US 2879785 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 31, 1959 H. G vEsTERDAL ET AL 2,379,785
APPARATUS FOR SHIPPING GREASES Filed May 51, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Hans G. Vesterdal John J. Kolfenbach By JK/Wl Attorney Inventors March 31, 1959 APPARATUS FOR SHIPPING GREASES Filed May 51, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 By Attorney H. G. VESTERDAL ET AL 2,879,785
2,879,785 I APPARATUS FOR SHIPPING GREAQES 4 Hans G. Vesterdal, Elizabeth, and John il. Kolfenbaeli,
North Plainfield, N.J., assignors to Esso Researcha'nd Engineering Company, a corporation of Delaware Application May 31, 1955, Serial No. 511,976
2 Claims. (Cl. 137-264) This invention relates to apparatus useful for trans-. porting materials of a grease consistencyand more particularly relates to apparatus adapted to be'iinstalled in conventional tank wagons, tank trucks, tank carsandfthe like, whereby both liquid products and greases. may be simultaneously or alternatively transported therein.
Liquid products such as gasolines, heating oils, diesel oils, fuel oils, lubricating'oils and the like have been conventionally transported employing tank 'cars,.tanlc' trucks, tank wagons and the like. The utilization ofrsuch forms of transportation for transporting greases or other materials of a grease consistency such' as asphalts, rust preventive compositions and the .likehas not been success ful heretofore due to the high cost of specialltank wagons, tank cars, etc., specifically adapted for shipment'ofgreases and the like. Since the packaging and shipment of grease is relatively expensive, it would be highly desirable to be used very advantageously; for .greases3of 'a semi-fluid consistency. Thus, in generalthe apparatusof-this in-' vention is useful for transporting greases; or. other materialsof a grease consistency having, an jA.S.T.M. penetration above about 275 mun/10 at,77
. The particular apparatus of this invention. comprises a flexible bag whichis impervious-to fluids and-a tube which passes hermetically through the bag and extends into the interior of the bag. The portion ofthe tube which extends into the interior of the bag is provided with a plurality of spaced openings, in, the wallthereof defining a plurality of passageways which are; sufiicientin size and number to permit the passage :of grease or the like readily therethrough. The other end ofthe tube, that operation of compartment 15 through port 18.
is,-,the end exterior to the bag, is adapte d tov pass grease or the like into and from the bag through; the tube. via the passageways. This tube is an essential element of the present apparatus and is necessary 'to preventthe plugging of the bag outlet by the bag itself (which may collapse in away so that the bag wallwouldfcoverthe bag outlet) 2,879,785 Patented Mar. 31, 1959 1 lubricating oil and the like for shipment on the return trip. If desired, both a liquid product and grease may be transported in the same compartment simultaneously, with the wall of the bag providing a hermetic seal between the liquid product and the grease.
The invention will be better understood by referenceto the attached drawings, of which: Fig. 1 is a side view of a conventional z-compartment tankwagon provided with apparatus in accordance with the present invention; I
Fig. 2 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the tank wagon of Fig. 1 looking along line 22 of Fig. 1, showing in detail one embodiment ofthe apparatus of the pres ent invention; and Fig. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the tank H wagon of Fig. 1 looking along the line 33 of Fig. .1,
showing in detail another embodiment of the apparatus of the present invention. 1 I 1 Referring now to the drawings, reference numeral 10 designates a conventional 2-compartment tank wagonprovided with wheels 11 and 12 (with corresponding wheels on the other side, not shown) adapted to make tank wagon10 transportable. Tank wagon 10 is providedwith two compartments, compartments 15 and 16, which are separated from each other by partition 17. Compartments 15 and 16 are adapted to transport a separate liquid product ineach compartment. A liquid product is con-v ventionally charged into compartment 15 through port 18, and a liquid product is conventionally charged into compartment 16 through port 19. Shown within com partment 15 isapparatus 20, which is the embodiment of the apparatus of this invention set forth in detail in Fig.2.
