for l gauge suitably calibrated in terms of torque v2,877,645 Patented Mar. 17, 19,5 9k
, 2 piece whereas the conventional wrench handle tends remain stationary until the roller in the end thereof engages one arcuate side of the concave cam and presses it longitudinally into theextension handle, thereby increasing the lluid pressure within the'collapsible elastomeric chamber which is, in turn, measured by a uid pressure pressure applied to the extension handle.
Certain variations of the embodiment disclosed herein and further important objects of my inventionwill be apparent in the following detailed specification when ex- :amined together with references made therein to the'drawattachment to a conventional wrench 'such as'avlong handled ratchet wrench. .y l Y In brief, the device of my invention includes an extension handle which is pivot/ally'attachedl to a conventional wrenchadjacent the lvvrlr engaging end thereof by a pair of Spanner members disposed onl opposite sides of I the wrench and having ya slidable concave cammember disposed between the spannermembcrs adjacent lthe inner end of the extension handle.
The outer end of the conventional wrench handle is provided with an axio-diametric'slotextended inwardly from the outer end thereof in which a roller is mounted on a diametrically disposed shaft" positioned centrally of the slot. i
The Spanner members are dimensioned so that the roller in the .end of the wrench handle is disposedy centrally of the concave surface of the cam member. This cam is movable axially within the extension handle and has a connecting rod and piston attached thereto, the
latter intertting within a cylindrical recessed bore of a cylindrical insert also disposed interiorly of -the extension extension handle tends to pivot relative ,to the workings, in which:
Figure 1 -is a diagrammatic plan view showing the torquer indicating-extension handle of my invention att'ached to a ratchet wrench;
'Figure 2 is a side elevational view of the wrench shown in-Figure l showing the manner in which the roller at the end of the wrench handle engages the cam in the center of the extension handle;
' Figure 3 is a longitudinal section taken along the line and in the direction indicated by the arrows 3-3 Iin Figure 2;
. Figure 3-A is a schematic diagram showing the change in positioning of the `parts when the extension handle pivots relativev to the wrench handle;
" Figure'4'is a longitudinal sectional view taken along the line and in the direction'indicated by the arrows'4-4 in Figure l;
Figure 5 is a schematic sectional diagram illustrating the operation of a pressure sensitive switch adapted to operate a signal light, and
Figure 6 designates schematically a bell alarm which maybe substituted for operation yby the switch shown in Figure 5.
' Reference is again made to Figures l and 2 collectively showing an extension handle and'torque indicating device constructed according to myI invention which is designated in general by the numeral 5 and is seen attached to a 'wrench including a handle 2 and a ratchet head 3 and work engaging member 6. 'Ilhe extension handle 5 is attae'hed to the wrench adjacent its ratchet head 3 by means of a pair of Spanner members 1-A and 1-B which are pivotally attached as shown at 4 and are terminated at their ends spaced therefrom in extended sections 40 and 41 which serve to hold the spanners 1A and 1-B in spaced relationship and also to attach them mutually to a tubular collar member 42.
A* tubular Ihandle member 5, as best seen in Figures 3 and 4, is open at one end 43 and closed at the other endy 44, and is supported interiorly intermediate thereof by-a solid through section 45 having an interiorly threaded axial bore therethrough, as indicated at 16 in Figure 3. The open end of the tube 5 is entered through the collar 42 and is held therein by a snap ring 20 which is engaged within a circumferential groove 46 best seen in Figure 4, and a lock ring 19 which is engageable with the extended threads 47 on the exterior of the tube 5 as seen in Figure 3, is tightened against the edge of the collar 42 opposite from the snap-ring 20 to hold the handle 5 in fixed relationship to the collar and thereby to the extended sections 40 and 41 Aand to the Spanner members 1-A and 1-B.
A cylindrical insert 61, as is clearly illustrated in Figures 3 and 4, is closed at one end 48 and is positioned slidably within the extension handle member 5 with its openA end adjacent that of the handle as indicated at 43, and is held in position longitudinally of the handle 5 by a positioning rod 15 which has outwardly extended threads as seen at 16 engageable with the threaded inner bore of the solid section 4S interiorly of the extension handle. An axially aligned aperture 17 is` provided in the closed end 44 of the extension handle 5 to provide access to a slot 1 3 18 in the end of the `rod 15 by which it maybe rotated through the threads 16 to move the cylindrical insert 61 and in turn the collapsible elastomeric chamber 9 contained -therein in `the direction of the aperture 43 of the extension 'handle 5. The collapsible elastomeric chamber 9 is 'slidably positioned within the cylindrical recessed bore portion 65 -of the cylindrical insert 61 .and communicates interiorly with the uid pressure gauge 12 through 'an aperture 49. The piston .11, with the connecting rod 10 interfitting therein, and the elastomeric chamber 9 are slidably positioned within said vcylindrical recessed bore 65 of the cylindrical insert 61.
A uid pressure gauge 12 is mounted as shown in Figures 1, 2 and 4 with its face upright with respect to the wrench 3 when positioned inthe normal work-engaging position, and is axed in the cylindrical insert interiorly threaded axial bore 64 adjacent to the side of the collapsible elastomeric chamber 9 as can best be seen in Figure 4, and communicates interiorly therewith through an aperture 49 as shown in Figure 4. A longitudinal slot 5l)k is provided in the periphery of the tubular handle 5 through which the attachment nipple 51 of the` gauge 12 is movable as the collapsible elastomeric chamber 9 is moved within the interior of the cylindrical insert 61, lying within the extension handle 5, by rotation of the rod 15. It should be noted that even after lock nut 19 has been locked, the handle 5 can be swivelled to any desired position within a full 360 degree range so that the gauge 12 may be placed in a visible position irrespective of the position of the wrench, as necessitated by various types of working positions, thus providing a highly desirable feature not present in prior art torque wrenches.
As can be seen from an examination of the ligures, the positioning of the extension members 40 and 41 relative to the spanner members 1-A and l-B is effective to provide a rectangular opening therebetween in which the carn plate 8 having the connecting rod 10 and piston 1.1 extended therefrom into the cylindrical insert 61 is longitudinally slidable, the piston being correspondingly slidable within the cylindrical insert 61.
Reference is again made to Figure 2 showing the handle 2 of the ratchet Wrench 3, in which it will be seen that its outer end 52 is provided with a slot 53 disposed between the upper and lower terminal sections 54 and 55. Within the notch 53 a roller 7 is journalled on a shaft 56 disposed vertically between the terminal portions 54 and 55 of the end 52 of the handle 2. The roller 7, as is most clearly indicated in the Figures 3i, 3-A, 4 and in phantom in Figure l, engages and is normally seated within the arcuate center of the concave adjacent edge 58 of the cam plate 8. The cam 8 is normally held tightly against the roller 7 because of the residual pressure remaining within the collapsible elastomeric chamber 9.
The operation of the device is clearly indicated in the purely schematic diagram of Figures 3-A which shows the reaction occurring when the work engaging member 6 of the ratchet 3 in Figure 2 is engaged with a workpiece and tension is applied to the handle extension 5 in the direction indicated by the arrow T in Figure l. As seen in Figure 3-A tension on the handle 5 in the direction indicated by the arrow T tends to cause the extension handle assembly to pivot :at the point 4 as the handle member 2, because of its engagement with the workpiece, exerts opposing resistance to the rotation of the extension handle indicated by the arrows I-L thus moving the roller 7 away from the arcuate .center 57 of the cam plate 8 toward the extended edge 59 thereof, thereby forcing the cam plate 8 'and the piston member 11 :attached thereto in the direction of the adjacent arrow inwardly of the collapsible elastomeric chamber 9.
Inward movement of the piston 11 within the cylindrical insert 61 increases the fluid pressure in the collapsible elastomeric chamber 9, which in turn is measured by the needle 13 of the gauge 12 moving across the scale 14 4 which .is suitably calibrated to 4interpret the duid pressure in terms of the torque applied to the extension handle 5.
A variation of the above described embodiment employing a pressure sensitive switch, is shown schematically in Figure 5 in which a cylinder 9 is provided with an adjustable end plug 60 afxed to the end of the positioning rod 15, the piston 11 being movable through the opposite end thereof. A pressure chamber 21 communi- Cates interiorly with the cylinder 9 by means of the `passage 22. The chamber 21 is enclosed by a casing including halt` shells 27 and 28 disposed on opposite sides of a diaphragm 23 which is normally disposed inwardly of the chamber 21 by tension of a coil spring 24 disposed between the inner surface of the diaphragm 23 and the inner surface of the casing shell 28 spaced therefrom.
A first electrode 25 is disposed centrally of the diaphragm and a second electrode 30 is threadable as seen at 29 into lthe casing shell 28 in axi-al alignment with the rst electrode. An .aperture 33 opens outwardly of the casing shell 28 to provide ingress and egress of atmospheric air required by movement of the diaphragm occasioned by increased pressure within the cylinder 9.
Circuit means are provided directing current from one terminal of a battery to the second electrode 30 in the casing lshell 28 and from the other terminal of the battery to an electric lamp 31 and thence to the iirst electrode 25 in the center of the diaphragm 23. *Rotation of the electrode 30 in the thread 29 in the casing shell 28 makes it possible to space the electrodes so that any predetermined pressure within the cylinder 9, and consequently any torque pressure respective thereto exerted on the extension handle of the wrench, is effective to bring the electrodes into contact and complete the battery circuit through the lamp 31 to provide a visible signal to the operator of the wrench.
As indicated in Figure 6, a bell 34 providing an audible signal, may be substituted at the points indicated by the arrows K-P in the circuitry previously described.
Numerous modications and variations of the present invention will occur to those skilled in the art after a careful study hereof. All such, properly within the basic spirit and scope of the present invention are intended to be included and comprehended herein as fully as if specically described, illustrated and claimed herein.
The exact compositions, configurations, constructions, relative positionings, and cooperative relationships of the various component parts of the present invention are not critical, and can be modified substantially within the spirit of the present invention.
The embodiments of the present invention specifically described and illustrated herein are exemplary only, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, which is to be interpreted in the light of the prior art and the appended claims only, with due consideration for the doctrine of equivalents.
1. A wrench assembly having means incorporated therein for indicating the amount of torque pressure imposed thereby, comprising: a wrench including work engaging elements and an elongate handle extended therefrom having an axial slot disposed inwardly from the end spaced from said work engaging elements, said slot in said handle being in substantial alignment with the plane of move ment of said handle; a roller journalled on a diametrically disposed shaft positioned centrally of said slot; a yoke assembly including a tubular extension handle and a pair of parallel longitudinally extended Spanner members atlixed to opposite sides of said extension handle and pivotally attached to said wrench adjacent said work engaging elements thereof; a cam plate slidably disposed between said Spanner members adjacent said extension handle, said cam having an inwardly disposed concave edge the center thereof being disposed against the outer periphery of said roller; a cylindrical pressure chamber controllably slidably and lockabl'y disposed interiorly of said tubular extension handle with its open end adjacent said cam plate, and connecting rod and piston means extended outwardly from said cam and being slidable within said cylindrical pressure chamber, and iluid pressure gauge means communicating interiorly with said pressure chamber.
2. The invention in accordance with claim 1 in which said gauge is xedly attached by conduit means to said cylindrical pressure chamber, said conduit means being entered through a longitudinal slot in the side of said extension handle member whereby said conduit and gauge are free to move longitudinally of said handle when said pressure chamber is controllably moved axially interiorly of said handle.
3. The invention in accordance with claim 2 and being further characterized by a boss member integrally formed interiorly of said extension handle, said boss having an internally threaded axial bore therethrough; an axial opening in the outwardly extended end of said extension handle, an externally threaded shaft being entered therethrough and inwardly rotatable through said threads in said boss into engagement with the closed end of said cylindrical pressure chamber.
4. The invention as set forth in claim 3 in which said pressure sensitive gauge is provided with a dial bearing indicia indicating the torque pressure applied to said extension handle in order to develop the lluid pressure present in said cylindrical pressure chamber.
5. A pressure indicating torque wrench, comprising: a wrench having work engaging means at one end and a handle extended longitudinally therefrom having a slot disposed axially inwardly from the outward end thereof; a roller mounted on a diametrically disposed shaft interiorly of said slot, said roller being aligned in the plane of movement of said handle when exerting tension upon a work piece; a generally tubular extension handle axially disposed outwardly from said wrench and pivotally attached thereto adjacent the Work engaging end thereof by a pair of spanner members being disposed on opposite sides of said wrench; a cam plate slidably disposed between said Spanner members adjacent the inner opening of said tubular extension handle, said cam having a concave inwardly disposed surface bearing centrally against said roller; a recessed cylinder disposed interiorly of said handle member; a connecting rod and piston extended outwardly from said cam plate and being slidable within said recessed cylinder, and pressure-responsive output means effectively responsive to the uid pressure within said cylinder.
6. The invention in accordance with claim 5 in which said pressure-responsive output means is ixedly attached by conduit means to said recessed cylinder, said conduit means being entered through a longitudinal slot in the side of said extension handle member whereby said conduit and pressure-responsive output means are free to move longitudinally of said handle when said recessed cylinder is controllably moved axially interiorly of said handle.
7. The invention in accordance with claim 6 in which said pressure-responsive output means comprises a pressure chamber having a diaphragm disposed therein, said diaphragm having a first electrode extended from the center thereof and being movable under predetermined pressure into contact with a second electrode, normally spaced apart therefrom, whereby current is directed to electrical signal means.
8. The invention in accordance with claim 7 in which said electrodes are effective under predetermined pressure to direct current to an electrically operated lamp to provide a visible signal to the operator of said wrench.
9. The invention in accordance with claim 6 in which said electrodes are eiective under predetermined pressure to direct current to an electrically operated bell to provide an audible signal to the operator of said wrench.
References Cited in the flle of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,860,871 Pouliot May 31, 1932 2,172,561 Kruse Sept. 12, 1939 2,190,967 Zimmerman Feb. 20, 1940 2,300,652 Cooney Nov. 3, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS 480,516 Great Britain Feb. 23, 1938