US 2885763 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 12, 1959 G. A. SCHREINER.
COMPRESSIVE SHRINKING MACHINE 5 Sheets-Sheet IL Filed Aug. 3, 1954 INVENTOR GEORGE A. SCHREINER ATTORNEY May 12, 1959 f G. A. SCHREINER 2,885,763
COMPRESSIVE SHRINKING MACHINE Filed Aug. 3, 1954 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 9 INVENTOR GEORGE A. SCHREINER I BY ATTORNEY May 12, 1959 G. A..SCHREINER 2,885,763
COMPRESSIVE SHRINKING MACHINE Filed Aug. 5. 1954 5 Sheets-sheaf 3 INVENTOR GEORGE A. SCHREINER ATTORNEY May 12, 1959 G. A. SCHREINER COMPRESSIVE SERINKING MACHINE 5 Sheets-Shet 4 Filed Aug. 3, 1954 'INVENTOR GEORGE A SCHREINER ATTORNEY May 1-2, 1959 G. A. SCHREINEHR Filed Aug. 3. 1954 COMPRESSIVE SHRINKING MACHINE 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INCHES PER YARD FIGA- 1N VENTOR GEORGE A. SCHREINER ATTORNEY 2,885,763 COMPRESSIVE SHRINKING MACHINE George A. Schreiner, Troy, N.Y., assignor to Cluett, Peag odyl; & Co., Inc., Troy, N.Y., a corporation of New Application August 3, 1954, Serial No. 447,499
8 Claims. (Cl. 2618.6)
This invention relates to compressive shrinking machines and particularly to improvements on existing types of such machines.
An object of the invention is to provide an improved compressive shrinking machine, with which an ironed, glossy or lustrous finish may be obtained on both faces of a fabric web while the web is being operated upon continuously and at normal operating speeds; with which the operator can, at all times, be aware of the amount of shrinkage which is being imparted to the web so that he can change the amount of shrinkage imparted to the web while the machine is operating; with which the speed of operation may be approximately the same as with the usual felt-belt type of compressive shrinking machine; and which will be relatively simple, practical, easily controlled and accurate.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved, compressive shrinkingmachine for preshrinking fabric webs, with which a controlled amount of shrinkage may be easily and accurately maintained, and changed quickly and easily when'and as desired; and with which the operator may, at all times, be aware of the amount of shrinkage being imparted to the fabric.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent from the following description of two embodiments of the invention, and the novel features will be particularly pointed out hereinafter in connection with the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawing:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of one end portion of a machine constructed in accordance with this invention;
' Fig. la is a similar elevation of the intermediate part of such machine; Fig. 1b is a similar elevation of the other end of such machine, it being understood that Figs. 1, 1a and lb should be arranged in succession end to end, with Fig. 1 at the right and Fig. 1b at the left, to illustrate a single machine;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of a modification in which the end part shown in Fig. 1b is eliminated and the mechanism used in place thereof is superimposed on the shrinking mechanism shown in Fig. la.
Fig. 3 is a schematic view illustrating the relationship to the various parts of the machine of the controls which indicate the amount of shrinkage being imparted to the fabric web at any time; and
Fig. 4 is a face elevation of the visual indicator that indicates the amount of shrinkage or gain being imparted to the fabric at any time.
In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 1b, the fabric to be shrunk is supplied in folded relation in a truck 1 (see Fig. 1) from which the fabric web 2 to be shrunk is withdrawn and fed in succession over guide 3 and under guide roller or bar 4, and then passes over to the left side of the frame alternately over and under the bars 5, then over and under adjustable tension bars 6 and 7, then over a guide 8, and then around a guide roll or bar 9. Just as the web approaches the roller bar 9 each of its margins passes between a pair of air guide rolls 10, one pair at each side. These guide rolls 10 control mechanism not shown that centers the fabric with respect to the roll or bar 9. These air guides are well known for this purpose and are no part of the invention. From the roll or bar 9, the web 2 passes upwardly over and partially around a positive drive roll 11, which is driven through a suitable reduction gear 12 by a motor M at a selected speed. The web passes more than half way around this roll 11 so that it will be positively advanced thereby lengthwise. The web then passes around an idler or measuring roll 13, then over a bar 14, and thence to a conditioning device 15.
The roll 13 is freely rotatable so that as the fabric passes over and in contact with it, this roll 13 will be driven at the same speed as the moving fabric web. Therefore the peripheral speed of the roll 13 will always be the same as that of the moving web. Since the roll 11 is used to advance the web lengthwise, in doing so it must pull it from the truck 1 over the various bars and guides where there is considerable resistance to travel, and there might at times be slight slippage between the fabric and the roll 11, but by making the roll 13 an idler roll in contact with the fabric after it leaves this advancing roll 11, the speed of the periphery of the roll 13 will always correspond rather accurately to the speed of travel of the fabric web.
On one end of the idler roll 13 is fixed a sprocket 16 and it, through a chain 17, drives a sprocket wheel 18 which is coupled to a tachometer generator 19. This tachometer generator is one that is available on the open market, and is a direct current generator with a continuously and uniformly energized field, permanent magnets being used to provide such a field. Such genera tors when rotated, produce a current with a voltage which is directly proportional to their speed of rotation. Therefore, this generator 19 will generate a direct current having a voltage which is directly proportional to the speed at which the idler roll 13 is rotating at any time. The current developed by this generator will be utilized in a manner which will be explained later herein.
The conditioning unit 15 includes a casing in which are disposed for free rotation, a plurality of rolls 20 at the top, and a plurality of rolls 21 at the bottom. The rolls at top and bottom are arranged in rows, and the web 2 passes back and forth in succession between these rolls 20 and 21 so that it will be carried in vertical stretches progressively through the housing of the unit 15 and then leave by passing over a guide roll 22. During its travel in the unit 15, the web 2 is conditioned with moisture so as to render the fibers of its yarns somewhat plastic or pliable. For this purpose the first vertical stretch of web in the unit 15 is subjected to fine sprays of water from a plurality of nozzles 23, arranged in a row across the full width of the web, so that all of the web will be sprayed in its first downward travel in the conditioning unit 15. The travel of the moistened web through the unit or conditioner 15 provides an opportu- From the roll 22, the web 2 passes through a bias straightening device 24, which is adjustable so that the fabric, if on a bias, will not be pulled further on the bias. The fabric then passes over and partly around a heated drum or cylinder 25, which is rotatably mounted in bearings 26, so that this cylinder 25 can freely rotate. while being heated by steam admitted through the shaft of the drum. The Web passes nearly around the periphery of this drum and the ,heat of the drum is int- Patented May 12, 1959 parted. to. the moisture in the. webv so as. to spread it. uniformly across the entire width of the web, and also expedite the conditioning of the web as to the pliability or plasticity of its fibers and yarns. The web is guided to the. drum 25 over a bar-27,. and inleaving the drum, passes around a guide bar 28.
The web 2 passes from the mechanism shown in Fig. 1 to the mechanism shown in. Fig. 2 and. first passes" around a scrimp bar 29 and guide bars 30 to a. clip expander mechanism 31. In this device, indicated generally at 31, the fabric is picked up by clamps on two opposed adjustable traveling stretches of an endless chain and is pulled to the desired and selected width- The fabric is then delivered to the rubber belt shrinking machine indicated generally at 32. Clip expander devices of this type are well known in the market, have been used in prior shrinking machines, and. are disclosed for ex-- ample in. my US. Patent No. 2,082,981 to which reference may be had for further information as to its details.
From the clip expander 31,. the web 2 passes between two, spaced apart scn'mp bars 33 andthen into the rubher belt compressive shrinkingmachine 32. Compressive.
shrinking machines using rubber belts. are old. in the art,
and therefore will, only be generally described. These machines employ a heated drum 34 which is. mounted to rotate on its longitudinal axis, and a rather thick rubber belt 35 passes approximately half way around the periphery of the drum 34 over an idler roll 36 which is mounted to rotate freely on an axis which is parallel to the axis of the drum 34, and which roll 36 may be shifted bodily and generally towards and away from the drum 34 to a limited extent to tighten. or loosen the belt. The belt 35,. after leaving the roll 36, passes overan idler roll 37 which, is beneath. the drum. 34. and spaced from it. roll. 3.8.. This roll 38 is mounted. at its end in. arms 39,
there being one. of such arms 39 at each end of the roll.
38, and each of. these arms; 39 is movable individually about a pivot 40..
The ends ofshaft41 of theroll 38 are pivoted in the arms 39, and eacharm extends upwardly and is pivotally or articulately connected by a link 42 to a nut 43 which.
is threaded on a shaft 44. The shaft 44 is rotatably mounted in a bracket 45 of the frame of the shrinker 32. A shaft 46a carrying a hand wheel 46 is geared to drive the screws 44. at both. sides of the machine, so that operation of wheel, 46 will rotatev both screws and cause the nuts 43 to. travel back and. forth along them. Each nut 43 has a fiat face which slides. along a face 47 of the related bracket 45, so that while the nut 43 can slide along the bracket, it is held from rotating thereby, and therefore rotation of the hand wheel. 46. and screws 44 will cause endwise movement of the nuts.
43. Thus by adjusting the hand wheel 46 one may shift theends of the roll 38 toward and from the drum 34. The belt 35 passes over the roller 38 and betweenthe roller and the drum 34, at least about half way around the periphery of the drum 34, and then to the tensioning roll 36. The feed-in roll 38 is pushed toward the drum 34' so as to compress or squeeze the portion of the belt which is between the drum 34 and the feed-in roller at any time and thus indent or locally distort the belt at the nip between the roll 38 and the drum 34.
The fabric web 2, after leaving the clip expander and passing between the scrimp bars 33, passes over and in contact with the convex surface of the rubber belt which is in contact with the drum 38, then the web passes with the belt through the nip between the surface of the drum 34 and the surface of the belt 35. The previously convex surface of the belt when. it was on the roll 38 now becomes concave and' the web and belt'move togetherwith the drum for approximately one half the periphery of the drum 34, then the fabric 2 leaves'thedrum and belt, and passes over a guide bar or roll 48 thence it passesto the dryer designated generally at 49 in Fig. 1b.
It then passes upwardly and around a feed-in.
Referringv next. to Fig. Lb, the. dryer illustrated is commonly known in the trade as a felt belt type of dryer. This dryer includes a large heated drum 50 which is rotatably mounted by axial trunnions in bearings 52 provided on the frame of the dryer, and an endless felt belt 53 passes in contact with the periphery of the drum 50 for nearly the entire periphery of the drum. This belt 53 passes. over guide roll 54, thence in contact with the drum 50 for nearly its entire periphery and then passes: around a roll 55 which is similar to roll 54, but spaced somewhat above it as shown in Fig. 1b. The belt then passes over guides 56 arranged in succession, toward the rear. of the drum 50. It there passes around a tensioning roll 57 and then around most of the periphery of a heated drying drum 58 having its axial trunnions or shafts 59 rotatably mounted in bearings 60 on the frame of the dryer. Heat is supplied to the rotating drum 58 in any suitable manner, usually through passages inits end'shafts or trunnions 59. The belt 53 then passes over an idler roll 61, and over a centering roll or.- de vice 62 and then over idler rolls 63 in succession back to the roller 54.
The fabric web 2 is. fed from the shrinking machine 32 to the dryer so as to pass between the belt 53 and the drum 50. After passing around the drum, it passes to overhead reels 64 and thence to a position beyond the dryer. It is then fed through a folder or plaiter 65 to a receiving truck 66. The folder or plaiter 65 is a tubular guide which is carried on. arms 67 which are pivoted on bearings 68 so that the folder or plaiter will swing as a pendulum back. and forth. and thus deposit the moving web 2 in superposed layers or folds in the truck' 66. The arms 67 are positively moved back and forth for definite distances by a link. or connecting rod 69 connected to an extension. of one of the arm's 67. The link is also connectedto a. crank arm. 70 which is fixed on a rotating shaft 71. The crank pin. 72 by whichlink 69 is connected to the crank armv may be adjusted radially of the-shaft 71 in.a radialslot in the crank arm70 and secured in adjustedposition so. asto. determine the. throw or limits: of. travel. ofQthe folder or plaiter 65. Apulley 73 is fixedon. the shaft 71. and is driven by a belt 74 from a pulley 75, which in turn is driven. at a. selected speed by an. electric motor 76 having a conventional speed control associated therewith.
The motor M, in Fig. l, is preferably a direct current motor whose speed can. be varied as desired in its operation of the. feed. roll 11. A large electric motor 77 having a conventional speed control associated therewith, Fig. 1. serves. to drive, through a plurality of parallel belts, 7.8, a pulley, 79 whichoperates through a speed reduction device 80 to drive a shaft enclosed in the gear 82 which meshes with a spur gear83. A bevel gear 84 is coupled to the spur gear 83 to rotate therewith. The bevel gear 84 meshes with another bevel gear 85 which is fixed on a rotatable shaft that also carries a sprocket wheel 86, fixed therein. The latter through a sprocket chain 87 drives a sprocket wheel 88 which is rotatably mounted adjacent to the drum 34. Coupled to the sprocket wheel 88* is a spur gear'89 which meshes with the teeth of a gear 90 that is attached to one end of'the drum 34, so that the drum 34 is positively'd'riven by the shaft in" the housing 81. The drum 34 therefore serves'as'the driving force which moves the rubber belt 35 lengthwise in an endless path. This rubber belt is or'other'coolant in fi n'elydivid'ed' form upon thesurfa'ceof the belt 35 whichis then outermost, very shortly after the belt leaves contact with the drum 34. This cools the belt so that the heat from the drum 34 will not damage it. Any coolant or water delivered by the spray device 91 which adheres to the belt as it approaches the feedin roller 38, is removed in any suitable manner, such as by passing the belt between two opposed wringer rollers, not shown. The shaft on which the bevel gear 84 is fixed is extended beyond the bevel gear 85 to the exterior of the housing in which the gears 84 and 85 are enclosed and there carries a sprocket wheel 92.
A positive, variable, speed drive device 93 is provided with a driving shaft 94 which extends to the exterior of the housing of device 93 and carries a sprocket wheel 95. A chain 96 connects the sprocket wheels 92 and 95 so as to form a drive between them. The driven shaft 97 of the variable speed drive is provided with a spur gear 98 fixed thereon, which meshes with and drives a spur gear 99 that is fixed on a shaft 100. The shaft 100 operates through a gear box 101 to drive a shaft in a housing 102 which in turn operates the dryer. The shaft 103 which is within the housing 102 (Fig. 1b) on its end carries a sprocket wheel 1'04, and operating over the Wheel 104 is a sprocket chain 105 which also operates over a sprocket wheel 106 in a clutch box 107. A typical or suitable clutch within the box 107 serves to couple the sprocket wheel 106 to an operating shaft 108 and this clutch is operated by a handle 109 which is pivoted at 110 on the box 107. The clutch includes a sleeve keyed to the shaft 108 and having end teeth that engage with teeth on the end face of the sprocket wheel. The handle 109 has a forked end that engages in an annular groove in the sleeve periphery so that operation bf the handle shifts the sleeve endwise to couple or uncouple it to the sprocket wheel. Adjoining the box 107 is a reversing mechanism enclosed in a housing 111. Reversing boxes of this type are well known in the art and available in the open market, and therefore it has been illustrated only generally since the details of such a box form no part of the present invention.
A shaft 112 extends rearwardly in Fig. 1b from the box and carries a sprocket wheel 113 for a purpose which will appear presently. Within the box are bevel gears 114 and 115 which are loose on the shaft 108, and these two bevel gears mesh with a third bevel gear 116 which is fixed on the shaft 112. Between these bevel gears 114 and 115 and keyed to and sliding on the shaft 108 is a sleeve which slides endwise and has teeth in both of its ends which engage alternately with recesses in the adjacent end gears 114 and 115. Thus by shifting the sleeve, one can reverse the direction of rotation of the shaft 112. Since this is a well known form of re versing clutch, it has been illustrated only generally. A spur gear 112a fixed on the shaft 112 meshes with and drives a gear 50a on an end of the drum 50, which causes the drum to rotate on its axis. The sprocket wheel 113, which is fixed on the shaft 112, operates a chain 117 that in turn operates a small sprocket wheel 118 on the shaft of another tachometer generator which is identical in kind with the tachometer generator 19 of Fig. 1. Here it serves a similar purpose, which will be explained later herein. This generator 118 will deliver a voltage which is proportional to the speed at which it is driven and which is proportional to the speed of the drum 50. Therefore the voltage delivered by the generator 118 will also be directly proportional to the speed at which the fabric web 2 travels while in contact with the drum 50.
To reverse the direction of rotation of the drum 50, one merely releases the clutch by operation of a handle 109, and then by another handle, not shown, shifts the sleeve on the shaft 108 to couple that sleeve to one or the other of the bevel gears 114 and 115. When the direction of movement of the drum 50 changes, so will that of the felt belt 53. This reversal requires a difference in the manner of feeding of the fabric web to the drying machine. When the drum 50 is rotating in a clockwise direction, in Fig. 1b, the fabric web 2 from the shrinker is delivered over a scrimp bar 119, then over an idler roll 120, and then downwardly between the periphery of the drum 50 and the portion of the belt 53 which has just left the roll 54. The fabric web after passing around the drum is taken off by a roll 121. It then passes upwardly over one or more reels 64 to the folder or plaiter 65. When the drum 50 is to be operated in a counter-clockwise direction, in Fig. 1b, then the web 2 from the shrinker is passed over a scrirnp bar 122 and under the roller 121. It then passes upwardly between the drum periphery and the belt 53 which is moving from the roll 55 towards the drum surface. This fabric web then, after passing around the drum, while the drum is rotating counter-clockwise in Fig. 1b, passes over the roll 120, then downwardly and around a roll 123 thence over successively arranged rolls 124 and 125 to the left of the drying mechanism as shown in Fig. 1b, and upwardly and over one of the reels 64 and then to the left to the folder or plaiter 65 through which it is deposited in the receiving truck 66.
The three reels 64 are driven at the same speed and in corresponding directions by an endless chain 126 which passes around the sprocket wheels on the two end reels 64, and in contact with the periphery of another sprocket wheel on the intermediate reel 64. One end reel 64 also carries a sprocket wheel 127 which is driven by a chain 128 from another sprocket wheel 129 (Fig. la) that is carried on a shaft 130 in the gear box 101. The shaft has a bevel gear which is between and connects two bevel gears, one on the shaft 103 in the housing 102, and the other on the shaft 100.
In Fig. 2 the felt belt dryer is replaced by a can type dryer. In this case the can dryer is mounted on top of the rubber belt shrinking machine 32 that is shown in Fig. 1a. Upon the frame of this shrinking machine upright columns 131 are mounted and they carry, on the top thereof, a platform frame 132. A plurality of heated drums 133, 134, 135 and 136 are rotatably supported at their ends in bearing bosses 137, and arranged in a somewhat staggered relation vertically between the columns 131. These drums are heated in any suitable manner such as by steam admitted to the ends of the drums. Each drum has fixed to one end thereof a sprocket 138.
Idler. sprockets 140, 141 and 142 are rotatably mounted,
in suitable bearings that are carried by the column 131. An endless driving chain 143 passes around the sprocket wheels 138 of the drums and also around the idler sprocket wheels 140, 141 and 142, so as to drive all of the drums in the proper direction and at the same rate of rotation.
The sprocket wheel 129, which rotates with the intermediate bevel gear in the gear box 101 drives the chain 128. The latter passes around a sprocket wheel 144 which is fixed on the same shaft 145 to which the sprocket wheel 141 is fixed. Thus the chain 143 will be driven from the gear box 101 at a definite rate of speed which is proportional at all times to the rate of operation of the main drum 34 of the rubber belt shrinking machine. In this embodiment of the invention the tachometer generator 118 is driven by means of a chain which passes around the sprocket wheel 146a, affixed to the shaft 145, and the sprocket wheel 142a which is coupled to the tachometer generator 118. The sprockets 138 are all of the same diameter and, therefore, they will all rotate at the same rate of speed. Also fixed on the shaft 145 is another sprocket wheel 146 which drives a chain 147. This chain 147 operates over a sprocket wheel 148 which is fixed on a shaft 149. The latter is rotatably supported in a bracket 150 which depends from the top platform 132.
A reel 151 is fixed on the shaft 149 so as to rotate therewith and feed the fabric to the folder or plaiter 152. The plaiter 152 is carried. by depending arms 153 which are hinged at 154 to the-bracket 150. A link 155 connects one of the arms 153 to a crank arm 156 which is fixed on a shaft 157. The shaft 157 is also rotatably supported in the depending brackets 150. The link 155 is connected to the crank arm 156 by a crank pin 158 which can be adjusted along a slot 159 arranged radially in the crank arm, so that the arc length or amplitude of oscillation of the plaiter or folder 152 may be selectively varied. The pin 158 is clamped in its different adjusted positions along the slot 159. Also fixed on the shaft 157 is a sprocket wheel 160. This sprocket wheel 16% is driven by a chain 161 which in turn is driven by small sprocket wheel 162. The sprocket wheel 162 is driven by motor 163 through a speed reduction device 164. The motor 163 and reduction device 164 are both se cured to the underface of the platform 132.
The web 2 leaving the shrinking machine passes upwardly over roll 165 which is mounted in the frame of the shrinker, then over a guide bar 166 also mounted on the frame of the shrinker, then around the lowermost can or drum 136', then in succession around the drums 135, 134, and 133, after which it passes around an idler roll 167 which is rotatably mounted in suitable bearings 168 on the upright columns 131. From the roll 167 the fabric Web passes over the reel 151 and then through the plaiter or folder to the receiving truck 66. Thus the web after being shrunk in the shrinker passes in succession around drums 136,. 135, 134 and 133 where the web is dried in contact with the drums alternately on each face of the web, thus giving a glossy or lustrous finish on both faces.
In Fig. 3 a' circuit arrangement is shown in which the tachometer generator 19 is connected by circuit wires 170 to a visual indicating instrument 171 where it passes through a coil 172. Similarly the generator 118 is connected by wires 173 to a coil 174, also in the instrument 171. The two coils exert magnetic pulls in opposite direction on a pointer or indicator hand 175 (Fig. 4) which sweeps over a dial 176 in the instrument 171. The dial is graduated from a zero position in both directions and the scale is arranged in two arcuate rows, the upper scale of which indicates the gain or shrinkage in inches per yard while the lower scale indicates the percent of gain or shrinkage. Since the tachometer generators 19 and 118 deliver voltages which are proportional to their speed of operation, the indicator hand 175 will assume a position which corresponds to the difference in opposite magnetic pulls exerted thereon by the currents generated in the two generators.
Since the yarns of the fabric web will usually be pushed together by an amount that the fabric would normally shrink when laundered, it follows that the generator 19 will normally run faster than the generator 118 because the fabric passing through the dryer will be operating at a lower linear rate of travel than that which passes over the roll 13. If the speed of both generators was equal, then the opposing forces would be equal and the indicator hand 175 would be at the zero position in Fig. 4 indicating that no shrinkage was being imparted to the web. When the generator 19 runs faster than the generator 118 the indicator 175 will move to the right in Fig. 4 by an amount which is proportional to the difference in speed of operation of the two generators. The degree of movement of the indicator arm 175 is therefore proportional to the voltages which are generated by the two generators. Thus one is able to observe at any time, by looking at the indicator 171, the exact amount of shrinkage which is being imparted to the fabric that is passing through the apparatus.
In the operation of this device, and referring particularly to Figs. 1, la and 1b, the fabric to be shrunk is delivered in the truck 1 in a folded condition, and it is drawn therefrom and conducted over the idler bars and rolls 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. It then passes downwardly with its marginal edges. between the pairs of air guides Ill where it is properly centered. The fabric then passes over the roll 11 which is driven at a definite rate of speed by the motor M. The fabric then passes around the idler or measuring roll 13, which is rotated by reason of. its frictional engagement with the moving fabric web, then it passes to the conditioning unit 15. Since the roll 13 exerts no driving action on the web, but is merely rotated idly by the web, it will give an accurate indication at all times of the actual linear speed of travel of the web as it is fed to the treating apparatus. The roll 13 also drives the generator 19 so that the latter will deliver a current which is proportional to the speed at which roll 13 is moving, which speed is proportional to the linear speed of the web as it passes around the measuring roll 13.
The fabric when passing through the conditioner has its fibers and yarns made somewhat plastic or pliable by the moisture and humid condition in the conditioner, then it passes around the heated cylinder 25 which eliminates some of the excess moisture from the web and also spreads the remaining moisture across the width of the web. The fabric then passes through the clip expander 31 where the edges of the web are engaged by clamps on endless chains. These clamps travel in a diverging path, which is adjustable, to pull the web to the desired width. This width is that which has been predetermined by test to be the width which the fabric when laundered would normally assume. The objective is, of course, approximately zero shrinkage in width. The fabric then passes through the rubber belt shrinking machine 32 where it is overshrunk by some amount which need not be known. These rubber belt shrinking machines are well known in the art.
It has been extremely difficult heretofore to control theamount and extent of shrinkage imparted to a fabric when shrunk on this type of rubber belt machine alone when it is operated at reasonably rapid rates. With the present arrangement the shrinker is set to overshrink the fabric substantially by an amount which is immaterial and need not be known. While the fabric is in contact with the heated drum 34, the moisture in the fabric web in contact therewith is heated well above the vaporization point of water, which would be well above 212 F. When the fabric leaves its position between the rubber belt 35 and the heated drum 34 and both faces are exposed to the atmosphere, much of the water in the web is flashed off or vaporized quickly while the web is traveling to the felt belt dryer shown in Fig. lb or to the can dryer shown in Fig. 2.
Referring to Fig. lb, and as explained earlier herein, the web passes in either of two possible directions through the felt belt dryer depending upon the direction of rotation of the large drying drum 50. When the drum 50 rotates clockwise in Fig. lb the web passes over the scrimp bar 119 and the roller 120, and downwardly between the drum 50 and the belt 53, just after the belt has passed over the roll 54. During its travel in contact with the felt belt 53 and the drum 50 the fabric is dried. It then passes over one or more of the reels 64- to the plaiter or folder where it is folded and deposited in the receiving truck 66. With this arrangement the face of the fabric web which was in contact with the surface of the hot drum 34 in the shrinker will also pass in contact with the hot drum 50 of the dryer, and the opposite face of the web which was in contact with the rubber belt 35 of the shrinker will then pass in contact with the felt belt 53 of the dryer. This gives to the one face which was in contact with both drums a slightly more lustrous finish than the other face which was in contact with the rubber and felt belts.
If the dryer is set to operate counter clockwise in Fig. 1b, then the web leaves the dryer by passing over the roll 120. The web is then conveyed under the machine to another one of the reels 64, such as the intermediate reel 64, and then to the plaiter or folder 65. With the drum of the dryer running counterclockwise in Fig. 1b, the face of the fabric 2 which was in contact with the heated drum surface of the shrinkage machine 32 (Fig. 1a) will then pass in contact with the felt belt 53, Fig. lb in the dryer, and the opposite face of the fabric which was in contact with the rubber belt in the shrinker 32, Fig. la will pass in contact with the hot drum '50, Fig. 1b of the dryer. The fabric thus will have both faces in contact with a hot drum which gives a more lustrous finish on both faces of the web. When the drum of the dryer rotates clockwise in Fig. 1b, one face of the web may have a somewhat more lustrous finish than the other face.
The generator 118, Fig. 1b will always rotate at a speed proportional to the speed of the rotation of the dryer and thus the voltage delivered by the generator 118 will be directly proportional to the linear speed of the felt belt 53 and web 2 which are passing around the drum 50 of the dryer. Thus, the voltage delivered by the generator 118 will urge the indicator pointer or hand 175 in a direction which is opposed to the moving force imparted to the hand 175 by the current delivered by the generator 19.
The motor M (Fig. 1), the motor 77 (Fig. 1) and the motor 76 (Fig. 1b) are operated from a common source of direct current, so that if the voltage in the line varies, the speed of all three motors will vary uniformly. Suitable rheostats may be employed to control the speed of operation of the motor M, and thus determine the speed at which the fabric web is directed to the conditioner 15. The belt 35 of the shrinker is driven from the drum 34 at a rate which moves the fabric through it at a much lower rate than that at which it is fed by the motor M to the conditioner 15. The motor 77 also drives the dryer at a rate faster than that of the shrinking machine. This difference in rate is determined by the adjustment of the speed varying device 93 (Fig. 1a). A suitable manual control is provided with these speed varying devices 93 by means of which the speed ratio is selectively varied by practically infinitesimal steps. By adjusting the speed ratio of this device 93, the speed of the dryer drum 50 is adjusted in relation to the speed of the belt 35. Thus the relative rates at which the dryer drum 50 and the belt 35, Fig. 1a are operated may be selectively varied. The speed of the dryer belt 50, Fig. 1b will be slightly faster than the speed of the shrinker belt 35, Fig. 1a. This drum 50 and belt 53 (Fig. 112) by pulling the fabric at a somewhat higher rate than that at which it leaves the shrinking machine 32, Fig. In, places the web 2 under tension and serves to stretch the fabric and to remove some of the overshrinkage.
Thus by operating the belt 50, Fig. 1b at a rate faster than that of the belt 35, Fig. 1a, and slower than that of the measuring roll 13, Fig. 1 by a known and selected amount, the residual shrinkage which is left in the web can be accurately determined. It may be selectively varied by adjusting the speed varying device 93, Fig. 1a. The control for this speed varying device 93 is preferably made convenient to the indicator 171, so that the operator can while observing the position of the indicator hand 175, conveniently operate the control for the speed varying device 93 which will increase or decrease the speed of the dryer. By predetermining the potential shrinkage of a sample of fabric before it is run through the machine, one will know how much shrinkage to impart to the web in its passage through this range, in order that the residual shrinkage in the treated or shrunk web will be substantially zero, or whatever residual shrinkage one desires to leave in the web. One may even leave so much imparted shrinkage in the web that when it is laundered it will gain in length. To do this, the dryer is operated at such a low rate of speed that all of the overshrinkage is not removed from the web that leaves the shrinker unit 32, Fig. 1a.
The reels 64, Fig. 1b are driven from the gear box 101,
Fig. In at a speed proportional to that of the dryer drum Fig. 1b, so that if one varies the rate of operation of the dryer drum, the speed of the reels 64, Fig. 1b, will be proportionally varied and thus there will not be any substantial amount of tension applied to the fabric being carried by such reels.
In the can dryer, the operation is similar to that explained above except that the fabric leaving the shrinker is passed around the drying cans in succession instead of through the felt belt dryer. By varying the rate at which the cans are operated, one can exert enough tension on the fabric delivered by the shrinker, to remove therefrom any undesired overshrinkage and leave in the fabric any desired amount of the shrinkage.
It will be understood that the conditioner 15, the cylinder 25, the clip expander 31, the basic parts of the rubber belt shrinker 32, the basic parts of the felt belt dryer and of the can dryer, and the reels and folder are generally old and have been illustrated and described only to the extent necessary to explain the use of them in this combination, and the adaptation of the improvements thereto. Parts or small assemblies which are available in the open market, such as the tachometer, indicator, gear boxes and reversible gear device 107 for example, have not been shown in full detail, because the present invention relates to the utilization of those assemblies which are available in the open market in the present combinations, and not to their destails.
Referring particularly to Fig. 1a, it will be noted that the operating shaft for the dryer is coupled to this drive shaft 81 by the variable speed drive 93, which enables one to change the speed at which the dryer is operated, relatively to the shrinker 32, while this machine is operating. The variable speed drive 93 may be replaced by a separate electric motor of the variable speed type, such as a direct current motor, which drives the shaft 97, in which case the driving connection to the shaft in housing 81 from the motor 77 is broken. Such a variable speed motor to replace the drive 93 will be controlled by a operation of the dryer can be changed while the machine is operating. This is now practical with the use of the tachometer generators 19 and 118 and the visual indicator 171 to constantly indicate the amount of imparted shrinkage being left in the fabric web.
It will be understood that various changes in the details and arrangements of parts, which have been herein described and illustrated in order to explain the nature of the invention, may be made by those skilled in the art within the principle and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims.
1. In a machine for treating a woven fabric web, the combination of means for continuously feeding the fabric web lengthwise at a selected rate, means receiving the web from said feeding means and continuously and progressively compressively shrinking it lengthwise, means disposed to receive the shrunk web, dry it and deliver it at a rate less than that at which it is delivered by said first means, an idler roll over and in driving contact with which the web passes from said feeding means and which is rotated by its contact with said web, a pair of direct current generators with uniformly excited fields, one connected to and driven by said roll, and the other connected to and driven by said drying means, an indicating instrument having a movable visual indicator and opposing coils urging the visual indicator in opposite directions by magnetic forces created within the coils depending upon which of the coils the greater electric current voltage is impressed upon at any time, and an electric circuit connecting each generator to a related one of the coils.
2. In a machine for treating a woven fabric web, the combination of means for continuously feeding the fabric web lengthwise at a selected rate, means receiving the web from said feeding means and continuously and progressively compressively shrinking it lengthwise, means for receiving the shrunk web, drying it and delivering it at a, rate less than that at which it is fed by said first means, a pair of direct current generators with uniformly excited fields, means for causing one of said generators to be driven proportionally to the speed of the web as it is delivered by said feeding means, means for causing the other generator to be driven at a speed proportional to the speed at which the web is delivered by said drying means, an indicating instrument with a visual indicator and opposing coils that urge the indicator in opposite directions by magnetic forces created in the coils, depending upon which of the coils has a greater electric current voltage impressed thereon at any time, an electric circuit connecting each generator to a related one of said coils, whereby the current delivered by one generator will urge the indicator in one direction and the current delivered by the other generator will urge the indicator in the other direction, and a scale cooperating with said indicator to indicate the shrinkage or elongation of said web.
' 3. In a machine for treating a woven fabric web, the combination of means for continuously feeding said web lengthwise at a selected rate, means receiving the web from said feeding means and continuously and progressively, compressively overshrinking it lengthwise, a drying device continuously receiving the web from the shrinking means and drying it, said drying device having a heated drum, and an endless flexible belt operating in an endless path, a part of which path includes travel in contact with said drum, means for causing rotation of said drum selectively in either direction at a rate which will deliver the web therefrom at a linear speed less than said selected rate but enough greater than the linear speed of the web as delivered by the shrinking means to leave in the shrunk web a selected amount of shrinkage potential, means for feeding the web from said shrinking means between the belt and drum selectively where they approach in their travel together, whereby the web may always pass between the belt and drum for a major portion ofthe travel of the belt in contact with said drum, and with either face of the web in contact with the surface of said drum depending upon the direction of rotation of the drum.
4. In a machine for treating a woven fabric web to reduce the dimensional variations of the web when it is subsequently laundered, the combination of means for continuously and progressively feeding said web lengthwise at a selected rate, means for conditioning as to moisture content the moving web so fed, means for receiving and continuously and progressively, compressively overshrinking the moving moisture-conditioned web while the web is confined between a heated surface and a rubber surface, a plurality of heated cans of equal diameters, means connecting all of said cans for rotation at the same rate, common power operating means connected to and rotating the connected cans and operating said shrinking means and having a variable speed drive in the connection to the cans, whereby the ratio of the speed of the cans and the shrinking means may be varied selectively and the cans operated faster than the shrinking means by a selected and variable amount, a motor for operating said feeding means, and speed controls for said motor and said common power operating means.
5. In a machine for treating a woven fabric web, the combination of means for continuously and progressively feeding said web lengthwise at a selected rate, means for conditioning as to moisture content the moving web so fed, means for compressively over-shrinking the moving, moisture-conditioned web while the web is confined between a heated surface and a rubber surface, means for receiving and continuously and progressively drying the moving Web as received from said shrinking means, a common power operating means connected to and operating, the drying and shrinking means together and having a selectively variable speed drive in the connection to the drying means by which the speed of the drying means may be selectively varied relatively to the speed of the shrinking means, a pair of direct current generators with uniformly excited fields, means for causing one of said generators to be driven at a speed proportional to the speed of the web as delivered by said feeding means, means for causing the other of said generators to be driven at a speed proportional to the speed of the web passing through the drying means, and means responsive to the electric currents delivered by said generators for indicating the difference in the speeds of the web as delivered by said feeding means and said drying means but calibrated to read directly in shrinkage measurements.
6. In a machine for treating a woven fabric web, the combination of means for continuously and progressively feeding said web lengthwise at a selected rate, means for conditioning as to moisture content the moving web so fed, means for compressively over-shrinking the moving, moisture-conditioned web while the web is confined between a heated surface and a rubber surface, means for. receiving and continuously and progressively drying the moving web as delivered by said shrinking means, means for operating the shrinking means at a selected rate to over-shrink and deliver the web at a rate less than it is delivered by said feeding means, means for operating said drying means to deliver the web at a rate selectively variable, through infinitesimal increments, at a rate so proportional to the rate at which it is fed by said feeding means that it retains the desired amount of compressive shrinkage, a pair of direct current generators with uniformly excited fields, means for causing one of said generators to be driven at a speed proportional, to the speed of the web as delivered by said feeding means, means for causing the other of said generators to be driven at a speed proportional to the speed of the web passing through the drying means, and means responsive to the electric currents delivered by said generators for indicating the difference in the speeds of the web as delivered by said feeding means and said drying means but calibrated to read directly in shrinkage measurements.
7. In a machine for treating a woven fabric web to selectively reduce the extent to which the web will elongate or shrink when subsequently laundered, the combination of means for continuously feeding the fabric web lengthwise at a selected rate, means receiving the web from said feeding means, progressively moisture-conditioning it and passing it along continuously, means receiving the conditioned web and compressively over-shrinking it lengthwise progressively and continuously, means receiving and drying the shrunk web continuously and progressively, means for selectively controlling the relative speeds of the feeding means, the shrinking means, and the drying means, whereby the shrinking means may be operated at a rate to shrink and pass the web at a rate less than that at which the web is passed by said feeding means, and the drying means may be operated at a rate to dry and pass the shrunk web at a rate faster than it is passed by said shrinking means, so as to remove by stretching such amount of overshrinking of the web as will leave in the web the desired amount of potential laundry wash shrinkage, a pair of electric generators, one responsive to the speed of said web after it leaves said feeding means and before the web is moisture conditioned, the other responsive to the speed of said web passed by said drying means, and means connected to said generators and responsive to the relative intensities of currents generated by said generators for indicating by such difference in current intensities the amount of potential wash shrinkage left in said dried web.
8. In a machine for treating a woven fabric web to selectively reduce the extent to which the web will elongate or shrink when subsequently laundered, and having means for first moisture-conditioning said Web, means for shrinking said conditioned web to a selected extent between a heated, smooth surface and a belt, and means 13 for then drying the shrunk web, that improvement in the means for drying the shrunk web which comprises in combination with the foregoing, a rotatable heated drum with a smooth periphery, an endless flexible belt operating in an endless path, a part of which path includes travel in contact with said drum periphery in the direction of rotation of the drum, means for causing rotation of said drum selectively in either direction, means for feeding said shrunk web between the belt and drum selectively where they approach in their travel together, dependent upon the direction of rotation of the drum, whereby the shrunk web may always pass between the belt and drum for the portion of the travel of the belt in contact with the drum, and with either face of the shrunk web in contact with the peripheral surface of the drum, depending upon the direction of rotation of the drum.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS