US 2881877 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 14, 1959 v A.,c. oLSEN 2,881,877
l BUILDING STRUCTURE f original Filed Aug. 23. 194s 2 sheets-sheet 1 BULDING STRUCTURE original Filed Aug. 23, 1948 f v 2 2 sheets-sheet 2 IN V EN TOR.
United States Patent() Continuation of abandoned 45,595, August 23, 1948. 1954, Serial No. 422,333
4 Claims. (Cl. 189-34) application Serial` No. This application April 12,
The present invention relates to building structures and particularly to wall and partition structures of the buildup panel type, and is a continuation `of my co-pending application for Building Structures, Serial No. 45,595, filed August 23, 1948, now abandoned.
.'I'he demand for lire resistant, light weight and readily assembled building structures has brought about various suggestions for the improvement of partition wall structures, particularly where the partitions are not of the load-,bearing variety but are provided for the purpose of dividing tloor space into rooms and corridors. The present invention relates primarily -to va wall or partition structure of this non-load-bearing type and yhas for its object the provision of such a WalLstructure .which is lire resistant, light in weight, structurally strong, which does not readily permit the passage of sound `from room to room, and which may be easily assembled and disassembled.
v The Wall structure comprises a number of parts which lareunited by securing devices other than nails -and screws and which devices, while holding the wall assembly intact .and binding its several elements into one rigid structure, :permit disassembly without `injury to any of its major parts. Dismantling and removal of a wall or partition constructed in accordance with the invention may beetected with almost the sameease .as the wall was erected in the first instance and the various panels, studs, securing devices, etc., which together-comprise the structure maybe transported to a new location and the .walls re-erected in ra minimum oftime.
The number of securing devices employed in the erection of the Wall is reduced to a minimum. Ordinarily the vertically extending main members of a wallor partition are positively attached at their upper and lower ends tothe overhead and floor structures of the building in Awhich the wall is erected. In the case of the present structure, however, the oor and overhead structures of the room in which the partition is to be erected are provided with stud `engaging runners, preferably channels, and the several studs are, at least at their ends, somewhat resilient in cross section so that, when placed in operative position, oppositely facing surfaces of the end of a stud press closely against the mutually facing surfaces of a runner, the stud being in eifect prevented from movement only by reason of its frictional engagement with the upper and lower runners. After the wall lstructure has been completed, however, the studs are 4positively locked against movement by the coaction of the panels of the wall covering, the individual panels thereof being locked to the several studs and the assembly thus united into one rigid structure.
More particularly, the present invention contemplates the provision of a wall structure which by virtue of the novel structure of vthestud employed therein is capable of almost universal application, regardless of whether the partition to be erected extends vertically or horizontally. 'This desideratum is achieved by .providing the studs with alternative means for cooperating with vspe- 2,881,877v Patented Apr. 14v .19.59
cially designed panel securing devices, in one case `the devices extending longitudinally o'f the stud and `in `the other, transversely of the stud. Thus, with the lpresent invention it is not essential that a builder. stock a variety of studs and securing devices as a stud constructed fin the manner disclosed herein may be satisfactorily employed in virtually any position necessary to the construction of a partition and the improved securing device will cooperate with the stud in any of such positions.
By way of example, one embodiment of the improved wall structure is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, modified forms of several of the individual ele ments ofthe assembly being illustrated to indicate the possibility of modification Yin detail.
In the drawings:
Figure l is a side elevation of a portion ofa wall or partition structure embodying the invention;
Figure 2 is a section on line 2 2 of ,Figure l, upon a larger scale, showing one of the studs in horizontal section;
Figure 3 is a section on line 3 3 of Figure -2;
Figure 4 shows in perspective portions of two adjacent wall panels and the metal supporting members which serve to maintain the panels in position;
Figure 5 is a similar view, many of the portions having been omitted in order that a base clip `for supporting a base strip or base board at the bottom of ythe partition may be more clearly perceived;
Figure 6 is a plan view of one of the runners showing in section one of the studs, the stud being shown in one position which it may occupy during assembly;
Figure 7 is a generally similar view showing the nal relationship of the stud and runner and likewise showing the somewhat dilerent relationship of panel andsecuring means to the stud than is shown in Figures 1 to4 inclusive;
Figure 8 is a section generally similar to Figure ,i2 through a modied form of partition;
Figure 9 is a similar section through a still further mo-died form of partition;
Figure l() is a perspective view of a detail; and
Figure l1 discloses one of the studs in horizontal section a somewhat diierentmeans for attaching a panel to the stud being indicated.
A typical wall structure of thetype contemplated ,b y,
the invention includes a plurality of relatively large pre-A formed panels, .preferably fabricated of plaster, gypsum board, asbestos or other tireproof material, and in Figure 1 of the drawings portions of four such panels, which are indicated at 10, 1l, 12 and 13, are shown. These panels may vary in area, shape and composition within wide ylimits and such variations may be freely permitted in erecting ,the partition structure since the kspacing -of the studs may be varied at will. Preferably the panels are positioned with their longer dimensions extending vertically but they may, nevertheless, be disposed horizontally, the adjacent longer sides of two superposed panels separated by a narrow horizontally extending space instead of by a vertically extending space as shown in Figure 1.
Studs are indicated at 14, 15 and 16 in Figure land securing devices at 17, all of these securing devices being identical. A base strip or board is indicated at 30 and short section of a snap-on molding, which may be employed to cover up the securing devices and the 'gaps between adjacent panels, is indicated at 19. The snap-on moldings 19 may or may not be used and, if not used, the partition is usually nished with a coat of plaster. When the molding is used the wall appears to have vertically elongated, narrow strips at equally spaced intervals, the etlectbeing decorative.
One of lthe studs employed in the partition structure is indicated at 20 in Figures 2, 3, and 4 and it will be observed that the stud is, in horizontal section, shaped like the letter Z with a diagonal web 20a, parallel ange members 2011, the free edge of each Vof which is. bent over tol form a narrow marginal flange, these marginal flanges being indicated at 20c. The studs are fabricated of sheet metal and may be said to be resilient in vcross section. Thus the ange portions 2Gb of the stud may be flexed relatively to the diagonal 20a by the application of pressure to their free edges. This resiliency may be advantageously employed in the erection of the partition, in a mannerY to be hereinafter wholly described.
One of the runners is indicated at 22 in Figures 3, 4, 6 and7, this runner being that which is intended to be secured to the floor upon which a partition is to rest. It comprises a flat web portion 22a and parallel upwardly extending flanges 22b, these anges comprising elements for limiting the lateral movement of the lower ends of the several studs used in the partition. A similar runner (not illustrated) is disposed directly above runner 22 and disposed parallel to runner 22, the flanges of the runner thus 'attached to the overhead structure extending downwardly. The lower end of each stud is received within the lower runner and the upper end of each stud engages the upper runner in a similar manner, the relatively movable flanges 20b of the studs pressing outwardly against the inner faces of the runner flanges and each stud being held in vertical position, after having been thus assembled, by the frictional engagement of the outer surfaces ofv its flanges 20b with the inner surfaces of the flanges of the' runners. No securing means of positive character is needed to secure the studs in vertical position and in properly spaced relationship during assembly and, when the'wall is finally completed, the whole structure, including the studs, is so locked together that the studs may not move.
' y"In assembling a stud with the upper and lower runners, it' may`iirst be moved into substantially vertical position with its lower end between the opposed flanges 22h of.
the llower runner and its upper end between the corresponding opposed flanges of the runner secured to the overhead structure. Thus it may be caused to occupy the position in which it is shown in Figure 6 and, when manually revolved in the direction of the arrow R, the flange portions 20b will first be flexed inwardly and will thereafter return to their original positions, as indicated in Figure 7, the outer surfaces of these flange portions pressing tightly against the inner surfaces of the runner anges 22b. The static friction between the ends of the studs and the upper and lower runners is sufficiently great to hold the studs in position after the assembly operation described has been completed.
Each flange 2017 of the stud is provided with a plurality of slots 20d extending longitudinally of the stud and just above and below each slot is a small aperture which is caused by the striking up from the flange of a small tongue which comprises a catch 20e. The web 20a of each stud is provided with a number of openings, such for instance as 20j, these openings preferably being circular and serving to lighten the weight of the stud Without injury to its effectiveness as a wall supporting member. At its lower end each stud is cut away as at 20g to provide an aperture through which wires may be passed. The securing devices 17 are the type intended to apply pressure against the outer faces of the panels to be supported.
Each of the securing devices 17 comprises a stud engaging portion 17a and a panel engaging portion or head 17b and when in use functions to draw the edges of two adjacent panels into close contact with the outer face of one of the stud anges 2Gb and to maintain that contact during the life of the partition. Each such device 17 is preferably fabricated by stamping and bending operations from a single piece of sheet metal. The panel engaging need 17b hask a rib portion 17C in the plane of the stud ciated stud, as illustrated in Figure 3.
, 4 Y engaging portion 17a and panel face engaging anges 17d, in the form shown, there being four such flanges, alternate flanges extending the same direction from the rib 17c and adjacent flanges in opposite directions from this rib, this formation being brought about by slitting the securing device as it comes from the stamping machine along three parallel lines normal to the rib 17e and bending the alternate tongues in opposite directions into a plane normal to the rib.
The stud engaging portion 17a and the rib 17e` together define a notch in the form of an inverted V and the relatively inclined stud engaging edge of the wedge portion 17a is serrated, as indicated at 17e. The teeth or serrations 17e are so formed that, when the securing device is forced into its operative or panel securing position as shown in Figure 3, one or the other of these teeth will engage the lower edge of the tongue 20e of the asso- The securing device may therefore not recede from its operative position. Should looseness occur for any reason during the period ofuseful life of the partition, the securing device' 17 may be forced downwardly until the free edge of the tongue 20e is engaged by another notch of the series of notches 17e and the structure will be tightened. Inasmuch as it is to be desired that either end of any stud may be placed uppermost or lowermost, each stud is provided with two spaced tongues or catches 20e, one at each end of the slot 20d provided for the reception of the stud engaging portion of the'securing device. In the erection of a partition embodying studs and securing devices of the type described,` therefore, either end of any stud may be placed uppermost in the wall structure.
In Figures 1 through 4 of the drawings the panels are shown to be of substantially equal thickness throughout, with the marginal portions tapering slightly only toward the edges thereof, this tapering being shown in Figures 2 and 4, and being almost imperceptible when the partition is viewed from the front. Under certain circumstances,
' however, it may be desired to cut away the vertical margins of the panels as illustrated in Figure 9 and to provide securing devices of special type and to cover the heads of the securing devices and the slots between adjacent panels by molding strips which extend from iioor to ceiling, the outer face of each such molding strip being flush with the plane of the outer face of the panels.
Thus in the modified form of the invention disclosed in Figure 9, each of the adjacent edges of panels 10 and 11 is shown to be deeply grooved, the grooves being in dicated at 10a and 11a, panel marginal beads or ribs 10b and 11b being left for engagement by the heads of the securing devices. The securing devices employed in this instance to secure the panel margins to the associated stud is formed in the manner previously described and illus-vl trated in Figures 3 and 4 but the ends of the flanges 17d of the head are bent into parallelism with the rib 17c and wedge portion 17a so as to extend around and embrace the oppos-itely facing surfaces of the panel ribs 10b and 11b. The snap-on molding 25 is so formed in section i that, when the inturned free edges 25a of the parallel flanges 25b thereof are in the position shown in Figure 9,A they lie in rear of and interlock with the rearwardlyI facing edge surfaces of the flanges of the head of the securing device and the molding is thus locked in the position in which it is shown. The outer face of the joint between adjacent panels of a metal faced partition is illustrated in horizontal section in Figure 8. The edges of the panelsare not grooved or tapered as in the forms;
'o'ftthe partition lstructure previously.descr'ibed, the securing /devicesvare the .same as lthosefernployed'in the modi- -ed iform of the inventionillustrated in Figure 9 .and vthe snap-on mold-ingor trim 25sis'fformed'in substantially the .same lmanneras that illustrated Vin Figure 9 and engages and interlockswith `thefhead of thesecuring device in the sametway. -Metal kfacings for thepanels are indicated at 26 audit ,will ybe observed that `the margin of each such metal ffacing iszturned aroundthe panel edge and extends substantially to the yface of thevstud, being then turned laterally and lforwardly so that its terminaledge 26a is embraced and vconfined :bythe iianges of the separately formed head of the securing device. The terminal lianges 12ga of the metallic facing plates 26 of the form of the invention :shown in Figure 8 therefore correspondto the .terminal fribs10b andllb ofthe panels 10 and 11 shown in Figure .9. The metal 'faced partition maybe painted orlnot `as desired. If .painted [the surface will appear to vlie-,continuous andif left unpainted will `appear to be a substantiallycontinuous metal surface, the small crevices between the panel facings26 land the snap-on molding 25 being hardly perceptible.
The metallic strip, lindicated yat 30, may be positioned horizontally at the iloor level so as to resemble the normally use dlbase board and this strip is` supported. by means of a special base clip which is generally indicated at 31 in Figure 5. It comprises a at portion 31a.of substantial area whichisadapted to engage the face of the Z-shaped studwith which it is associated, face 31ayfhaving a lower offset portion 31b to vprovide space in the plane ofthe portion 31a for the upturned ange 221: of the bottom r'urinerZlZ.` Integral with the olfsetvportion 3117 is anoutwardly extending iloor engaging llange 31e which terminates in a spring tongue 31d having a downturned rib 31e which serves as a catch for the lower edge of the base strip 30. A forwardly extending flange 31]', disposed normally to the fiat portion 31a of the clip is provided with an upwardly extending part 31g which is designed to also engage the base strip 30 and support the same.
In Figure 3 the relationship of the base strip 30 and its supporting clip may be clearly perceived, the base strip having a turned-over upper margin 30a which embraces the upwardly extending part 31g of the clip 31 and like- Wise having an inturned lower flange 30h with an upturned annular rib adapted to underlie the resilient ange 31d of the clip 31, the rib 30b being forced past the rib 31e of the clip 31 and rib 31e serving as a catch owing to the resiliency of the tongue portion 31d of the clip, the base strip 30 thus being retained in position.
It will be understood that one of the clips 31 will be alixed to the lower end of each stud so that the base strip 30 will be supported at a number of points along its length. Each of these clips 31 is maintained in the position in which -it is shown by reason of the fact that the portion 31C thereof rests directly upon the floor and the clip is provided with vertically spaced anges 31m and 31n which extend around and embrace the stud, flange 31m embracing the terminal rib 20c of the stud and ange 31n closely engaging the web 20a of the stud. The clip is applied to the stud by placing the flat portion 31a against the face of the stud while the clip as an entirety is arranged diagonally with respect to the stud so that the anges 31m and 3111 clear the edges of the stud. The clip may then be turned so that the iianges 31m and 31n are in stud embracing posit-ion and then slid downwardly until portion 31C engages the floor whereupon it is definitely positioned. From an inspection of Figures 3 and 4 it will be observed that the lower edges of the corners of adjacent panels rest upon the upper surface of the horizontal flat portion 31e of the :clip 31 and the clip is further held in position by the very considerable pressure exerted by these panels.
As shown in Figure 7 a partition embodying the novel stud and panel securing devices may be built up with the panels so disposed that their greatest dimensions are horizontal instead of vertical, the securing devices being vinserted through horizontal -gapsI or spaces between :supera posed -panels instead yof between vertically extending parallel edges of therpanels as before, such an arrangevment being illustrated in VFigure 7. In this figure the upper edge surface of a panel is indicated at 35, the panel securing ydeviceat 17, and stud at 20, the serrated edge l17e ofthe securing device engaging the rib 2de of the Z `stud and a tooth of the serrated edge engaging the edge of the rib 20c. A primary Vpurpose of the flange 20c of the stud 20 is to engage the securing device 17 in lthe manner described when it is desired to -erect ya partition structure with the major axes of the panels horizontally disposed.
At-various 'points in the erection of a partition .embodying 'the elements described it may be necessary `to place studs intermediate the vpanel edges and to secure panels to lsuch studs. In cases such as this the securing devices :17 Ymay not be employed and it is necessary to pass securing devices through the panels and into the studs. A simple arrangement for making this possible is illustrated in Figure 11, the stud illustrated in section in that gure being shown to be vertically slotted as at 17s, the margins of the slots being inturned asshown. A securing device such as a nail or screw 38 may be passed Athrough the panel `10 `and forced through the slot 17s, which is relatively narrow as compared with the diameterof the securing device 38, the securing device being thus firmly clamped by the stud after having been positioned. It will be appreciated that this methodof securing the panels to the studs will be employed only where necessary, the :edges of the panels .being secured to `.the-.studs by :the securing devices 17 and, in the ordinary case it being necessary only to secure the panel edges in order to obtain a partition structure of entirely satisfactory type and amply strong for the purpose intended.
Itis believed that the operations which must necessarily be performed in the erection of such partition structure have heretofore been made clear. After it has been determined that a partition of the type described shall be erected in a certain location the lower and upper runners 22 will be aixed by suitable securing devices, these runners being generally in parallelism and one directly above the other. The Z studs are then positioned one by one at the proper intervals, either being applied by vertically positioning each successive stud with the web and anges as shown in Figure 6 and then rotating the stud in the manner previously described, to its nal position, or by properly locating one end of the stud while the stud is in an inclined position and thereafter swinging the stud about its located end to a vertical position in the plane of the runners. The several studs when so erected frictionally grip the runners and maintain their positions during the application of the panels and base board and, as previously explained, after the partition has been completed the studs are held beyond all possibility of movement by the panels and the securing devices which connect the panels and studs. Such a partition comprises a minimum number of parts and the parts are of simplest nature. The partitions therefore are of low cost in so far as material is concerned and a minimum amount of labor is necessary for its erection. The resulting structure is re resistant, may be insulated and sound proofed by the application of mineral wool and the like between two parallel layers of panels and, as previously explained, may be readily disassembled and shifted to a new position. Naturally, in adapting the invention to various situations minor details of its component elements may be varied to meet existing circumstances.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
l. In a wall structure at least one longitudinal metallic stud having a pair of spaced parallel planar flange members, a web member extending between said flange members, a short lip extending inwardly from at least one edge of each of said anges, each of said flanges having longitudinal slots therein and atr leastone lip-bent up therefrom adjacent one end of each of said slots; a plurality of panels mounted end to end onlat least one side of said stud with marginal portions overlapping one of said anges, one surface of said marginal portionsbeing in contact with the outer face of said flange; and a plu rality of clips for maintaining the panels in position, said clips being in contact with at least portions of the edges of adjacent panels on the side thereof opposite said flange and engaging the lips of said flange, at least one of said clips being in engagement with the short lip at the edge of the ange and at least one clip being in engagement with the bent-up lip adjacent the slot ends.
2. The structure asin claim 1 wherein each of said clips comprises panel edge engaging flanges disposed in a plane parallel to said stud flange and a tongueextending perpendicular to said panel engaging anges between the panel end and rearwardly of said stud anges, the edge of said tongue proximate to said. panel engaging flanges being inclined away fromv said anges and serrated for engagement with said lips.
3. A wall structure comprising a series of metallic stud members disposed parallel to each other, each of said members having two spaced parallel planar ange members, a web formed integrally with said anges and extending angularly between opposite edges thereof, .the remaining edges of said flanges being reversely bent to provide short lips extending` in a direction generally opposite to that of said web, longitudinal apertures at spaced locations in said anges, lips bent up from said flanges adjacent the ends of said apertures, said lips extending inwardly from said anges and away from said slots;
Y portion overlapping and in contact with adjacent panel edges on the other surface of the panels and another portion extending inwardly between the panels'and en-v gaging a lip on one of said flanges, at least one of said clips being in engagement with a lip at the edge of one of the anges and at least one of said clips being in engagement with the lip adjacent the-aperture end on one of said anges. v 4. The structure as in claim 1 wherein each of said clips comprises a central rib, anges disposed in a plane and extending on either side of said rib, a tongue con nected to said rib at one end thereof and extending to# ward the other end thereof, the plane of said tongue being perpendicular to the plane of said anges, the inner edge of said tongue being inclined away from said rib and provided with serrations whereby said tongue is adapted to wedge with said lips and to be locked in placeby the engagement of said serrations with said lip.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Olsen July 19, 1949