Shown in compartment 16 is apparatus 100, which is the embodiment of the apparatus of this invention set forth in detail in Fig. 3. Referring now to Fig. 2, apparatus 20 of this invention will be now described in detail. For the purpose of clarity, parts of tank wagon 10 not essential to an understanding of this invention have not been shown in Fig. 2. Reference character 21 designatesa rigid casing'defining compartment 15 of tank wagon 10. Normally, casing 21 is constructed of steel and has a thickness in the range of about A to V2 inch and an average internal diameter in the range of about 4 to 8 feet. Casing 21 is provided with port 18, as described heretofore, which is located generally at the top of casingZl. Port -18. is provided with flange 22 and cover 23. If desired, a gasket and lock arrangement (not shown) maybe provided for port 18 such that cover 23 and flange 22 cooperate to provide anair-tight seal. Cover 23 israised during the filling Casing 21 is also provided with a second port 24 in the lower portion thereof which is employed in emptying a liquid product from compartment 15. vPort 24 communi: cates with outlet conduit 25 which is provided with avalve 26 which is opened to discharge liquid products from compartment 15 and closed during the filling and storage during the discharging operation. Preferably, the bag is extensible as well as flexible. g
The bag is adapted to be arranged within the casing of a tank Wagon, tank truck, tank'car and the like oria compartment thereof. In the operation of the-apparatus this invention, the bagQmay be filled throughthe tube with grease which is then transported to its destination where the grease is discharged from the bag through the tube, and then the casing of the tank. wagon 'may be filled 'iri l'the' space between thefcasingw'all and the ex ter ioi'of the bag with a liquid product such as gasoline,
operation 'of compartment 15. Conduit 25 may be provided with a suitable connection for attachment to a hose or to a pump (not shown) for discharging a liquid product from compartment 15. The aforedescribed cas ing and inlet and outlet ports are conventional in tank wagons. I In accordance with thisinvention, a flexible bag 30fis arranged within compartment 15. Bag 30 is impervious to fluids and is preferably constructed of an extensible material such as nitrile rubber, neoprene or other flexible or elastic material which is resistant to attack by hydrocarbons. The capacity of bag 30 is preferably approximately that of compartment 15 and for conventional tank wagons should be about 800 to 3,000 gallons. Also, bag
30'preferably has a form corresponding generally to the shape of compartment 15. In this form of the invention, casing 21 is provided with port 40, which is located.
in the bottom wall of casing 21. Port 40 is provided with a flange 41. Bag 30 is also provided at the bottom portion thereof with a rigid flange 31 which is arranged below and adapted to cooperate with flange 41 of port 40 to thereby provide a fluid-tight seal between the interior of casing 21 and the interior of bag 30. Extending vertically upward through port 40 is tube 50 which is also provided with a rigid flange 51 which cooperates with flanges 31 and 41 of bag 30 and port 40, respectively. Bolts 59 are employed to hold together flanges 31, 41 and 51. Gaskets (not shown) may be employed to assure a fluid-tight seal between flanges 31, 41 and 51. The upper end 52 of tube 50 as initially formed is preferably closed. Upper portion 53 of tube 50, that is, the portion of tube 50 extending into the interior 32 of bag 30, is provided with a plurality of spaced openings which define a plurality of passageways 54 adapted to permit the passage of materials of a grease consistency readily therethrough. Preferably, these passageways 54 are circular in transverse cross-section, each having a transverse cross-sectional diameter of at least about /s inch. More preferably, these passageways 54 will have a cross-sectional diameter in the range of about A to /2 inch. It is not essential that these openings be arranged uniformly in upper portion 53. However, it is preferred to have these passageways 54 arranged substantially symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal axis oftube 50 in upper portion 53. Generally about 20 to 200 passageways 54 will be provided in upper portion 53. It will be apparent that the length and inner diameter of upper portion 53 of tube 50 as well as the number and size of passageways 54 will preferably be related to the capacity of bag 30 and casing 21. The inner diameter of tube 50, as well as the number and size of passageways 54, should be selected such that about 5 to 100 or more gallons per minute of grease maybe pumped to and from the interior of bag 30. Generally, the'inner diameter of tube 50 will be in the range of about 1 /2 to 3 inches. The length of upper portion 53 of tube 50 should be suflicient to prevent bag 30, in the event of its collapse on tube 50, from substantially affecting the rate of discharge of grease therefrom through tube 50. In general, the length of upper portion 53 of tube 50 should be at least 1 inch, but preferably is greater. Preferred heights for upper portion 53 of tube 50 are in the range of about 0.1 to 0.5 times the average diameter of casing 21 with a minimum height being preferably about at least 6 inches. As will be shown later in the specification, there is an optimum height for upper portion 53 for a particular bag.
