|Publication number||US2881503 A|
|Publication date||Apr 14, 1959|
|Filing date||Mar 13, 1956|
|Priority date||Mar 16, 1955|
|Publication number||US 2881503 A, US 2881503A, US-A-2881503, US2881503 A, US2881503A|
|Inventors||Olof Johnson Carl|
|Original Assignee||Durox Internat S A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (22), Classifications (18)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 14, 1959 c. o. JO NSON 1,5
mamou FOR-CUTTING UP PLASTIC AND SEMI-PLASTIC MASSES Filed uarch'ls, i956 United States Patent METHOD FOR CUTTING UP PLASTIC AND SEMI-PLASTIC MASSES Carl Olof Johnson, Skovde, Sweden, assiguor to Durox International S.A., Luxembourg, Luxembourg, a company of Sweden Application March 13, 1956, Serial No. 571,276 Claims priority, application Sweden March 16, 1955 4 Claims. (Cl. 25-155) The present invention refers to cutting up plastic or semi-plastic masses, particularly in connection with the manufacture of light weight concrete.
In the manufacture of light weight concrete, the material to be used, admixed with comparatively large amounts of water, is poured into molds, the size of which is usually considerably bigger than thesize of the building blocks to be manufactured; The mass is expanded e.g. by means of aluminum powder and when it has become so hard that it is semi-plastic and unyielding, it can be cut up into smaller units.
The cutting up can be made in different Ways. Originally it was effected by pressing down some kind of cutting device, e.g. thin plates into the light weight concrete mass. The blocks manufactured in this manner, however, did not have sufliciently exact dimensions, and the surface as cut up was so smooth that it did not offer a satisfactory base for being plastered. When manufacturing blocks in comparatively deep molds, this method was found to be quite unsatisfactory, and therefore it was tried to solve the cutting up problem in other ways.
The cutting up method which is at present most frequently used is effected by letting down the mold walls and sawing the light weight concrete mass by means of wires provided with projections, e.g. balls. This method has considerable advantages over the cutting up 'method by means of thin plates, but involves several inconveniences. Thus, the letting up and down of the mold walls requires comparatively much work and time. The material which loosens at the sawing sticks fast to the sawing device and necessitates frequent cleaning. When using big molds it has been found that the precision of the dimensions of the manufactured blocks is not satisafctory.
According to the present invention all said drawbacks can be avoided, and simultaneously the cutting up device is simpler and independent of the construction and size of the molds. This is according to the invention obtained by cutting by means of a thin jet of a fluid, a liquid or a gas, having a high speed, which is directed towards the mass to be cut up and is moved along the line where the cutting is to be effected. Owing to the moving force of the liquid or gas the jet will make a channel in the porous light weight concrete mass, and as the fluid nozzle and the light weight concrete mass move mutually, there will be formed a slit in the mass. By increasing or decreasing respectively, the velocity of the fluid, its depth of penetration may be varied, or the cutting velocity may be increased or decreased, respectively. The same effect may be obtained by keeping the speed of flow constant while varying the specific gravity of the fluid. -In case the fluid consists of a gas the specific gravity may be increased by using a gas having a higher specific gravity or by dispersing liquid or solid particles in the gas. In case of a liquid a higher specific gravity can be obtained by using a different liquid or by dissolving salts in the liquid, or by dispersing a solid substance in the liquid. Water has been found to be the most suitable medium for cutting according to the present method. It has been found that also be flat, being then suitably extended the water used for cutting is totally absorbed by the porous light weight concrete. The water thus absorbed involves an advantage, since it reduces the deficiency of water which will easily arise when the light weight concrete mass is setting. It is of course also possible to influence the cutting velocity by arranging several consecutive nozzles so that they work in the same cut, or by shaping the orifices of the nozzles as slits.
When cutting very deep cuts it is also possible, besides the above method using a plurality of nozzles working in the same cut, to make the nozzle pass the same cut several times.
When coordinating a plurality of nozzles for making one cut the first nozzle should preferably be arranged adjacent to the body to be cut up, whereas the following nozzles are inserted into the cut produced by the first nozzle.
The nozzzles may be arranged in any position relative to the body to be cut, above, below or beside it. When using the type of molds which is traditionally used for the light weight concrete manufacture it is convenient to have the nozzles situated above the light weight concrete block to be cut up. The nozzles may also be made movable so that the direction of the jet may be altered. This makes it possible to manufacture blocks having extremely varying shapes, using one cutting device, which was earlier impossible.
