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Publication numberUS2882026 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 14, 1959
Filing dateAug 31, 1955
Priority dateAug 31, 1955
Publication numberUS 2882026 A, US 2882026A, US-A-2882026, US2882026 A, US2882026A
InventorsEichelman Francis J
Original AssigneeChemetron Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Nebulizer
US 2882026 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 14, 1959 F. J. EICHELMAN v NEBULIZER Filed Aug. 51. 1955 VEN R. HELM IN FRANCIS J. EIC

ATTORNEY United StatesPatent C) F NEBUP EF Francis J. Eichelman, Brookfield, IlL, assignor to Chemetron'Corporation, Chicago," 111., a corporation of Dela- Wfll'g i Application August 31, 1955, Serial No. 531,767 6 Claims. (Cl. 2,612)

wh c fer the most part, have embgo died apparatus for i i i the i u d 2 b e u ze in ermedi t a as a d' a su f ce agai st whi h th wo are m i to more completely break up or nebulize the liquid into '1 Pa cl s o moist r d p d n h g h s vices to a great extent arerather complex in construt Lion and are highly critical of adjustment. Of the many varieties of this type of apparatus illustrated in the prior art, as well as alarge percentage of such devices cornm cia ly ailable, rel ively w a a bl o Pr i ing oisture particles which have mean diameters of 3 micr'ns' o less; 7 I

" Nebulizers for medical use, such as in the practice of inhalation therapy, are required to deliver particles of moisture of the size mentioned, and it is in this range that the device of this invention effectively operates. The necessity for producing rninute moisture particle sizes in medical applications is two-fold: first, in tent canopy applications for instance, larger particle sizes willnot re- Inainin suspension in the carrier gas or canopy atmosphere, and on precipitating will wet all surfaces encountered;' second, and more important however, is the fact that moistur particles of larger sizes cannot penetrate into the alveoli, the innermost lung tissue, which is necessary for fully effective'inhalation therapy.

It will be apparent that there are numerous additional ficldsof use for devices of the character of this invention other than in the practice of inhalation therapy and outside the field of medicine. However, for simplicity, the invention will be herein described chiefly in its relation to the field of its medical uses.

It is accordingly the principal object of this invention to'previde a new and improved nebulizer of superior operating characteristics, adapted to provide not a mist but indeed arnoisture laden fog, the individual particle sizes of which are minute.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a nebulizer of the character set forth in the preceding object which is of relatively simple and inexpensive construction and yet simple to adjust as well as rugged and dependable in operation. 1

These and additional objects and advantages will become apparent as the following description proceeds, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

1 isan elevational view of one embodiment of the invention with parts broken away for clarity of illustration.

Fig: 2 is a top plan view of the device illustrated in Fig. '1. i

"Fig. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken on line 3-}-3 of Fig. 2, and 'schematically illustrates the probable flow pattern of liquid, gas and nebulized vapor to attain Pate ted Ap 14, m5?

ice

the optimum dispersion of ultra-fine moisture particles in a a re m Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the liquid nozzle on an enlarged scale but somewhat less than that of Fig. 3, the relationship of the liquid nozzle being shown in phantom lines. i l i Fig. Sis an elevational view of a simple adapter plug to connect the nebulizing apparatus to a conduit for the con.- veyance of the highly humidified stream of gas to its point of application.

Referring now more particularly to the drawings, in Fi 1, 10 s nates a r ep a le wh pre erab y ta the a m f a ylind al ia D pending' m the ap: plication to which device is to be pun'and'the particu; r uid t be n buliz d he if ita l 10 m h me of g ass pla O Ot mater al as de red} In the preferred embodiment illustrated, it has been found preferable, particularly for medical uses inthe piac'tice'of inhalation therapy, toform the receptacle 1!) from N 4 t n i l en-b aka e p as i m te ial sin e he. q l m'bst ua l neb l i i Su h appli ati n is reen water solutions of glycerine, detergents or other Iufidica me s; a l o hi h ar Substant ly nq r-v orrqsiv In medical applications, the pl sti receptacle '10 is also. ad:- vanta'geous in that, should ior'any reason the relief valve FFlF d t t d P ess re b ilt up in h eu e w ac cause shattering, as would possihle in the case of containers. Also, plastic containers are generally less us} cept'ihle to breakage in the ordinary cqursc Qf being handled. 7' i i (I i i The receptacle 11) is provided with a cover 15 to which the r ce t le m y be e r d y any sui able m ns s b as for example, jar type threads not shown. The cover 15 may be made of any material such as metal or plastic, depending upon the use to which the device may b' w In'this connection, a' suitable" gasket 16 may be tll to provide a seal between the cover 15 and the rim o fthe receptacle 10. i

In the preferred embodiment illustrated, the apparatus involved is secured to the cap member 15 so that the reg cept'able 10 may be freely interchanged at will without in any way disturbing the adjustment of the a p Depending from the cap 15 and preferably oiflceh'ter v respect thereto, is a tubularmember 2Q throughwh eh liquid in the receptacle 10 is drawn to adjacent'a gas jet nozzle to be later described. The lower end of the tubular member 211 is provided with a suitable inlet 21,p rovided with intake apertures 22 and within which fine screening material 23 is disposed to'filter any relatively large par? ticles of solids,sedirnent or the like, from liquid entering the tube 20. The tube 20 at its upper endis secured to an elongated sleeve nut '24, which is in turn secured to the cover member 15 'by'a threaded stud 25, a cap nut 26 and a lock nut 27. T hreadedly connected to and extending laterally from the sleeve nut 24 isa liquid nozzle member 30," having a longitudinal passage 31,- preferably axial extending from adjacent the outer end to the in terior of the sleeve nut 24 where it is in communication with the hollow interior of the nut 24 and with the inf terior of thetubular member 20. In communication the outer end of the longitudinal bore 31 is another slightf 1y larger bore 32 extending transversely'an'd preferably diametrally of the nozzle 30. 'Theliquid nolz zle iitl is completedwith a lgnurled wheel 33fo;radjustirig "the r6,

tational position of the liquid nozzle 30, that is, theia ngle member 43, shoulder 44, and knurled internally threaded nut 45 for connecting the nozzle to a source of gas or gases under pressure by means of a connecting conduit or hose fitted with a mating male fixture. The nozzle is provided with a central bore or passage 46, which is restricted at its lower end at 47 to form the high velocity jet orifice 48. As will be most clearly observed in Figs. 3 and 4 of the drawings, the position of the liquid nozzle 30 is adjusted by rotating the hand wheel 33 so that the transverse bore 32 lies with its axis transverse to the axial bore of the gas jet 40. The longitudinal axis of the jet 40 is arranged in the same plane as the axis of the bore 32 in the liquid nozzle 30, but the longitudinal axis of passage 31 of the liquid nozzle 30 is laterally offset from the projected longitudinal axis of the gas jet 48.

In order to obtain the desired ultra small sizes of moisture particles for inhalation thereapy purposes, that is, to achieve mean particle diameters in the neighborhood of 3 microns or less, the liquid jet 30 is rotated so that the jet stream of gas emerging from the gas jet orifice 48 is not directed into the transverse liquid passage 32 of the liquid nozzle but, in fact, impinges upon an edge portion 34 of the liquid nozzle 30 at its transverse bore 32. As the surface of the liquid nozzle 30 is cylindrical, the jet of gas is deflected sidewise (in Fig. 3 to the right) setting up over the upper outer end 35 of the passage 32 an area of diminished pressure suflicient to draw liquid from the receptacle through the intake orifices 22, the tube 20, interior of the nut 24 and passage 31 of the liquid nozzle 30, and the upper portion of the liquid nozzle passage 32, to be picked up, dispersed and nebulized by the gas jet stream passing over the orifice 35 of the liquid nozzle. A small amount of the liquid drawn upward through passage 31 will not be raised into the gas jet stream and will gravitate downwardly through the lower passage 32 out of the lower orifice 36 and fall by gravity back into the liquid supply in the receptable 10.

It will be noted that the now moisture laden jet stream fans out downwardly and sidewise, whereby the larger particles are either deposited against the walls of the receptacle 10 or deposited onto the surface of the liquid supply in the receptacle 10. The smaller moisture particles remain in suspension and because of the increased pressure within the receptacle 10, due to the incoming jet stream of gas under pressure, these, suspended in the gas, are forced upwardly and leave the receptacle 10 through the hollow elbow-shaped outlet 50 as a highly concentr-ated, dispersed fog-like vapor composed of the gas and liquid. To facilitate the carrying olf of this vapor to its point of application, an adapter member 55 is provided which has an outer barbed end 56 for conventional insertion into a hose conduit, a knurled portion 57 for handling, and an O-ring 58 which, when pressed into the open interior of the outlet 50, engages an internal annular recess 51 to hold the adapter in place.

For most purposes it has been found advisable to provide a pressure relief valve which is illustrated at 60 and comprises a simple spring check valve arrangement secured to the cap member by an upper shoulder 61 and lower lock nut 62. The internal spring, not shown, is adjusted to relieve at very low pressures, in the order of a few ounces to one pound per square inch. The device is preferably provided with some audible arrangement in an outlet orifice 63, for example a whistle, not shown, to signal the occurrence of pressure increase, which is usually the result of an obstruction downstream of the nebulizer. It is also found preferable for medical purposes that indicia of measure in some convenient units, such as milliliters, be embossed as at 11 on the surface of the receptacle 10 so that, due to the transparent nature of the receptacle 10, it can be readily ascertained at all times how much liquid is in the receptacle 10. Other indicia, such as operating instructions may appear at 12.. For eflicient operation of the nebulizer, the liquid level in the receptacle must be always well below the liquid nozzle 30, and appropriate indications of desired levels can be readily provided.

As noted in the beginning of the description, this nebulizer obviously has uses other than in the medical field. For convenience, however, there has been illustrated a preferred embodiment which is a highly eflicient nebulizer, particularly adapted for medical purposes. It will be understood, however, that modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art, and it is intended that such modifications within the spirit of this invention are included within its scope as defined by the appended claims.

I claim:

1. Apparatus for contacting a high velocity gas stream and a liquid to nebulize the latter, comprising a gas nozzle for delivering a high velocity gas stream, and a liquid nozzle for delivering liquid to be nebulized into proximity with the gas stream, said liquid nozzle being provided with a cylindrical surface and a transverse bore the ends of which terminate in two outlets in said surface, said transverse bore being diametral, a longitudinal bore in communication with said diametral bore and of lesser diameter than the latter, and a portion of said cylindrical surface radially adjacent one of the outlets being positioned substantially in the path of the gas stream and adapted to deflect a portion of gas adjacent to at least one of said outlets whereby a portion of the liquid delivered by the liquid nozzle is nebulized by, and entrained in, the gas, the other of said outlets being adapted for the passing of unnebulized liquid.

2. Apparatus for contacting a high velocity gas stream and a liquid to nebulize the latter, comprising a gas nozzle for delivering a high velocity gas stream, and a liquid nozzle for delivering liquid to be nebulized into proximity with the gas stream, said liquid nozzle being provided with a pair of interconnected outlets intermediate which the liquid from a liquid supply is delivered, the gas stream being directed against a surface adjacent one of said pair of outlets, said surface being adapted to deflect substantially all of the gas stream over said outlet to which it is adjacent whereby a portion of liquid delivered by the liquid nozzle is nebulized by and entrained in the gas, the other of said outlets being adapted for passing of unnebulized liquid.

3. Apparatus for contacting a high velocity gas stream and a liquid to nebulize the latter, comprising a gas nozzle for delivering a high velocity gas stream, and a liquid nozzle for delivering liquid to be nebulized into proximity with the gas stream, said liquid nozzle being provided with a pair of interconnected outlets intermediate which the liquid from a liquid supply is delivered, the gas stream being directed against a surface adjacent one of said pair of outlets, said surface being adapted to deflect substantially all of the gas stream over said outlet to which it is adjacent thereby drawing a major portion of liquid entering the liquid nozzle through said one of the pair of outlets where it is nebulized and entrained in the gas, the other of said outlets being adapted to pass unnebulized the remainder of the liquid entering the liquid nozzle.

4. Apparatus for contacting a high velocity gas stream and a liquid to nebulize the latter, comprising a gas nozzle for delivering a high velocity gas stream, and a liquid nozzle for delivering liquid to be nebulized into proximity with the gas stream, a reservoir for liquid, said liquid nozzle being provided with a pair of interconnected outlets intermediate which the liquid from a liquid supply is delivered, the gas stream being initially directed against a surface adjacent one of said pair of outlets, said surface being adapted to deflect substantially all of the gas stream over said outlet to which it is adjacent whereby a portion of liquid delivered by the liquid nozzle is nebulized by and entrained in the gas, the other of said outlets being adapted for passing of unnebulized liquid to the reservoir,

and means for impinging at least a portion of the nebulized liquid entrained in the gas against the surface of liquid in the reservoir.

5. Apparatus for contacting a high velocity gas stream and a liquid to nebulize the latter, comprising a gas nozzle for delivering a high velocity gas stream, and a liquid nozzle for delivering liquid to be nebulized into proximity with the gas stream, a reservoir for liquid belowsaid gas and liquid nozzles, said liquid nozzle being provided with a pair of interconnected outlets intermediate which the liquid from a liquid supply is delivered, the gas stream being initially directed against a surface adjacent one of said pair of outlets, said surface being adapted to deflect substantially all of the gas stream over said outlet to which it is adjacent whereby a portion of liquid delivered by the liquid nozzle is nebulized by and entrained in the gas, the other of said outlets being adapted for passing of unnebulized liquid to the reservoir, and means including another surface distal from said liquid nozzle against which a portion of said nebulized liquid entrained in the gas is impinged, said liquid and gas nozzles being posi- 6 tioned and arranged so that a portion of the liquid nebulized and entrained in the gas is directed against the surface of liquid in said reservoir.

6. Apparatus as claimed in claim 5 in which said second surface, against which nebulized liquid entrained in the gas is impinged, is adapted to remove larger droplets of liquid from the nebulized liquid entrained in the gas stream and to return such liquid to said reservoir.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,254,356 Reichenbach Jan. 22, 1918 1,261,756 Britton Apr. 9, 1918 1,568,840 Holmes Jan. 5, 1926 2,613,067 Goodyer Oct. 7, 1952 2,681,216 Knecht June 15, 1954 2,709,577 Pohndorf et al May 31, 1955 2,819,716 Milles Jan. 14, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,096,471 France Feb. 2, 1955

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Referenced by
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Classifications
U.S. Classification261/2, 128/200.14, 261/78.2, 239/338, 239/344, 239/341
International ClassificationA61M11/06
Cooperative ClassificationA61M11/06
European ClassificationA61M11/06