Preferably, bag 30 is provided with a valved venting means 60 in the upper portion thereof since during the filling operation of bag 30, in many instances, air may be pumped into the interior of bag 30. Valved venting means 60 provides a means for releasing this entrapped air so that interior 32 of bag 30 may be filled completely with grease. In the embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 2, bag 30 is provided with vent conduit 61 which is provided with valve 62. In the filling operation, the top portion of bag 30 will be forced upwards such that valved venting means 60 approaches alent means (not shown), such as a gear pump. After bag 30 is filled to the desired extent, valve 71 is closed. If expanded bag 30 does not completely fill compartment 15 of casing 21, a liquid product such as heating oil, gasoline, lubricating oil or the like may be introduced into compartment 15 between the exterior of bag 30 and the interior of casing 21 through port 18. In this way, both a grease and a liquid product may be transported in the same load.
When it is desired to remove the grease from the interior ofbag 30, valve 81 in outlet conduit 82 is opened and pump 83 is operated to discharge the grease through outlet conduit 84. Since the interior of tube 50 and interior 32 of bag 30 are in fluid communication and are fluid-tight with respect to compartment 15, it is possible to employ pump 83 to remove the grease from interior 32 of bag 30 due to the atmospheric pressure exerted on the exterior of bag 30 when cover 23 of port 18 is open. If desired, pump 83 may be employed in the filling opera: tion of bag 30.
-Another embodiment of the apparatus of the present invention is shown in Fig. 3. Bag 101 is arranged within compartment 16 defined by rigid casing 102 which is preferably constructed of a metal such as steel. As in the case of bag 30, bag 101 is impervious to fluids and is constructed of a flexible material and is preferably constructed of an extensible or elastic material such as nitrile rubber, neoprene or the like, which is resistant to attack by hydrocarbons. The capacity of bag 101 is preferably substantially the same as that of compartment 16, and for conventional tank wagons should be about 800 to 3,000 gallons. Extending upwards into bag 101 is tube 110. Tube 110 passes hermetically through bag 101 at seal 111. Casing 102 is provided in its lower wall with port 103, which has a flange 104. Tube .110 is provided in its lower portion with flange 105, which cooperates with flange 104 to effect a fluidtight seal. Bolts 106 and 107 are tightened to thereby connect together flanges 104 and 105. A gasket (not shown) may be arranged between flanges 104 and 105 to assure a fluid-tight seal between flanges 104 and 105.
As shown in Fig. 3, the upper end 112 of tube 110 is provided with two substantially radially extending tubular members 113 and 114, the interiors of which communicate with the interior of tube 110. Tubular members 113 and 114, as well as upper portion 112 of tube 110, are provided with a plurality of spaced openings defining'a plurality of passageways 115 which are adapted to permit the passage of grease readily therethrough. Passageways 115, as well as the interior cross-sectional area of tubular members 113 and 114 and tube 110, are sufficient in size to permit ready flow of grease through tube 110 and tubular members 113 and 114 into the interior of bag 101 as well as the discharge of grease from the interior of bag 101 through tubular members 113 and 114 and tube 110. Preferably, passageways 115 have circular transverse cross-sections and are approximately symmetrically positioned with report 18. At this point, the operator of the tank wagon may reach through port 18 and open valve 62 to thereby release any entrapped air in the interior 32 of bag 30 during the filling operation. After entrapped air is released, valve 62 is closed. Venting means 60 should be of suflicient capacity to permit the release of air from the interior of bag 30 without necessitating the stopping of the filling operation.
The grease is introduced into bottom portion 55 of tube 50 through inlet conduit 70 by opening valve 71 therein. The grease is forced into interior '32 ofv bag 30 through inlet conduit 70, tube 50 and passageways spect to the longitudinal axis of tube and tubular members 113 and 114. The diameters of passageways are preferably in the range of about A to /2 inch and the number of passageways 115 will be about 20 to 200; In this arrangement, sealing of all of the passageways is prevented during the discharge of bag 101 should bag101collapse on any portion of tubular members 113 and 114 or upper portion 112 of tube 110. Tubular members 113 and 114 each extend at least about 1 inch outwards from tube 110 and preferably extend outwards at least about 6 inches from tube 110. In conventional tank wagons, the length of tubular members 113 and 114 may be in the range of about 0.05 to 0.25 of the average diameter of casing 102. The internal diameters of tubular members 113 and 114 and tube Preferably the height of tubular members and 114 i above the bottom of casing 102does not exceed-about 12 inches. Generally the interenal diameter of tubular members 113 and 114 and tube 110 and the number and size of passageways 115 should be selected to permit the charge or discharge of about to 100 or more gallons per minute to and from bag 101.
