US 2882775 A
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April 21, 1959 T. L. RANK ET AL 2,882,775
ADJUSTABLE HAND PLIERS Filed June 20, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 "3 H )3 N is, R
"4 Q *3 Q N INVENTORS.
TRA vERs L RA NK BY CHA RLESEW/LDERMAN 94% 1/ ATTORNEYS.
April 21} 1959 T. L. RANK ET AL 7 ,882,
- ADJUSTABLE HAND PL'IERS Filed June 20, 1956 s Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS. TRAVERs L.RANK
y CHARLIE: E. WILDERMAN ATTORNEYS.
April 21, 1959 T. RANK ET AL ADJUSTABLE HAND PLIERS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed June 20, 1956 mg. mm a mm M a WWW E; i y 5 V X w w aw Q Kw M a MK H m M N N A L M ER WT V M LE S 5 u 3 MM/W H C United States Patent ADJUSTABLE HAND PLIERS Travers L. Rank, Mohawk, and Charles E. Wilderman, New Hartford, N.Y., assignors, by mesne assignments, to Kelsey-Hayes Company, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Delaware Application June 20, 1956, Serial No. 592,595
2 Claims. (Cl. 81-414) This application relates to an adjustable hand tool and more particularly it is concerned with adjustable hand pliers comprising members pivotally connected by tongue and groove elements.
Heretofore, adjustable hand pliers containing tongue and groove joint elements were not entirely satisfactory for the reason that with wear the interlocking elements tend to jump over one another under the application of pressure. This defect is serious, because it may result in injury to the operator, not to mention the ineffectiveness of the tool. In addition, these pliers are constructed with exposure of one side of the working parts with the result that contamination with grease or other similar material can take place. It is the purpose of this invention to provide adjustable hand pliers which are free of the objections mentioned above.
An object of this invention is to provide an adjustable hand tool which is especially adapted for heavy duty work and will have long life.
Another object of this invention is to provide adjustable hand pliers having crossed members pivoted by tongue and groove elements which areespecially suited for heavy work.
Other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the following description and explanation thereof.
For a better understanding of the invention, reference will be had to the accompanying drawings which form a part of this specification and wherein:
Figure 1 is a plan view of the pliers in the smallest adjusted position, that is, with the jaws nearest together;
Figure 2 is a fragmentary enlarged edge view taken along the upper edge of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a detailed sectional view taken on line 3-3 of Figure 1;
Figure 4 is a fragmentary inside plan view of the female member of the pliers shown in Figure 1;
Figure 5 is an edge view of Figure 4 taken in the direction of arrow 5;
Figure 6 is an edge view of the retaining strip shown as dot and dash lines in Figure 5;
Figure 7 is a fragmentary elevation of the male jaw member showing the opposite side to that shown in Figure 1;
Figures 8 and 9 are detailed views showing the relative positions of the jaws when at the end of their extreme movement, respectively, in opposite directions of adjustment;
Figure 10 is a plan view of pliers containing arcuate grooves on each side of the male member;
Figure 11 is an edge view of Figure 10;
Figure 12 is a detailed view of the head of the pliers showing the opposite side to that shown in Figure 10; and
Figure 13 is a detailed sectional view of the same embodiment showing the stud bolt and groove with the locking rib in channel.
Referring to the drawings, the adjustable hand pliers illustrated in Figures 1-9 are the type in which a plurality of arcuate grooves 16 are disposed in concentric fashion on one of the pivot sides of pivot area 17 of one of the plier jaw and handle members. The pliers consist of two of these members 19 and 20, which are crossed in scissoring relationship to each other. 7 Each member contains a jaw illustrated as numeral 21 for member 20 and numeral 23 for member 19. .On the opposite side of the pivot, the jaw of each member has a handle, shown as numeral 24 for member 19 and numeral 25 for member 20. An enlarged pivot area is intermediate of the jaw and handle of each member. Member 20 contains a twosided pivot area 17, whereas member 19 contains a single-sided pivot area 27. The pivot sides of pivot area 17 are shown as numerals 28 and 29. These pivot sides are spaced from each other in parallel planes to provide for positioning of pivot area 27 therebetween. The arrangement of pivot areas 17 and 27 may be referred to as a box joint. The sides of the pivot areas are kept as close as possible in order to avoid having the tongue jumping from one groove to another when great force is applied on the handle of the pliers. As the pivot area 27 is braced on both sides, bending of the pivot is avoided, and a strong plier construction obtained.
Pivot side 28 of pivot area 17 contains a plurality of concentric grooves 16 adjacent to face 31 of member 19. An elongated recessed groove or slot 33 is also found in pivot side 28 and the longitudinal axis of this groove is disposed in a transverse or radial direction to the arcuate grooves 16. An integral pin 34 is disposed on pivot face 31 and this pin fits slot 33 for longitudinal movement therein. Arcuate rib 36 is disposed on pivot face 31 concentrically with respect to pin 34.
In fabricating the pliers, member 20 is first made with only pivot side 28. The two members are then joined. A retaining plate 29 forming the second pivot side of pivot area 27 is thereafter welded in place on member 20 over member 19 to form the box joint arrangement.
The tongue and groove connections provide a means for adjusting the opening between jaws. Each jaw contains a work-engaging surface or pincer 37 and 38, respectively, for gripping action. The tongue and groove interlocks are arranged in concentric relationship with the pivotal connection formed by pin 34 and groove 33. As shown in Figures 8 and 9, by manipulating the handles of the pliers so as to open the jaws wide, the arcuate rib 36 can be disengaged from the groove connection in member 20, and member 19 can be moved along the length of slot 33 for engagement of rib 36 with any of the several grooves 16. Movement of member 19 in the direction of jaw 21 brings the jaws in closer position, whereas movement in the opposite direction places the jaws farther apart. When the proper adjustment has been obtained, the jaws are manipulated to bring rib 36 into the adjacent groove.
The pliers shown in Figures 10-13 are different from the pliers shown in Figures 1-9, in that, the arcuate grooves 43 are located on each face of the pivot area 45. As in the case of the previously described pliers, members 46 and 47 are crossed in scissoring relationship to each other and each member contains a handle, a pivot area and a jaw, shown as numerals 49, 50 and 51, respectively, for member 47 and numerals 53, 45 and 54, respectively, for member 46. Pivot area 50 consists of two pivot sides or walls 56 and 57 which are spaced from each other to provide a box joint section. In this embodiment, pivot side 57 of pivot area 50 is retained in position by means of flush type rivets or screws 60 and 61, but it may be otherwise secured, as by Welding. Pivot area 45 contains an elongated opening or slot 63 which is perpendicular to the arcuate grooves 43. Pivot sides 56 and 57 contain aligned openings for engagement 3 with a rivet 65. The rivet 65 provides a pivotal connection for the crossed members 46 and 47. Being supported at both ends, bending of the pivot in use is avoided, ensuring strength and long life to the pliers. An arcuate rib 66 is formed integrally on the inner face of pivot side 57 for engagement with the set of grooves 43, whereas another arcuate rib 67 is similarly positioned on the inner face of pivot side 56 for engagement with the other set. Jaws 51 and 54 contain work-engaging surfaces or pincers 69 and 70, respectively. The space between the jaws is adjusted by means of the tongue and groove connections in the same manner as described hereinabove in connection with Figures 1-9.
The pliers shown in Figures 10-13 are preferred for extremely heavy duty. In these pliers the possibility of the arcuate rib jumping from one groove to another under pressure is essentially eliminated by reason of the box-like joint structure as explained hereinabove, and for the further reason that the tongue and groove connection exists on either face of the pivot area of the member which is disposed between the two-sided pivot area.
. Having thus provided a written description of this invention, reference will be had to the following claims which define the invention.
1. In a tool having a pair of crossed members; each member having a workpiece gripping end, a handle and an intermediate pivot area; said crossed members operatively joined for plier-like action by a pivotal joint between said pivot areas, said pivotal joint comprising a pin and slot guide means preventing lateral shifting of one member relative to the other in a direction crosswise of the slot but freely permitting movement of one member relative to the other lenghwise of the slot, said pin being a stud on one of the crossed members and the slot being a recessed groove; said pivotal joint also in cluding interfitting concentric arcuate tongue and groove elements of substantially the same radius respectively on adjacent faces of the members, the elements being formed of arcuate ribs of the same radius on said adjacent faces, said arcuate ribs having a length permitting disengagement thereof in a widely spread position of said crossed members, and cover means over and spaced from the ribs of one member providing a holding action preventing separation of the pivot area surfaces out of their prescribed plane of swing, said cover means having a broad, smooth bearing surface, said pivot area of the other member having a back side bearing surface matable to said bearing surface of the cover means, the height of the said ribs being less than the space provided between the cover means and the member which carries the cover means, whereby the pin and slot connection provides longitudinal guidance of the members, whereas the cover provides a broad bearing plate and whereby all binding action under work load pressures is prevented.
2. In a tool having a pair of crossed members, each member having a workpiece gripping end, a handle and an intermediate pivot area, said intermediate pivot area of one member comprising two spaced bands defining a pivot slot therebetween, the other member fitting through said slot, said crossed members operatively joined for plier-like action by a pivotal joint between said pivot areas, said pivotal joint comprising a pin and slot guide means preventing lateral shifting of one member relative to the other in a direction crosswise of the slot but freely permitting movement of one member relative to the other lengthwise of the slot, said pin being a stud on one of the crossed members and the slot being a recessed groove; said pivotal joint also including interfitting concentric arcuate tongue and groove elements of substantially the same radius respectively on adjacent faces of the members, the elements being formed of arcuate ribs of the same radius on said adjacent faces, said arcuate ribs having a length permitting disengagement thereof in a widely spread position of said crossed members, on of said spaced bands serving as a cover means with respect to the other, and said cover means being located over and spaced from the ribs of the other member to provide a retainer which prevents separation of the pivot area surfaces out of their prescribed plane of swing, said cover means having a broad, smooth hearing surface, said pivot area of the other member having a back side bearing surface matable to said bearing surface of the cover means, the height of the said ribs being less than the space provided between the cover means and the member which carries the cover means, whereby the pin and slot connection provides longitudinal guidance of the members, whereas the cover provides a broad bearing plate and whereby all binding action under work load pressures is prevented.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,640,381 Manning June 2, 1953 FOREIGN PATENTS 62,168 Sweden Dec. 21, 1926 99,868 Sweden Sept. 17, 1940 311,352 Germany Mar. 18, 1919 819,380 Germany Oct. 31, 1951