The jet of fluid is preferably circular, but may of course in the cutting direction, at least if the width is essential. As a principle, the thickness of the jet should be as small as possible, but the smaller the thickness, the higher the demands for a high pressure, determining of course a lower thickness limit. A jet thickness above 5 millimeters is probably out of question. In case water is used for the jet, said water will be absorbed by the concrete mass, up to a certain extent, depending on the dryness of the mass. If the jet thickness exceeds a certain value, some water will flow away. If a considerable amount of water flows away, difficulties may arise, determining an upper limit for the jet thickness. Practically, a jet thickness of 0.52 millimeters has been found to be suitable when using a water jet.
The invention will be hereinafter described more in detail with reference to the drawing which shows an elevation of an apparatus for carrying out the method according to the invention.
In the drawing 1 designates the bottom portion of a mold, the walls of which have been removed. The bottom 1 carries a light weight concrete body 2, and is supported by supporting members 3, secured to a wheeled frame or carriage 4.
Water tubes 5 and 7 respectively, are provided above and below the concrete body 2, respectively, each tube having eight nozzles 6 and 8, respectively. The tubes are guided in brackets 9 and 10, respectively so to be movable longitudinally. Said longitudinal movement is effected by means of a guide member 11, engaging with arms 12 and 13 secured to the tubes 5 and 7, respectively. The guide member 11 extends longitudinally along the whole length of the block 2, and is secured to the supporting member 3. Consequently, the guide member 11 accompanies the body 2 in its movement during cutting. It will easily be understood that the shape of the longitudinal cuts in the body 2 will depend on the shape of the guide member 11. By suitably shaping the guide member longitudinal cuts of any desired shape may be performed. In the illustrated embodiment, the central portion of the guide member has a bent portion 24. Accordingly, the longitudinal cut will obtain a portion which is correspondingly bent.
When operating the illustrated apparatus high pressure water is sprayed through the nozzles 6, 8, and the block is propelled'longitudinally by means of the wheeled frame 4. The jets from the nozzles 8 penetrate into the light weight concrete through longitudinal openings 14 in the bottom portion 1. 'In case a bottom portion is used having no such openings the nozzzles 8 are shut off, and the cutting up is effected by means of the jets from the nozzles6.
If desiretL the nozz'les 6, 8 may be arranged so as to be turnable in the transverse direction. By this,'the apparatus may easily be altered so as to manufacture smaller light weight concrete pieces of a difierent shape.
'The high pressure water is generated by a pump 16, driven by a motor 15. The water flows through a water pressure chamber 17, provided with a pressure indicator 22 and a levellindicator 23, and if desired with a pressure regulator, and through a pipe 19, provided with a valve 18, and through flexible tubes 20, 21'into the tubes and .7, respectively.
What is claimed is:
l. A method of cutting a mass of light weight concrete in its set but unhardened state comprising the step of directing a jet of a fluid substantially consisting of an aqueousliqui'd into the concrete mass, the amount of said liquid being so limited that the liquid will be substantially completely absorbed by the walls of the cut surfaces of said mass.
2. The method of cutting a mass of light weight concrete in its set but unhardened state comprising the step of directing into the concrete mass a jet of approximately 2 .millimeter thickness substantially consisting of an aqueous'liq11id,the amount of said liquid being so limited that the liquid will be substantially completely absorbed by the walls 'of 'the cut surfaces of said mass.
3. The method of cutting a mass of light weight concrete in its set but 'unhardened state comprising the step of directing a jet of a fluidisubstantially consisting of an aqueous liquid into the concrete mass, the amount of said liquid being so limited that the liquid will be substantially completely absorbed by 'the'wall's of the cut surfaces of the mass, moving said concrete mass relative to said liquid jet, and varying the cutting force -of said fluid jet by varying the specific gravity of the fluid.
4. 'The method of cuttinga'mass of light Weight'concrete in its set but unhar'dened state comprising the step of directing into the concrete mass a jet of approximately 2 millimeter thickness of a fluid substantially consisting of an .aqueous liquid, the amount of said liquid being so limited that the liquid will 'be substantially completely absorbed by the :Walls of the cut surfaces of said mass, moving said concrete mass relative to said liquid jet, and
dissolving salts in said liquid to vary the cutting force of said fluid jet by variation of the fluid gravity of theliquid thereof.
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|U.S. Classification||264/157, 83/53, 451/40, 125/1, 83/169, 244/90.00A, 425/306, 451/75, 125/23.1|
|International Classification||B26F3/00, B28B11/14, B28B17/00|
|Cooperative Classification||B28B17/0036, B28B11/145, B26F3/004|
|European Classification||B26F3/00C, B28B17/00E, B28B11/14A|