Preferably, bag 101 is provided with a vent in the upper portion thereof. In Fig. 3, vent 120 is provided in the top of bag 101. Vent 120 communicates with vent line 121 which extends from vent 120 downwards around bag 101 and passes through casing 102 through port 122. Vent line 121 is constructed of a flexible material and preferably constructed of an extensible or elastic material such as nitrile rubber, neoprene or the: like. Vent line 121 is provided with valve 123 which may be opened during the filling operation to release from the interior of bag 101 any entrapped air, and. which may thereafter be closed. The capacity of vent 120 and vent line 121 is suificient to permit the release of any entrapped air in bag 101 without necessitating the stopping of the filling operation.
The bottom of tube 110 connects with conduit 130' which in this specific embodiment of the invention may be employed for both the filling and discharge operation- Conduit 130 is provided with valve 131 which is opened.
during the filling or discharge operation and closed thereafter. During the filling operation, grease may be pumped through conduit 130, tube 110 and-passed into the interior of bag 101 through passageways 115 in upper portion 112 of tube 110 and tubular members 113 and. 114.
Casing 102 is provided with upper port 19 through: which a liquid product may be introduced into com-- partment 16 between casing 102 and the outer surface of bag 101. This liquid product may be removed from. the interior of compartment 116 through port 140 by means of outlet conduit 141 by opening valve 142 therein.. Thus in this form of the invention, it will be apparent. that a grease may be transported in the interior of bag: 101 alternatively or simultaneously with the carrying:
of a liquid product in compartment 16 between casing:
102 and the exterior of bag 101.
The grease may be discharged from the interior of' bag 101 by connecting conduit 130 to a grease pump with port 19 open. However, in this particular specific: embodiment of the present invention, a grease pump is not required during the discharge operation. This is accomplished by introducing a compressed gas, such as: compressed air, through conduit 145 by opening valve 146 therein to thereby admit the compressed gas into compartment 16 between casing 102 and the outer wall. of bag 101. In carrying out this operation, valve 142 in outlet conduit 141 is closed and cover 150 for port; 19 is closed. Thus cover 150 is lowered until gasket. 151 attached thereto contacts flange 152 of port 19. Locking mechanism 153 is employed to tighten cover 150* through gasket 151 against flange 152 to give a fluidtight seal such that no compressed gas may escape through port 19. Generally, a pressure within com-- partment 16 on the exterior of bag 101 in the range= of about 5 to 25 p.s.i. gauge will be sufficient to discharge substantially all of the grease from the interior of bag 101.
Thus it will be seen that the novel apparatus of the: present invention comprises a flexible bag which is im-- pervious to fluids and a tube which passes hermetically through the bag, the portion of the tube within the in-- terior of the bag being provided with a plurality of' spaced openings or perforations defining passageways of sufficient size and number to permit the ready passage of grease therethrough. The apparatus of this inven-- tion is adapted to be arranged within the casing of a.
conventional tank wagon, tank truck, tank car and the: like or compartment thereof. The tube which is pro-- est-ares" videdwith aplurality' of spaced openings prevents plug-1 ging of the outlet means during the discharge operation Preferably the bag is constructed of an extensible or elastic material and preferably the bag is provided witha valved venting means in the upper portion thereof.
The description of the -present invention'in this specification will obviously suggest many modifications which.
are within the scope of the present invention to those skilled in the art. of the perforataed charge-discharge tube within the interior of the bag. Thus this tube may be provided with more than two tubular members, for example, or the tubular members may be curved upwards or downwards, or the tube may expand into an enlarged bulb provided with a plurality of spaced openings, etc. Althrough the tube preferably extends upwards through the bottom portion of the compartment casing into the bottom of the bag, this is not essential and, if desired, the tube may be passed through a port in the sidesof the casing into the side of the bag or even may be extended downwardly through a port in the upper portion ofthe easing into the upper portion of the bag. 5
For a particular compartment and for a particular bag, there will be an optimum design for the tube. This is demonstrated, for example, by the following experiments which were carried out. iron nipple was sealed off smooth in one end and A" holes were drilled through it extending'6 from the closed end. There were 114 holes drilled in the nipple; and these holes were substantially uniformly. arranged in that portion of the nipple in the region of the closed;
the wall of the rubber bag (non-extended form) was about 1& The external portion of the tube was then connected to a grease pump and grease was then pumped into the bag. 7 The grease employed had an A.S.T.M.
penetration at 77F. of about 290 mm./1O and consisted of a mineral lubricating oil having an S.U.S.'
viscosity at210 F. of about 55 thickened to a grease Grease Dis- Grease Left in Length of Discharge Grease charged Bag Tube Inside Bag, Inches Charged,
gms. percent gms. percent It will be seen from the data shown in the above table that for this particular apparatus of this invention, the optimum height of the outlet pipe inside the bag was about 3 /2". It will be apparent that for different bags, that is, for different bag sizes, different bag thicknesses, difierent bag materials, there will be an optimum design for the portion of the chargeand discharge-tube arranged within the bag. The efiiciency of grease discharge from the bag shown in the above table was determined using a partially filled bag. Obviously, the efiiciency of discharge would have been substantially higher from a filled bag.
A specific example of the apparatus of the present This is'particularly true in the case;
A- 12" x /2" standard invention is as follows: A tank wagon having two compartments is provided with the apparatus of this invention"(similar to that of Fig. 1) arranged in one of the compartments. The capacity of this compartment is about 2,000 gallons and has the following dimensions: 5'9 diameter x 13 long. The compartment casing is constructed of steel plate and the casing wall is about /8" in thickness. There are three ports provided in the casing wall, the ports being employed for the following purposes: port No. 1 for filling and emptying the rubber bag, port No. 2 for filling and emptying the space between the rubber bag and the casing and port No. 3 for releasing air or other gases from the rubber bag and from the space between the rubber bag and the casing. These ports have circular cross-sectional areas of 12.5 sq. inches, 3.14-sq. inches, and 12.5 sq. inches, respectively.
The bag is constructed of neoprene rubber and has a wall thickness (non-extended) of about Ms inch and has the following approximate dimensions: 12' X 6' when deflated. The bag has a maximum capacity when extended of about 2,000 gallons.
The tube is constructed of stainless steel, has a wall thickness of about /8 inch and an internal diameter of about 2 inches. The tube as initially formed has a closed end and this portion of the tube extends upwards into the bag for about 12 inches. There are 200 holes, arranged uniformly and symmetrically with respect to the vertical and longitudinal axes of the tube, drilled through the tube wall extending from the tip of the closed end down to the seal between the bag and the tube. These holes are about 7 inch in transverse crosssectional diameter.
A valved vent having a transverse cross-sectional diameter' of about /2 inch is provided in the top of the bag. The vent conduit is constructed of stainless steel and extends upwards about 6 inches from the top of the bag.
What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus adapted to receive thereinto, store and discharge therefrom, materials having an A.S.T.M. penetration at 77 F. of about 250-390 mm./ 10 which comprises a transportable rigid casing provided with at least two ports in the wall thereof, a flexible bag impervious to fluids arranged within said casing, said bag having a valved air vent in the upper portion thereof, a tube provided with a plurality of spaced openings in the wall thereof in the region of one of its ends, an
inlet valve attached to said tube and an outlet valve attached to said tube, said plurality of spaced openings in the wall of said tube defining a plurality of passageways adapted to permit the passage of materials of a grease consistency readily therethrough, said tube extending through one of said ports in the wall of said casing, the portion of said tube provided with said plurality of spaced openings passing hermetically through said' bag and extending more than six inches into the interior of said bag, said inlet and said outlet valves being' connected to that portion of said tube extending out- Wardly from said rigid casing and said flexible bag.
2. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said transportable casing, having a capacity of about 800 to 3,000 gallons, is provided with three ports, said tube passing hermetically through one of said ports, the second of said ports being arranged in the upper portion of said casing, and the third of said ports being arranged in the lower portion of said casing, said second and third ports being adapted to charge and discharge, respectively, a liquid into the space between said casing and said bag.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS