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Publication numberUS2878877 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 24, 1959
Filing dateOct 25, 1954
Priority dateOct 25, 1954
Publication numberUS 2878877 A, US 2878877A, US-A-2878877, US2878877 A, US2878877A
InventorsBaker Reuben C
Original AssigneeBaker Oil Tools Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tubing anchor and valve apparatus
US 2878877 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 24, 1959 R. C. BAKER TUBING ANCHOR AND VALVE APPARATUS Filed Oct. 25. 1954 3 .Sheets-Sheet 1 LEz/BEN C. BAKER,

INVEN TOR.

r-roe/VEYS March 24, 1959 R. c. BAKER 2,878,877

TUBING ANCHOR AND VALVE APPARATUS Filedoct. 25. 1954 I s sheets-sheet 2 EueE/v C. AKE/z, INVENTOR.

AMarch 24, 1959 Filed Oct. 25. 1954 R. C. BAKER TUBING ANCHOR AND VALVE APPARATUS 3 Sheds-Sheet 3 feel/BEN L) BAKE/QJ INVENTOR.

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2,878,877 Patented Mar. 24, 195,9

Unite States Patent Ollice TUBING ANCHOR AND VALVE APPARATUS Application October 25, 1954, Serial No. 464,356

18 Claims. (Cl. 166-212) The present invention relates to subsurface well apparatus particularly useful in the performance of numerous operations in well bores, such as squeeze cementing,

acidizing, formation fracturing, testing, anchoring and producing.

An object of the present invention is to provide an improved anchor for a tubular string disposed in a well bore, which is capable of preventing the tubing from being urged in an upward direction within the well bore by pressure in the well bore below the anchor.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved anchor connectible to a well packer, or other well tool, therebelow in a well bore, the anchor` preventing the packer from being forced up the well bore by pressure below the packer.

A further object of the invention is to provide an anchor connectible to a tubular string and adapted to be anchored to a Well casing containing the tubular string and anchor, in which the tubular string can be moved longitudinally to a certain extent without disturbing the anchored status of the anchor in the well casing..

Yet another object of the invention is to provide an anchor connectible to a tubular string and adapted to be posed in position for lowering the apparatus in a well casing, Fig. la constituting a lower continuation of Fig. 1;

Fig. 2 is a cross-section taken along the line 2 2 on Fig. 1;

v Fig. 3 is a cross-section taken along the line 3--3 on Fig. la;

Figs. 4 and 4a together constitute a longitudinal section and side elevational view of the apparatus corresponding to Figs. 1 and la, with the lower packer and anchor set against the conning well casing;

Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal section through a portion of the anchor device;

Figs. 6 and 6a are longitudinal sectional and side elevational views corresponding to Figs. 1 and 1a, disclosing the parts in retracted position and the valve portion of the anchor in open position;

Fig. 7 is an isometric projection of the ratchet lock device forming part of the tubing anchor.

As disclosed in the drawings, a tubing anchor and valve device A is connectible to a tubular string B extending to the top of the well bore, the anchor being adapted to be secured to the wall of a well casing C to prevent upward movement of the tubing string B in the well casing, and also to prevent upward movement of a well packer D disposed below and connected to the lower portion of the anchor device A. The well packer disy closed is adapted to be anchored in packed-o condition disposed within and anchored to a well casing, the anchor embodying a valve device operable by longitudinal movement of the tubular string without interfering with the secured position of the anchor to the well casing.

Still a further object of the invention is to provide an v in the well casing against downward movement therewithin, but is incapable of preventing its being forced upwardly by highhydraulic pressure in the well casing therebelow. In the event that such hydraulic pressure is imposed on the well packer D, its. upward movement is prevented by the anchor portion A of the apparatus.

The well packer D includes a main body 10 having a central generally cylindrical portion 11 threadedly secured to an upper body portion or sub 12, which is, in turn, adapted to be threaded onto the lower end of the valve body or ratchet sleeve 80 of the anchor device. The lower portion 13 of the main body is enlarged in a lateral outward direction to provide a shoulder 14 on which a slip stop and lock ring 15 can rest, this slip stop and lock ring having an upwardly extending rim portion 16 into which is received the lower portion of a slip sleeve 17 extending upwardly fromthe ring. The sleeve and ringare secured together by the screws 17a. This sleeve 17 is provided with a plurality of circumferentially spaced and longitudinally extending grooves device for a tubular string adapted to be disposed in the v 18 in which the lower portions of casing engaging slips 19 are contained. These slips extend upwardly from the sleeve and are cooperable with an expander 20 slidably mounted on the cylindrical intermediate portion 11 of the packer body. Downward movement of the expander 20 with respect to the body is determined and limited by engagement of the lower end of the expander with a laterally extending shoulder 21 on the body. The expander 20 is adapted to expand the slips 19 outwardly into engagement with the wall of the wellcasing C, by

to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of the invention is best defined by the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings: Figures 1 and la together constitute a longitudinal section, portions being shown in side elevation, of an anchoring device and well packer, with the parts dis- E reason ofA the cooperation between the downward and inwardly tapering external surface 22 on the expander, which engage companion internally tapered surfaces 23 on the upper portions of the slips. It is apparent that downward movement of the expander 20 within the slips 19 will wedge the tapered surface 22 of the expander into the slips 19 and urge the latter laterally outward to embed the external wickers 24 on the slips into the wall ofthe casing C. In the form of device specically shown inthe drawings, the slips 19 are'designed Vto'anchor they tool against downward movement in the well casing, for which reason the wickers 24 face in a downward direction.

The upper end of the expander is coupled to the lower portion of a packing structure 25, disclosed as being in the form of a rubber or rubber-like packing sleeve surrounding the body 10. The lower portion of the packing sleeve has an internal groove 26 therein for receiving a ange 27 at the upper end of the expander 20, to prevent relative longitudinal movement between the packing sleeve and expander. The packing sleeve 25 extends upwardly from the expander along the body, being engageable with the exterior of the body 10 above the expander, the upper end of the packing sleeve being coupled to a ring 28 slidable along the periphery of the body 10 and having a lower external ange 29 received within a companion internal groove 30 in the upper portion of the sleeve 25, to connect the two parts together and prevent longitudinal movement therebetween. The upper ends of the packing sleeve 25 and of the ring 28 are received within a lower groove 31 in the upper body portion 12.

Although not essential to the present invention, the lower portion of the upper body member 12 may have a gauge ring 33 secured thereto by one or more screws 34, to minimize the annular clearance space between the well tool A and the wall of the well casing C through which the rubber packing material may tend to squeeze or cold flow during use of the tool. In a similar fashion, the upper portion of the expander 20 also has a lower gauge ring 35 secured thereto by screws 36, this lower gauge ring being contactable with the lower end of the rubber packing sleeve 25, and reducing the clearance space between the tool and the wall of the well casing through which the rubber packing material may tend to squeeze under high pressure and/or temperature operating `conditions.

As Vwas stated above, the slips 19 are set upon downward 'movement of the 'expander 20 relativethereto. To secure such relative downward movement, retarding means are provided, tending to resist longitudinal movement of the slips in the well casing C. In the present instance, the retarding device is provided on the lower portion 19a of the slips themselves. As specifically disclosed, suchretarding devices include the formation of friction drag block portions 40 on the slips having outer 'faces 41 adapted to contact the wall of the well casing C. The frictional contact between the drag block portions 40 of the slips and the casing wall is secured by a plurality of helical compression springs 42 having their axes transverse to the axis of the body 10, each spring being disposed in one 'of the slip sleeve grooves 18. The outer portion of each spring is disposed within 'asocket 43 formed in the slip adjacent its outer casing engaging face 41, the spring bearing against the base of the vsocket 43 .and 4also against the base of the longitudinal 'sleeve groove 18. If desired, 'the spring 42 maybe maintained in a central position by causing its inner end portionto engage a boss 44 extending laterally outward from the base of each groove 18.

The extent of lateral outward movement of each slip 19is limited, there being a lower nger or leg portion `45 on each slip adapted to engage the rim' 16 'of the stop ring 15. Normally, when the tool is disposed within the well casing, these leg portions 45 are located inwardly by a substantial distance from the rim 16 of the stop ring. However, when the tool is out of the well casing and in an unconiined condition, then the springs 42 can urge the lower portions 19a of lthe slips outwardly to the extent limited by engagement of the leg portions 45 with the rim 16. When the tool is inserted in the well casing, the upper end of the casing will engage the tapered surfaces 46 of the slips 19 adjacent the foot portions 45, to urgey the slips in an inward direction vup against the force of the springs 42.

"Lateral outward movement f the slips '19 is also limited by a retaining and retracting ring 47 encompassing the sleeve 17 and disposed in external circumferential grooves 48 formed in the intermediate portions of the slips 19 below the wickered surfaces 24 of the slips. The upper end of this ring 47 is engaged by a transverse shoulder 48a extending outwardly from the upper end of the slip sleeve 17, the lower end of the ring being adapted to engage the lower side 49 of the slip grooves 48, in order to pull the slips 19 in a downward direction when the tool A is being lowered in the well casing C. The ring 47 also limits the extent of lateral outward movement of the slips 19 under the influence of the springs 42, particularly when the tool is unconiined and out of the hole, the base portions 50 of the slip grooves 48 engaging the inner surface of the retaining ring 47.

In order to prevent relative downward movement of the expander 20 within the slips 19, until the latter are to be anchored against the well casing C at the desired setting point therewithin, a suitable lock device is provided. As disclosed, this lock device consists of a J -type of slot and pin arrangement, the J slot 51 being provided in the external portion of the body 10 below the tapered expander 20 and the body shoulder 21. This J slot includes a longitudinal leg portion 52 that merges'into a circumferential foot portion 53, both of these portions being adapted to receive the inner end of a lock pin 54 secured to the lower stop ring 15, as by being threaded thereinto. When the lock pin 54 is disposed in the foot portion '53 of the J slot, the expander 20 is prevented from being moved downwardly within the slips 19, inasmuch as the slip sleeve 17 is connected to the stop ring 15 by the screws 17a and the body 10 is connected to the ring'lS through the pin 54. It is evident that during such location of the pin 54 in the foot portion 53 of the slot, downward movement of the body 10 will be transmitted through the pin 54 to the stop ring 15, and through the screws 17a to the slip sleeve 17, the sleeve shoulder 48a engaging the retaining ring 47, which will engage thelower sides 49 of the slip grooves 48 to move the slips 19 in a downward direction with the body.

During such downward movement, it is also preferred that `'the expander 20 and the rubber packing sleeve 25 move in a downward direction, to prevent relative upward movement of the expander along the body to compress the packing sleeve. To accomplish this last-mentioned objective, one or more limit pins or screws 60 may be inserted through longitudinally aligned sockets or bores 61 in the stop ring and slip sleeve, the head 62 of the pin engaging a shoulder 63 formed between the lower enlargedbore portion 61 and a smaller diameter bore portion 64 through the slip sleeve 17, through which the Shanks of each screw 60 extends. The upper ends of the screws 60 are threaded, being received within comp'anion longitudinally extending threaded holes 65 in the expander r20. The limit screws 60 extend through the slip'sleeve 17 and into the expander 20 between the slips 19, so as to avoid interference with the operation of the latter.

Because of the engagement of the limit pin heads 62 with the shoulders 63 of the slip sleeve, downward movement of the body 10, with the lock pin 54 received within the horizontal foot portion 53 of the J slot, will cause the slip sleeve 17 to move downwardly, engaging the heads 62, and, through the limit pins 60, moving the expander'20 in a downward direction, which will carry the packing sleeve 25 downwardly with the body 10 as well, in order that 'the packing sleeve 25 cannet be expanded inadvertently. s The slips A19 are capable of rocking lor pivoting with respect tothe expander 20 and the well casing C. It is to be noted that whenthe friction drag faces 41 of the slips are fully engaging the wall of the well casing, the inner'tapered surfaces 23 of the slips are disposed at an `angle t`o the companion tapered 'surface 22 on the lexpander A20,'tl1e tapered surfaces on the expander and slips diverging withrespect to each other ina downward direc tion. Similarly, the wickered faces 24 of the slips are nclined to the wall of the well casing, these faces and the wall diverging from each other in an upward direction, the angle of divergence ybeing substantially the same as the angle of divergence between the expander surface 22 and the inner tapered slip surfaces 23. When the expander 20 s moved downwardly with respect to the slips 19, it rocks the slips about the upper end portions 70 of the drag blocks 40, which serve as fulcrum points against the casing C, urging the lower parts 19a of the slips inwardly against the force ofthe springs 42, the expander surface 22 coming into full bearing engagement with the tapered slip surfaces 23, which places the wickered faces 24 of the slips substantially parallel to the wall of the well casing, whereby the wickered faces of the slips can be wedged along their entire length into the casing wall. When the expander 20 is moved relatively in an upward direction out of the slips 19, then the springs 42 will rock the slips about their points "of fulcrum contact 70 with the well casing, urging the lower portion 19a of the slips outwardly, to cause, the dragblocks 40 to fully engage the casing wall C, and swinging the upper portion 19b of the slips inwardly and completely out of engagement with the well casing C.

The lower well packer D can be anchored to the well casing in packed-off condition to prevent fluid pressure in the tubing-casing annulus above the packer from passing downward of the location of the packing sleeve 25. However, this well packer will be released from its anchored position in the well casing in the event suflicient pressure is exerted in an upward direction in the well casing below the well packer. vFor the purpose of resisting such upward movement, the tubing anchor A is secured to the well packer D.

As stated above, the upper body portion 12 of the well packer is threadedly secured to the lower portion of the valve body and ratchet sleeve 80, forming the lower end of the tubing anchor A. This valve body and ratchet sleeve is threadedly secured within the cylinder sleeve 81 of a cylinder 82 that extends upwardly along and above a lower annular piston 83 that is threadedly secured to a tubular member or mandrel S4, the upper end-of which is threadedly attached to the lower end of the tubular string B extending to the top of the well bore. The tubular mandrel 84 extends substantially throughout the entire length of the anchor apparatus A and constitutes a portion thereof. The upper end of the lower cylinder 82 includes a cylinder head 85 integral with or otherwise suitably secured to the sleeve 81, which extends laterally inward of the sleeve and is slidable with respect to the periphery of the tubular mandrel 84. This cylinder head 85 is connected to a plurality of circumferentially spaced upper slips 86 in such manner that the cylinder moves longitudinally with the slips, while permitting the slips to move laterally relative to the cylinder. To accomplish this purpose, the lower ends of the slips 86 are constituted by bifurcated arms or ears S7 straddling projections 88 extending upwardly from the lower cylinder head 85, there being a pin 89 connected t-o each slip and extending within a lateral slot 90 in the projection that is opened inwardly of the projection 88, and extends laterally a substantially greater distance than the diameter of the pin, to allow the slips 86 to partake of radial inward and outward movement with respect to the lower cylinder 82.

The slips have inner tapered surfaces 91 that are inclined in a downward and inward direction, cooperating with companion tapered surfaces 92 on an upper expander 93 which is slidable along the tubular mandrel 84. Relative downward movement of the expander 93 within the slips 86 will shift the latter outwardly into engagement with the wall of the well casing C, whereas upward movement of the expander with respect to the slips will posi- .tively retract the latter, such retraction occurring by virtue pfA the fact that each slip has oppositely directed tongues 6 94 -on its sides fitting within companion vgrooves 95 formed in the expander 93. 1

The upper expander 93 is integral with, or otherwise suitably secured to, a cylinder head portion 96 of an upper cylinder 97, this head portion lbeing threaded into an upper cylinder sleeve 98 that is slidable along an upper annular piston 99 secured to the tubular mandrel 84, the upper end of the cylinder sleeve terminating in art inwardly directed ilange or shoulder 100.

The upper piston 99 is disposed above the upper cylinder head 96, and lluid under pressure may be directed from the interior of the tubular mandrel 84 through one or more upper side ports 101 through the tubular mandrel into the cylinder space 102 between the upper piston and the upper cylinder head. Such uid under pressure will urge the cylinder 97, and the upper expander 93 connected thereto, downwardly relative to the upper slips 86, expanding the latter outwardly into anchoring engagement with the wall of the well casing. Leakage of fluid from the cylinder space 102 is precluded by suitable side seal members or rings 103 on the piston 99 engaging the inner wall of the cylinder sleeve 98 and the peripheryof the tubular mandrel 84, and also by providing similarside seal rings 104 on the upper cylinder head 96 that engage the wall of the upper cylinder 97 and the periphery of the tubular mandrel. k

The fluid under pressure within the tubular mandrel 84 is not only effective to shift the upper expander 93 downwardly of the slips 86, but it is also caused to tend to shift the upper slips 86 in an upward direction with respect to the upper expander. Thus, the iluid under pressure can be directed through one or more lower po-rts 105 disposed immediately above the lower piston 83 into the cylinder space 106 between the lower piston and the lower cylinder head 85, such iluid tending to elevate the lower cylinder 82 and slips 86, to urge the latter in an upward direction with respect to the upper expander 93 and radially outward into anchoring engagement with the wall of the well casing. Suitable seals may be provided, to prevent leakage from the lower cylinder space 106. Thus, the upper cylinder head 85 may carry a side seal 107 `slidably engageable with the periphery o-f the tubular mandrel 84, whereas the lower piston 83 may be provided with the side seal members 108 slidably engageable with the inner wall of the lower cylinder sleeve 81 and with the periphery of the tubular mandrel 84. The lower portion of the anchor A embodies a valve mechanism which will allow iluid to pass between the interior of the tubular mandrel and the exterior of -the anchor, and which will also allow uid to pass from a region below the lower well packer D, through the interior of the latter and thence outwardly to the exterior of the apparatus, for relative upward movement through the tubing-casing annulus above the apparatus. This valve mechanism includes a plurality of lateral ports 110 extending through the lower valve body 80 of thev tubing anchor, there being a generally cylindrical type ofA valve seat 111 in the valve body that contains an annular seal member 112, such as a rubber, or rubber-like, ring contained within an internal circumferential groove 113 defined between the lower portion of the valve body 80 and the adjacent endof the upper body portion 12 of the lower packer D. The tubular mandrel 84 extends downwardly, with its lower portion being constituted as a cylindrical valve head 114 adapted to be telescoped within the valve seat 111, in order to close the valve ports 110 against passage of fluid between the interior of the tubular mandrel and the tubing-casing annulus. Upward movement of the tubular mandrel 84 with respect tothe valve body 80 will elevate the valve head 114 above the cylindrical valve seat 111 and open the valve ports 110. J In the specific form of apparatus disclosed in the drawings, the tubular mandrel 84 is movable upwardly freely, to a position in which its va1ve1head'114 is disposed Vabove .7 the valve seat 111, to open the ports 110. However, the tubular mandrel can only move downwardly -to a position closing the ports 110 in dependence upon the operation of a clutch device 115 provided between the valvebody`80 and the tubular mandrel 84. Thus, the valve body has an annular groove 116 therein provided withan internal tapered surface 117 inclined in a downward and inward direction, the upper end of the groove being defined by the lower en'd of a clutch ring 118, which is securely clamped against the upper end of the valve body'80, so as to be immovable with respect thereto, by a shoulder 119 on the cylinder sleeve 81 bearing against a companion external shoulder 120 on the clutch ring. The clamping of the shoulder 119 against the clutch ring will cause the latter to move longitudinally with the 'valve body 80, and will also prevent relative rotation between the clutch ring and valve body. However, to positively assure that the clutch ring 118 and valve body 80` are attached together against relative rotation, one or more pins 121 may be connected to the ring and the valve body.

The clutch 115 is of the releasable one-way type. It includes a split, contractile ratchet ring 122 disposed within the groove 116, this ring having an external tapered surface 123 inclined in a downward and inward direction i and adapted to coact with the internal tapered surface 117 in the ratchet sleeve and valve body 80, for the purpose of urging the ring inwardly to cause its internal circumferential clutch teeth 124 to engage companion external circumferential clutch teeth 125 provided on the tubular mandrel 84. The clutch teeth 124, 125 may be formed as V threads, in order that the mandrel 84 can ratchet freely in an upward direction within the ratchet ring 122 and can also ratchet downwardly within the ratchet ring when permitted to do so. When the ratchet ring 122 is held in its upper position with respect to the valve body and ratchet sleeve 80, the mandrel 84 can be moved downwardly with respect thereto. However, when the ratchet ring is permitted to move downwardly of the ratchet sleeve, it will become wedged between the ratchet sleeve 80 and the tubular mandrel 84, the tapered wall 117 of the ratchet sleeve engaging the ratchet ring 122 and preventing'the teeth 125 on the tubular mandrel 84 from shifting or camming the ratchet ring laterally outward, to disengage the clutch teeth 124, 125 from each other.

The ability of the ratchet ring 122 to move downwardly within the tapered groove 116, so as to be wedged between the tubular mandrel 84 and the ratchet sleeve 80, depends upon the location of the ratchet ring relative to one or a plurality of control elements 126, in the form of pins, that are welded, or otherwise suitably secured, to the ratchet sleeve 80, and extend inwardly -into its groove 116. These pins 126 can be selectively located in either the horizontal or vertical portions 127,

`128 of generally L-shaped slots or recesses formed in the lower portion of the ratchet ring 122. When the pins 126 are disposed in the horizontal portions 128 of the slots, they engage the lower shoulder 129 on the latter and prevent the ring 122 from being moved downwardly with respect to the ratchet sleeve V80 into a wedged position. When the pins 126 are so disposed in the horizontal slot portions 128, there is substantial clearance between the tapered periphery 123 of the ring and the tapered wall 117 of the ratchet sleeve, allowing the split ring 12210 expand outwardly to disengage its teeth 124 with-the mandrel teeth 125. The ring 122 can be turned `arcuately with respectto the pins 126, to dispose the carried downwardly with the mandrel to a position in .which itis-wedged against 4the tapered yside 117 of the ratchet sleeve' 80, which Vwill hold'theringinwardly with E its teeth 124 fully engaged with the companionteeth 1'25 on the mandrel.

The rotation lof the ratchet ring 122 between the positions in which the pins 126 are disposed under the horizontal slot shoulders 1.29, or .in alignment with the vertical slots 127, is determined by turning the tubing string B andthe tubular mandrel 84 connected thereto. Thus, assuming that the pins 126 are in engagement with the upper `shoulders `129 of the horizontal slot portions 1,28, the tubular mandrel 84 'is rotated to the left, or counterclockwise, as seenrfrom the top of the well bore. Such rotation will be imparted to the ratchet ring 122, since it is normally contracted in fractional engagement with the' tubular mandrel 84, the extent of rotation being limited by engagement of the pins 126 with each of the walls 130 defining the vertical ring slots 127. Thereafter, it is only necessary to lower the tubular mandrel 84-the slight distance necessary to carry the ratchet ring downward with it, as permitted by the fact that the pins lare merely moved relatively within the vertical slots 127 of the ring, to wedge 'the ring 122 between the ratchet sleeve and the tubular mandrel 84.

In the event it is desired to place the ring in an ineft'ective position insofar as its clutching or coupling action is concerned, then the mandrel 84 need merely be elevated arslight distance, which will carry the ring 122 upwardly with it, whereupon the mandrel 84 and ring 122 are turneda slight distance to the right, in 'order to relocate the shoulders 129 of the horizontal slot portions 128 of the ring above the pins 126 once again. Thereafter, substantial downward movement of the mandrel 84 with respect to the sleeve 80 can take place, since the ring is prevented from being shifted downwardly to` a wedged position between the ratchet sleeve and the mandrel, the latter merely ratcheting downwardly through the ring. Of course, the mandrel 84 is free to move upwardly whenever desired merely by taking an upward pull on it, since the shape of the coengaging clutch teeth 124, 125 and the direction of the tapered surfaces 117, 123 are such as to permit free upward movement of the mandrel with respect to the ratchet sleeve and valve body 80 at 'all times.

In the operation of the tubing anchor portion A of the apparatus, the tubular mandrel 84 is moved downwardly, to dispose its valve head 114 within the valve seat 111 and thereby close the valve ports 110. Fluid under presesure can now be pumped down through the tubular string B and the tubular mandrel 84, this fluid under pressure passing outwardly through the upper ports 101, to hydraulically shift the upper expander 93 downwardly within the .slips `86 and urge the latter outwardly into anchoring engagement with the wall of the well casing C. The slips `have wickers or teeth 86a on .their exteriors that face predominantly in an upward direction, so as toengagethe casing and preclude upward movement of the slips within the latter. At the same time, the fluid under pressure is passing through the lower port into the lower cylinder 82, urging the lower cylinder and the slips 86 in an upward direction, to tend to maintain the slips wedged outwardly in anchoring engagement with the wall of the well casing. Itis apparent that once the slips 86 are in anchoring 'engagement with the .wall of the well casing, .the duid under pressure is acting in a downward direction on the expander 93 and in an upward direction on the slips 86, to maintain the slips wedged outwardly in anchoring engagement' with the wall of the well casing.

In addition to `providing for the hydraulic holding of the upper slips 16 in anchoring engagement with the wallofthe well casing C, the .upperand lower cylinder andpiston constructions-82, 97, 83, 99 can belsoproportioned as `to'substantially counter-balance the effect of hydraulic pressure on-thevmandrel, facilitating-its shifting `with Jrespect to fthe i upper and. lower "cylinders :97, 82, slips :86, expander. 93, v:and "valve body 80, for

the.' purpose of opening the ports 110, despite the presence of very'highpressure in the mandrel itself. Thus, vthe annular cross-sectional rrea R of the upper piston 99 and cylinder 97 over whichthe lluid pressure is acting, and tending to shift the upper piston 99 and mandrel 84 in an upward direction, may be made substantially equal to the annular cross-sectional area S .of the lower cylinder 82 and piston 83, and acting in a downward direction on the lower piston 83 tending to shift the mandrel in a downward direction. Accordingly, the action of the uid pressure on the tubular mandrel is substantially counterbalanced, so that very little longitudinal effort is required to shift the mandrel and'remove its valve head 114 from its companion valve seat 111 and open the ports 110. Actually, the uid under pressure within the tubular mandred 84 is also acting in an upward direction over the lower end of the tubular mandrel, or over the internal area T across the cylindrical valve seat 111, so that if the areas R and S were made equal, there would still be the crosssectional area T of the mandrel that would be subject to pressure tending to elevate it and shift it to open position. Such area can also be counterbalanced merely by making the annular area S of the lower piston equal to the sum of the areas R and T over which the uid is acting tending to shift the mandrel in an upward direction.

Assuming that the mandrel S4 has been elevated to open the ports 110, and the lluid pressure in the cylinders 97, 82 equalized with respect to the iluid pressure externally of the apparatus, the mandrel can be raised to a sutlicient extent to cause the upper piston to engagel the upper flange or shoulder 100 on the upper cylinder, which will then pull the upper expander 93 in an upward direction with respect to the slips 86 and positively retract the latter from engagement with the well casing C, which will then permit the apparatus to be removed from the well casing. Assuming that the parts of the lower packer D have been retracted, and if the latter have been locked in retracted position, then the apparatus could, if desired, be lowered in the well casing to a new location therewithin.

In order to operate the lower well packer D, it is necessary to appropriately locate its pin 54 with respect to the J slot 51, and this requires the rotation of the lower packer body relative to the slip stop and lock ring containing the pin 54. Such rotation can be transferred from the mandrel S4 to the lower packer body 10 by means of a releasable positively acting clutch device formed on the lower piston 83 and the clutch ring 118 of the anchor A. Thus, the clutch ring 118 can have one or more upwardly extending clutch teeth or dogs 130 adapted to engage clutch teeth 131 on the lower piston 83. When the tubular mandrel 84 is moved downwardly, to close the valve ports 11i), the teeth 131 on the lower piston can be placed in a position to rotationally engage the clutch teeth 130 on the clutch ring 118, whereupon turning movement of the tubular mandrel 84 in either direction will be transmitted through the lower piston 83 and clutch ring 11S to the valve body 80, and from the latter to the upper body and lower body portions 12, 11 of the lower packer apparatus, in order to appropriately manipulate the J slot S1 and pin 54, for the purpose of enabling the lower slips 19 and packing sleeve 25 to be set against the well casing, or to be locked in retracted position with respect thereto.

In the operation of the apparatus, the tubuular mandrel 84 may either be held in an upward position with respect to the valve body 80, so that the valve ports 110 remain open during the running of the apparatus in the well casing C, or the tubular mandrel may be initially disposed in a lower position, in which the valve head 114 is disposed within the cylindrical seat 111 and the ports 110 closed. Assuming that the apparatus is to be 10 run 'in the well bore with the valve ports 110 in open position, the tubular string B and tubular mandrel 84 are turned to the left, to dispose the retainer pins 126 against the walls 130 of the vertical slots 127, or in alignment with the latter, whereupon the mandrel is pulled upwardly, to elevate the valve head 114 above the ports 110, the latter then being in open position. Any tendency for the mandrel 84 to move downward relative to the valve body will then merely carry the ratchet ring 122 down with it and cause it to be wedged between the mandrel and the valve body, which will force the mandrel 84 and valve body 80 to move downwardly as a unit.

With the parts of the tubing anchor A in this posi tion, the parts of the lower packer D are also placed in a position in which the body 10 is elevated and the horizontal foot portion 53 of the J slot receives the inner end of the lock pin 54, whereupon the body is turned fully to the left so that the pin 54 engages the end of the horizontal slot portion 53 of the J slot 51 remote from its longitudinal slot portion 52. When in this position, the parts of the lower packer D occupy the position disclosed in Fig. la.

The apparatus may now be lowered through the Well casing C by means of the string of tubing or drill pipe B, the drag block portions 40 of the slips 19 being urged outwardly into frictional contact with the wall of the well casing by the springs 42. However, in view of the locking action of the J slot 51 and pin 54, the parts 0f the well packer will occupy the position shown in Fig. la, the drag block portions 40 being forced to slide along the wall of the well casing C. Similarly, during the lowering of the apparatus in the well casing, the tubular mandrel 84 will be retained in its upward position with respect to the valve body 80 by the fact that the ratchet ring 122 is locked between the tubular mandrel and the valve body or ratchet sleeve.

In view of the open position of the valve ports 110, downward movement of the apparatus in the well casing C will allow lluid in the well bore to by-pass around the exterior of the apparatus because of the retracted position of the rubber packing sleeve 25. In addition, the fluid can pass upwardly through the body 10 of the lower packer D, continuing on up through the tubular mandrel 84 and tubular string B, or passing outwardly through the open ports for continued upward passage around the tubing anchor A and tubular string B above vthe apparatus A, D.

When the location of the well casing C is reached at which it is desired to set the lower packer A in packed-olf condition, the tubular string B and the tubular mandrel 84 are elevated slightly, to raise the ratchet ring 122 to its uppermost position within the ratchet sleeve 80, whereupon the tubular string and mandrel are turned slightly to the right, to dispose the limit pins 126 under the horizontal shoulders 129 of the horizontal slot portions 128 of the ratchet ring. The tubing string B and tubular mandrel 84 can now be lowered with respect to the remainder of the apparatus, inasmuch as the friction drag block portions 40 of the lower well packer D resist downward movement of the lower packer and the valve body 80 secured thereto. The tubular mandrel 84 is thereby lowered, to place its Valve head 114 in port closing position within the cylindrical valve seat 111 and also to clutch the lower piston S3 to the clutch ring 118, the parts then occupying the position disclosed in Figs. 1 and la. The tubular string B and tubular mandrel 84 are then turned to the right, this motion being transferred through the lower piston 83 and lower clutch ring 118 to the valve body 80, and from the valve body to the body 10 of the well packer, causing the body 10 to rotate with respect -to the parts surrounding it. The drag block portions 40 of the slips 19 are engaging the wall of the well casing C, and, inasmuch as the slips 19 are contained within grooves 18 in the slip ring 17, the slip ringA is prevented from 'rotating by the friction action of the drag blocks against the casing. Similarly, the expander 20 is prevented from rotating because of its connection to the slip sleeve 17 by the limit pins or screws 60. Accordingly, the tubular string B, tubular mandrel 84, and the body connected thereto are rotated a partial revolution to the right until the longitudinal portion 52 of the J slot 51 is -aligned with the pin 54, whereupon the tubular string B, mandrel 84 and the body 10 of the well packer connected thereto can be lowered, the packing sleeve 25, expander 20, slip sleeve 17, stop ring and slips 19 being prevented from lowering by virtue of `the engagement of the drag block portions 40 of the slips against the wall of the well casing C.

The rst action of lowering the body 10 of the well v packer will shift the packing sleeve and the expander 20 connected thereto in a downward direction, downward movement of the slips 19 still being prevented by the frictional engagement of their drag block portions against the wall of the well casing C. Accordingly, the i expander 20 will be shifted downwardly within the slips 19, its tapered surface 22 engaging the upper ends of the slips 19 and urging them in a lateral outward direction, the fulcrum 70 of the slips rocking about the casing C to move the slips 19 into engagement with the wall of the well casing C, the lower portion 19a of the slips being rocked inwardly against the force of the springs 42. The expander 2t) moves downwardly until there is full engagement between the tapered expander surface 22 and the `slip tapered surface 23, the slips being shifted radially outward until its wickers 24 are engaged fully with the wall of the well casing C.

Further downward movement of the well tool body 10 will now be incapable of shifting the expander 20 in a downward direction, since such action is prevented by engagement of the slips 19 with the well casing. Accordingly, the downward movement of the body 10 now moves the upper body part 12 toward the expander 20, which will foreshorten the rubber packing sleeve 25 and expand it laterally into sealing engagement with the wall of the well casing C. A suicient downward force can now be imposed on the tubing string B, tubular mandrel 84, its lower piston 83, clutch ring 118, valve body 80, upper body portion 12 and the packing 2S of the well tool, to insure the firm wedging of the expander 20 into the slips 19 and the embedding of the wickers 24 on the latter into the wall of the well casing C, as well as the leakproof engagement of the rubber packing sleeve 25 with the wall of the' well casing.

The aforenoted relative downward movement of the body 10 with respect to the other parts is permitted, inasmuch as the lock pin 54 cannot interrupt downward Vmovement of the body, being slidable within the longitudinal J slot 52. During the downward movement of the expander 20 into wedging engagement with the slips 19, the head 62 of the limit pin 60 can be moved downwardly away from the companion shoulder 63 on the slip sleeve 17.

`Following the setting of the lower packer D in packedoff condition against the well casing, in the manner .described above, fluid under pressure can `be pumped down through the tubular string B, tubular mandrel 84 and lower packer D, discharging through the lower end-of ythelatter or a tubular extension 132 of thebody connected thereto, for the purpose of forcing fluid under pressure into the well bore at a region below the wellpacker, fas, for example, forcing such fluid or fluent materials through casing perforations (not shown) and into the formation. The fluid under pressure will also pass out Athroughthe upper port101 and lower .port 105, tending to .move the upper and lower lcylinders97, 82v toward :each other. However, since the lower cylinder -82 is l.:onnected to the lower packer body 10, itsv upward move- .ment is resisted. Such upward movement isjalso resisted by theffact that-a downward force can also be imposed on the tubing string B and tubular mandrel 84, which will be transferred to the lower cylinder 82 through the lower piston 83, clutch ring 118 and ratchet sleeve 80, the latter being connected to the lower cylinder. Accordingly, although the uid under pressure is acting in `an upward direction Von the lower cylinder 82, tending to 'elevate it, it will be primarily effective to pass through the upper port 101 into the upper cylinder 97, shifting the upper expander 93 downwardly `and forcing the upper slips 86 radially outward into anchoring engagement with the wall of the casing C, the parts then occupying the position disclosed in Figs. 4 and 4a.

If fluid pressure is then imposed within and below`the apparatus, it will tend to shift the lower packer D in an upward direction. However, such shifting action is resisted, inasmuch as the lower cylinder 82 and slips 86 are connected directly thereto, the slips 86 tending to ride slightly upward on the upper expander 93, to wedge their upwardly facing wickers 86a more securely into anchoring engagement with the wall of the well casing. In addition, the greater the fluid pressure the greater the downward force being exerted on the upper expander 93, tending to wedge it downwardly into the upper slips 86, to hold the latter anchored against the well casing. As a result, the anchor A is effective to prevent upward movement of the lower packer D in the well casing, the pressure below the packing sleeve 25 acting on its lower portion tending to hold it expanded against the well casing. Accordingly, relatively high pressures can be imparted to the fluid in the tubing string B, tubular mandrel 84, lower well packer D and the well bore below the apparatus, with assurance that the lower packer will-not be released from the well bore and be urged up the well casing.

If it is desired to relieve the pressure within the well casing C, and impart a pressure in the annulus between the tubular string B and the well casing above the apparatus A, D, the lower packer D will withstand such tubing-casing annulus pressures, inasmuch as the lower slips 19 will be urged more firmly by the lower expander 20 into anchoring engagement with the well casing C, and the packing sleeve 25 will be expanded more firmly into engagement with the well casing by such pressure. Such pressure will be ineffective to shift the tubular mandrel 84, inasmuch as it will act in a downward direction on the upper piston 99 and will pass through a bleeder port 135 in the lower portion of the lower cylinder sleeve 81 and act in an upward direction on the lower piston 83. Since the areas of these pistons are substantially equal, the net result will be the retention of the tubular mandrel 84 in its proper position with respect to the valve seat 111, to hold the valve ports 110 closed.

Since the tubular mandrel 84 is substantially counterbalanced with regard to pressures acting either internally or externally of it, it can be shifted longitudinally at any time, for the purpose of opening the valve ports `110. Regardless of the presence or absence of pressure either within the tubular mandrel 84, or externally thereof, all that is necessary is for the tubular string B and the tubular mandrel 84 connected thereto, to be elevated, the ratchet ring 122 permitting such elevation automatically, in view of its one-way clutch characteristics. Following the elevation of the tubular mandrel 84 above the valve seat 111, the ports 110 are open, to permitthe pressure internally and externally of the tubular string B to be equalized. Upward movement of the mandrel 84 with respect to the parts surrounding it will be only result in opening of the valve ports 110, but it will also cause the upper piston 99 to engage the flange 100 on the upper cylinder 97, for the purpose of shifting the upper expander 93 in an upward direction, and effecting the retraction of the upper slips 86 to their`fullest-ex tent. Continued upward movement of the tubular string B and tubular mandrel 84 will then elevate the lower cylinder 82 attached to the Lipper slips, as well as the valve body and the 'body 10 of thelwell packer D;

The initial upward movement of the body portion 12 will Araise it away from the lower expander 20 and permit the 'packing sleeve 25 to retrac fully. After such action occurs, continued upward movement of the body will cause the -body shoulder 21 to engage the lower end of Vthe expander 20, causing the latter to be shifted in an upward direction out of the slips 19, which are prevented from moving upwardly by virtue of engagement of the frlction drag blocks 40 with the well casing C. Following-the shifting of the expander upwardly out of the slips 19, the springs 42 are eective to rock the slips 19 about their fulcrums 70, shifting the upper wickered portion 19b of the slips inwardly and out of engagement with the well casing, the slips 19 and all of the parts returning to the relative positions disclosed in Figs. 6 and 6a in the drawings. When the parts are fully retracted, the entire apparatus can be elevated in the Well casing and removed to the top of the well bore. It is unnecessary to relocate the lock pin 54 within the foot portion 53 of the slot 51, since the elevating movement tends to hold all of the parts in their retracted positions, free from engagement with the wall of the well casing.

In the event that the lower packer D cannot lbe released, it is still possible to release the anchor portion A of the apparatus and a part of the body 10 of the lower. packer, and withdraw it from the well casing. Thus, the upper body portion 12 is connected to the lower body portion by means of a left-hand threaded safety joint 140. The tubular string B can be lowered with respect to the valve body 80 by placing the ratchet ring 122 in the appropriate position upon the limit pins 126, to engage the lower piston 83 with the lower clutch ring 118 and couple these two parts for rotationtogether. The tubing string B and the tubular mandrel 84 can now be rotated to the right, such motion being transferred through the lower piston S3 to the clutch ring 118, and from the latter to the valve body 80 and the upper body port 12. A suicient number of turns is then taken on these parts, to unthread the upper body portion 12 from the lower body portion 11 at the Vsafety joint 140. Following disconnection of the upper body portion 12 from the lower Ibody portion 11, the tubing string B is elevated, to elevate the anchor portion A of the apparatus within and from the well casing C.

The inventor claims:

'1. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around -said mandrel and having upwardly facing wickers adapted to engage the casing; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips from retracted position outwardly into engagement with the well casing; first cylinder and piston means above said expander and coacting with said expander and mandrel; means for feeding uid `under pressure from said mandrel into said first cylinder and piston means to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; second cylinder and piston means below said slips and coacting with said slips and mandrel; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said second cylinder and piston means to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; the fluid pressure effective area of said first cylinder and piston means being substantially equal to the uid pressure effective area of said second cylinder and piston means.

2. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around and movable longitudinally relative to said mandrel, said slips having upan expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel wardly facing wickers adapted to engage the well casing;

above said expander; an upper cylinderl slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander; means for feeding uid under pressure from said mandrel into said cylinder below said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; a lower annular piston secured to said mandrel below said slips; a lower cylinder slidable along saidlower piston and mandrel and coacting with said slips; means for feeding uid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; and means operatively connected to said lower cylinder and engageable with said lower piston to prevent upward movement of said slips along said mandrel when said slips are in retracted position.

3. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around and movable longitudinally relative to said mandrel, said slips having upwardly facing wickers adapted to engage the well casing; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; an upper annular 'piston secured to said mandrel above said expander; an upper cylinder slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander; means for feeding lluid under pressure from said mandrel into said cylinder below said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; a lower annular piston secured to said mandrel below said slips; a lower cylinder slidable along said lower piston and mandrel and coacting with said slips; means for feeding uid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; the crosssectional areas of said upper and lower pistons subject to the pressure of ud being substantially equal to each other.

4. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a Well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel and having upwardly facing wickers adapted to engage the casing; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to engage and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; first cylinderand pistonlmeans above said expander operativelyv connected to said expander and mandrel; means for feeding uid under pressure from said mandrel into said first cylinder and piston means to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips: second cylinder and piston means below said slips operatively connected to said slips and mandrel; means for feeding nid under pressure from said mandrel into said second cylinder and piston means to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; means operatively connected to said second cylinder and piston means to prevent upward movement of said slips along said mandrel when said slips are in retracted position;

and means for elevating said expander with respect to said slips upon upward movement of said mandrel. v

5. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel and having upwardly facing wickers adapted to engage the casing; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; an upper annular piston secured to said mandrel above said expander; an upper cylinder slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander.; means for feeding uid under pressure from said mandrel into said cylinder below said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; a lower annular piston secured to said mandrel below said slips; a'lower cylinder slidable along said lower piston andfmandrel and coacting with said slips; means for feeding uid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; means operatively connected to said lower cylinder and engageable with said lower piston to prevent upward movement of said slips along said mandrel when said slips are in retracted position and means on said upper piston engageable with means onsaid upper cylinder for elevating said expander relative to said slips in response to upward movement of said mandrel.

6. Ina well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circurnferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel and having upwardly facing wickers adapted to engage the casing; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; hydraulically operable means above and operatively connected to said expander and responsive to the pressure of uid in said mandrel for shifting said expander downwardly along said mandrel; hydraulically operable means below and operatively connected to said slips and responsive to the pressure of fluid in said mandrel for urging said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; and valve means operatively connected to one of said hydraulically operable means and opened and closed by said tubular mandrel when said mandrel is moved longitudinally to selectively permit or prevent passage of iluid between the interior and exterior of said tubular mandrel.

.7. .In a well tool, adapted to be anchored in a well cas- `ing` disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumierentially Vspaced. slips disposed around said mandrel; an

expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; an upper annular piston secured tosaid mandrel `above said expander; an upper cylinder slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said cylinder below. said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; ya

lower annular piston secured to said mandrel below said slips; a lower cylinder slidable along said lowerl piston and mandrel and coacting with said slips; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; a valve body connected to said lower cylinder and having a uid port; anda valve member on said mandrel movable intoand out of sealing relation to said body to selectively close and open said port in response to longitudinal movement of said mandrel.

8.` Inra lwell tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel and having upwardly facing wickers adapted to engage the casing; an expander slidable longitudinally along-said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with fand' expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the .well casing; hydraulically operable means above and operatively connected to said expander and responsive to the pressure of iluid in said mandrel for shifting said expander downwardly along said mandrel; hydraulically operable means below and operatively connected -to said slips and responsive to the pressure of uid in said .mandrel forurging said. slips upwardly with respect to said:expander;..and.ra releasable clutchoperatively conneetedtorsaidrmandrel. and one of said hydraulically operable means to releasably prevent longitudinal movement inzatileast. one Adirection :between said mandrel .and said 4one of said .hydraulically operable means.

9. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a wellcasingdisposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and .movable downwardly therealong to coact with andexpand `said slips outwardly into engagement with the `well casingghydraulically operable means above and operatively connected to said expander and responsive to the pressure of uid in said mandrel for shifting saidexpander downwardly along said mandrel; hydraulically operablemeans below and operatively connected to said slips and responsive to the pressure of fluid in said mandrel for urging said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; valve means operatively connected to one of said hydraulically operable means and opened and closed `by said tubular mandrel when said mandrel is moved longitudinally to selectively permit or prevent passage of fluid between the interior and exterior of said tubular mandrel; and a releasable clutch operatively connected to said mandrel and said valve means to releasably prevent longitudinal move' ment of said mandrel in at least one direction to operate said valve means.

10. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed ina well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; an upper annular piston secured to said mandrel above said expander; an upper cylinder slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander; means for feeding iluid under pressure from said mandrel yinto said cylinder below said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; a lower annular piston secured tosaid mandrel below said slips; a lower cylinder slidable along said lower piston and mandrel vand coacting with said slips; means for feedingfluid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; a valve body connected to said lower cylinder and having a fluid port;a valve member on said mandrel movable into and out of sealing relation to said body to selectively close and open said port in response to longitudinal movement of said mandrel; and a releasable clutch operatively connected to said mandrel and said valve body to prevent longitudinal movement in at least one direction between said mandrel and valve body.

Y ll. ln a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; an upper annular piston secured to said mandrel above said expander; an upper cylinder slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander; means lfor feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said cylinder below said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; a lower annular piston secured to said mandrel belowsaid slips; a lower cylinder slidable along said lower piston and mandrel and coacting with said slips; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; a valve body connected to said lower cylinder and having a uid port and a valve seat below saidV port; said mandrel having a valve head thereon-movable downwardly with said mandrel into sealing engagement with said seat to close said port.

l2. ln;a.well tool adapted `to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a `tubular mandrel; circumvferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel; an

expander-'slidable longitudinally along said mandrel-and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; an upper annular piston secured to said mandrel above said expander; an upper cylinder slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander; means for feeding lluid Linder pressure from said mandrel into said cylinder below said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; a lower annular piston secured to said mandrel below said slips; a lower cylinder slidable along said lower piston and mandrel and coacting with said slips; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; a valve body connected to said lower cylinder and having a uid port and a valve seat below said port; said mandrel having a valve head thereon movable downwardly with said mandrel into sealing engagement with said seat to close said port; and a releasable clutch operatively connected to said mandrel and said valve body to prevent downward movement of said mandrel within said valve body to hold said head elevated above said seat.

13. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; an upper annular piston secured to said mandrel above said expander; an upper cylinder slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said cylinder below said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; a lower annular piston secured to said mandrel below said slips; a lower cylinder slidable along said lower piston and mandrel and coacting with said slips; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; and releasable clutch means on said lower piston and lower cylinder for transmitting rotation of said mandrel to said lower cylinder.

14. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; an upper annular piston secured to said mandrel above said expander; an upper cylinder slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said cylinder below said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; a lower annular piston secured to said mandrel below said slips; a lower cylinder slidable along said lower piston and mandrel and coacting with said slips; means for feeding Huid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; a valve body connected to said lower cylinder and having a fluid port and a valve seat below said port; said mandrel having a valve head thereon movable downwardly with said mandrel into sealing engagement with said seat to close said port; and releasable clutch means on said lower piston and lower cylinder for transmitting rotation of said mandrel to said lower cylinder.

15. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel and having upwardly facing wickers adapted to engage the casing; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly yinto engagement with the well casing; rst hydraulically operable means above and operatively connected tol said expander and responsive to the pressure of fluid 'in-said mandrel for shifting said expander downwardly along said mandrel; second hydraulically operable means below said slips mounted to said slips and mandrel and respon' sive to the pressure of fluid in said mandrel `for urging said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; and means operatively connected to said second hydraulically operable means to prevent upward movement of said slips along said mandrel when said slips are in retracted position.

16. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel and having upwardly facing wickers adapted to engage the casing; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; first cylinder and piston means above said expander and coacting with said expander and mandrel; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said\mandrel into said first cylinder and piston means to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; second cylinder and piston means below said slips and coacting with said slips and mandrel; means for feeding iluid under pressure from said mandrel into said second cylinder and piston means to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; and means operatively connected to said second cylinder and piston means to prevent upward movement of said slips along said mandrel when said slips are in retracted position.

17. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel and having upwardly facing wickers engageable with the well casing; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; an upper annular piston secured to said mandrel above said expander; an upper cylinder slidable along said piston and mandrel and coacting with said expander; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said cylinder below said piston to shift said expander downwardly along said mandrel to expand said slips; a lower annular piston secured to said mandrel below said slips; a lower cylinder slidable along said lower piston and mandrel and coacting with said slips; means for feeding fluid under pressure from said mandrel into said lower cylinder above said lower piston to urge said slips upwardly with respect to said expander; a valve body connected to said lower cylinder and having a uid port; and a valve member on said mandrel movable into and out of sealing relation to said body to selectively close and open said port in response to downward and upward movement, respectively, of said mandrel.

18. In a well tool adapted to be anchored in a well casing disposed in a well bore: a tubular mandrel; circumferentially spaced slips disposed around said mandrel; an expander slidable longitudinally along said mandrel and movable downwardly therealong to coact with and expand said slips outwardly into engagement with the well casing; hydraulically operable means above and operatively connected to said expander and responsive to the pressure of fluid in said mandrel for shifting said expander downwardly along said mandrel; hydraulically operable means below and operatively connected to said slips and responsive to the pressure of iluid in said, mandrel for urging said slips upwardly with respectV to said expander; valve means operatively connected to said;y hydraulically operable means which are disposed belQW said slips and opened 'and closed by upward and down- Ward movement, respectively, of said tubular mandrel to selectively permit or prevent passage of fluid between the interior and exterior of said tubular mandrel; and a releasable clutch operatively connected to said mandrel and said valve means to prevent downward movement of said mandrel to close said valve means, said clutch being releasable to permit downward movement of said mandrel to close said valve means.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PAT-ENTS Baker Mar. 10, 1942 Lynes et al July 25, 1950 Lawrence Jan. 6, 1951 Baker ....t..- June 2, 1953 Dunn Aug. 31, 1954 Brumleu et al. Feb. 21, 1956

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3112795 *Nov 14, 1960Dec 3, 1963Baker Oil Tools IncRetrievable subsurface well tool
US3115189 *Aug 17, 1959Dec 24, 1963Baker Oil Tools IncSubsurface well tool control mechanism
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Classifications
U.S. Classification166/212, 166/120, 166/138
International ClassificationE21B17/02, E21B17/06, E21B33/12, E21B33/1295
Cooperative ClassificationE21B33/12955, E21B33/12, E21B17/06
European ClassificationE21B33/12, E21B33/1295F, E21B17/06