US 2888924 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
,June Z, 1959 R. P. DUNMIRE HYPODERMIC SYRINGES Original Filed Nov. 30. 1954 ATTORNEYS HYPODERMC SYRINGES Russell P. Dnnrnire, Chagrin Falls, Ollio Application November 30, 1954, Serial No. 472,192, now Patent No. 2,876,771, dated March 10, 1959, which is a division of application Serial No. 248,806, September 28, 1951, now Patent No. 2,696,212, dated December 7, 1954. Divided and this application February 25, 1958, Serial No. 717,469
13 Claims. (Cl. 12S- 218) This invention relates to devices for injecting iluids through membranes and particularly to devices for effecting subcutaneous injections of medicaments and the like into human beings and animals. While especially valuable for injecting medicaments, the devices of the invention have characteristics rendering them useful f or a wide variety of other types of injection operations in industry and scientific research.
This application is a division of my copending application Serial No. 472,192 iiled November 30, 1954, for Hypodermic Syringe (US. Patent No. 2,876,771 of March 10, 1959), which is in turn a division of a prior application copending therewith, Serial No. 248,806, filed September 28, 1951, for Hypodermic Syringe (U.S. Patent No. 2,696,212 of December 7, 1954).
The invention involves new injection devices and methods of making the same and, also, new techniques for effecting injections. Though in no way limited thereto, the invention princip ly relates to the provision of injection devices having the fluid to be injected sealed therein at the time manufacture of the devices is completed. Though itis contemplated that the devices willy generally be discarded after being used to perform one injection, they may, ofcourse, be saved for salvage of some orV all. of theirv component parts.
While it is always preferable that subcutaneous injections in human beings be prescribed by a qualified physician and be administered either by the physician or other trained and qualified person, there are many instances in which it is ynot practical to place such limitations on the subcutaneous administration of medicaments. For example, diabetics have commonly resorted to self-merdication by subcutaneous injection of insulin,l which many victims of this malady require at intervals too frequent for the normal precautions to be practical. Also, the prompt handling of epidemics,` mass casualties in peacetinte and wartime disasters, etc., occasionally demand more rapid administration of subcutaneous medicaments of one sort or another to human beings than can'be accomplished alone by the trained and qualified personnel available.
Thus, there are numerous instances in which selfadministration, or administration by relatively unskilled personnel, of injections to human beings is desirablel or imperative. However, the requirementsof proper cleansing andsterilization of the epidermis and ofthe injection apparatus, and careful measurement` of the dose administered, render conventional hospital or laboratory apparatus and techniques awkward and cumbersome in the eld. Accordingly, there is a great need for simpler equipment and techniques that are better adapted to meet such exigencies.
Whilel many attempts have been made to satisfy this need, all of the devices proposed have had certain drawbacks or limitations that have greatly restricted their value and their versatility. The essential, or at least highly desirable characteristics include:
1. Simple and inexpensive construction permitting mass production at a reasonable cost.
2. Simple operation in use, permitting administration by persons having no special training or manual skill or dexterity.
3. Resistance to the effects of thermal expansion and contraction.
4. Resistance to great changes in atmospheric pressure.
5. Availability in a sterile condition for prolonged periods -of time without requiring resterilizing at the time of use.
6. Zero M.V.T.R. (moisture and vapor transmission rate) through the wall of the enveloping package.
7. Resistance to rough handling during transportation and use.
8. Provision for sterilizing the epidermis in the region of the injection.
9. Provision for protecting the punctured regionof the epidermis from contact with infectious substances.
Ability to preclude entrance of infectious substances during the injection.
Operative in any position.
Resistance (of the device itself) to corrosion, rot,
attack by fungus, etc.
Provision ofv means for positive laterv identification of the patient andl ofthe character and amount of medication administered.
fullyunderstoodi fromthe following detailed'. descriptionyk of the invention, and; from.. the accompanying.- drawing i'n-Y which:`
Figure 1 is an elevational view, approximately actualf s1ze as printed inthe patent, offa double actingl or duplex applicator for receiving and operating disposablev hypodermic syringes;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary, verticall or longitudinal section through they centerv of the` applicator of- Fig. l, showing a disposable hypodermic syringe, also insection, disposed therein in its manufactured condition;
F'g. 3 is 'milar to Fig. 2, but shows the parts of Fig. 2
just as a subcutaneous injection has beeny completed andy before` withdrawing the hypodermic needle fromthe patient;
Fig. 4 is atransverse sectional4 View through one end ofthe applicator of Fi'gsl and 2With a disposable hypo. dermic` syringe disposed therein,`the plane of the section, beingindicated by the line 4,-.4 in Fig. 1,;
Eig. 5 is, another transverse se ctiona1, Viewthrouglrthe:`
oppositeY end of the applicator of Figs, landl 2, with, a dlierentlv Shared. dspesablehvpodermie syringe: disputed.
therein, the. plane, of. the. Section being indicated. by4 the.-
line 5 5 in Fig. 1.
Referring to the. form 0f the. inVernier;A illustrated `in the-drawing, there is shownanapplicator 60 ofthe-duplexor double acting type adapted to receive a collapsiblel ampoule in each end, thereof. The applicator 6 0 may beF constructedin avariety of waysand onesuchcons tion isShQWn. in detail im Fiss '1 and?- fvr illustrati purposes.
In the embodiment illustrated, the applicator 60 may l comprise a tubular center section 61 and an integrally formed tubular end section 62 of slightly reduced diameter. The opposite end may be separately formed tubular section 63, substantially identical in dimensions with the end section 62, having an integral extension 64 telescopically received within the center section 61. The center section has a pair of diametrically opposite, longitudinal slots 65 cut therein from the free end thereof almost to the opposite end. The extension 64 of the end section 63 is similarly slotted in the opposite direction at 66, the slots 65 and 66 being diametrically aligned.
A cylindrical ram 67, having a pair of diametrically opposite fins 68 projecting radially therefrom, is slid into the center section 61 with the fins 68 projecting out through the slots 65, whereupon the extension 64 on the end section 63 is telescoped with the center section 61 and joined thereto by a circumferential weld 69 to form substantially identical syringe receptacles at opposite ends of the center section 61 with the ram 67 normally disposed therebetween. The outer edges of the fins 68 may be serrated or knurled for easy gripping with the fingers to slide the ram 67 in either direction into the syringe receptacles. Both ends of the ram are preferably provided with terminal bosses 70 (only one being shown) conforming to similarly shaped recesses in the ends of the syringes against which the ram will bear.
The end section 63, shown in detail in Fig. 8, is externally threaded at its open end to Areceive an internally threaded cap 71 having a concavity 72 in the outer end face thereof surrounded by an annular rim 73, and having an axial opening 74 therethrough. A thin disc 76 having its center punched out -to form a pair of inwardly projecting prongs 77 is attached, as by Welding at 78, to the inner end face of the cap 71.
A sleeve 79a having a circular, outer, cross-sectional outline and, for example, an octagonal, inner, cross-sectional outline is slid into the end section 63 `to provide a desired inner cross-sectional configuration for receiving a syringe 80a having a corresponding cross-sectional configuration at one or both ends thereof.
The opposite end of the applicator is identical with the end described above except that it may contain a sleeve 791: having, for instance, a circular, inner, crosssectional outline to receive a syringe 80h having a corresponding cross-sectional configuration at one or both ends thereof. By properly dimensiouing the sleeves 79a and 79b and the syringes 80a and 80b, each syringe will fit only in the receptacle of matching cross-sectional configuration.
Except for their cross-sectional configurations at one or both ends, the syringes 80a and 80b may be identical, and only one of them need be described in detail.
Referring to Figs. 2, 3, and 4, the syringe 80a may comprise an aluminum disc 81 having an elongated, axially extending, central boss 82 integrally formed thereon to hold a hypodermic needle. The opposite end of the syringe may include an aluminum member 83 having a Well 84 formed in the outer end thereof that may contain an antiseptic uid 86, preferably containing a suitable dye, and a Well 87 formed in the inner end thereof and shaped to receive the end of the boss 82 when the syringe is collapsed. The Well 84 may be closed by a very thin aluminum disc 88 cold welded to the member 83 around the periphery of the disc. The common wal-l 89 between the well 84 and the well 87 is reduced in thickness at its center suiciently for the pointed end of a hypodermic needle to be easily punched therethrough.
A thin, aluminum, bellows-like, tubular shell 90 may surround and be cold welded at one end to the disc 81 and at its opposite end to the member 83 to form a reservoir for an injection uid 91. The fluid 91 may be charged through an opening in the disc 81, that may be closed thereafter by a plug 92, while air is exhausted l through a second opening in the disc 81, that may be closed thereafter by swedging or by a plug 93.
A hypodermic needle 94 is disposed inside the shell 90 with its butt end firmly held in the boss 82 and its pointed end surrounded by the Wall 87 and disposed close to the thin wall 89. An opening from the interior of the shell 90 into the butt end of the needle may be provided in any desired manner. As shown, one side of the boss 82 may be cut away at 95 to expose an opening 96 in the side wall of the needle. When the syringe a is collapsed longitudinally to the condition shown in Fig. 9, as permitted by the corrugations in the bellows-like shell 90, the needle is forced to penetrate the wall 89 and is projected out through the aperture 74 and into the epidermis 98 of a patient. At the same time, the injection fluid 91 may flow through the needle from the opening 96.
After the syringe 80a has been assembled as described with the antiseptic fluid 86 and injection fluid 91 therein, it may be coated over its entire outer surface with a layer 99 of a suitably exible and impervious plastic material. As shown in Fig. 2, this material may be molded around the member 83 and, if desired, around the disc 81 to provide the octagonal outer cross-section shown in Fig. 4, or to provide the circular, outer cross-section shown -in Fig. 5.
The applicator may be loaded by removing the caps 71 at both ends, inserting the appropriately shaped syringes 80a and 8011, and then replacing the caps. Assuming that two successive injections are to be made, first one from the syringe 80a and then one from the syringe 80h, the end section 63 is first positioned against the patient as shown in Fig. 3. The rim 73 on the end of the applicator cap 71 is pressed against the epidermis of the patient and forces it to bulge inwardly into the concavity 72 as shown at 98. The plunger 67 is forced in the direction toward the epidermis of the patient by manually gripping and moving the fins 68 on the plunger. This rst moves the syringe in the same direction, causing the prongs 77 to puncture the plastic coating 99 and the thin disc 88 and thus permitting the antiseptic fluid 86 to iiow onto the epidermis within the confines of the rim 73. The fluid 86 sterilizes the area in which the injection is to be made and also stains or dyes the epidermis in that region for later identification of patients who have received injections and identification of the type of injection received. Further movement of the plunger then collapses the syringe as shown in Fig. 9 forcing the needle 94 through the thin, central wall portion S9 and through the opening 74 into the epidermis and forcing substantially all of the injection uid through the needle and into the patient.
Upon withdrawal of the applicator, the needle is also withdrawn, whereupon the applicator may be reversed end for end, and a second injection of liuid from the syringe 8011 may be made in the same manner.
Finally, the caps 71 may be removed, and the projecting needles 94 may be -grasped for pulling out the used syringes. The used syringes may be discarded or saved for salvage as desired.
Though not shown in the drawing, it is contemplated that the exterior cross-sectional configuration of the applicator and sections 62 and 63 may be made to conform with the cross-sectional configuration of the syringes respectively receivable therein for distinguishing one end of the applicator from the other after loading. In conjunction With this expedient, or as an alternative, suitable marking with numerals, legends, or colors, including fluorescent and luminescent coloring or coating compositions, may be employed.
As used in the appended claims, the term cylindrical is intended to have its broad geometrical meaning, i.e., a shape or volume defined by a straight line (called a generatrix) moving about any closed path while remaining at all times parallel to a fixed straight line. The term generally cylndrical shell refers to a shell of the character of the ampoule shells 80a and 80h shown in 5, the drawing, which will generally conform to the interior surface of a cylindrical'tube or the like, whether the cross-section thereof is circular, octagonal, or of some other configuration, but the term is not intended torequire close conformance at all points along the length of the shell.
From the foregoing description of the structure, method of manufacture and use of one form of injection device, it will be appreciated that the basic principles of the invention are applicable in many different ways to the injection of fluids of all kinds through penetrable Walls or membranes. The invention is not intended to be limited to the particular structural details and methods of manufacture selectively disclosed herein to illustrate a presently preferred form of the invention, but is intended to include the ymany variations thereof within the scope of the appended claims that will occur to those skilled in the art.
Having disclosed my invention, I claim:
l. A hypodermic syringe comprising a generally cylindrical shell dening a closed fluid reservoir having relatively rigid opposite end walls and a llexible side wall permitting longitudinal collapsing of the shell, a hypodermic needle disposed within the shell, the butt end of said needle being rigidly secured to one of said rigid end Walls and the opposite. end of the needle being pointed and directed toward the other of said rigid end walls in close proximity thereto, an opening from said reservoir into said needle adjacent the butt end thereof, and said other rigid end wall, at least in the area opposite the point of said needle, being sufficiently thin and soft to be easily punctured by the needle when the syringe is collapsed longitudinally to drive the needle through said easily punctured area.
2. A syringe according to claim l including means deiining an external cavity adjacent but outside of said other rigid end wall and in the path of the point of the needle.
3. A syringe according to claim l in which said liexible side wall is corrugated to facilitate longitudinal collapsing of the shell.
4. A syringe according to claim l, including a relatively rigid cylindrical tube of uniform cross-section along its length surrounding the side wall of said shell, a cap removably secured over one end of said tube adjacent said other end wall of said shell to permit insertion of the shell and subsequent removal thereof, said cap having an aperture therethrough in the path of the point of said needle to permit the same to pass freely therethrough when the shell is longitudinally collapsed, and a plunger in said tube adjacent said one of said end walls of the shell, said plunger being slidable in the tube for longitudinally compressing and collapsing the shell against said cap.
5. A hypodermic syringe according to claim 1, in which said shell is relatively long axially from end wall to end wall thereof compared to its dimensions transverse to its axis, a generally cylindrical, rigid container surrounding said shell from end to end thereof, a plunger mounted in said container at one end of said shell for engaging the adjacent end wall thereof to which said needle is secured, and a cap for the container at the opposite end of said shell, said cap having an aperture therethrough in axial alignment with said needle for penetration thereby when said plunger is actuated to collapse said shell and project the needle therefrom.
6. A hypodermic syringe according to claim l, in which said shell is relatively long axially from end wall to end wall thereof compared to its dimensions transverse to its axis, a generally cylindrical, rigid container surrounding said shell from end to end thereof, a plunger slidably mounted in said container at one end of said shell for engaging the adjacent end wall thereof to which said needle is secured, said container including a cap adjacent the opposite end of said shell, said cap having an aperture therethrough in axial alignment with said needle for penetration thereby when said plunger is actuated to co1- lapse said shell against the cap and project the needle therefrom, and an end portion of said container being removably secured thereto for opening and closing the Same for insertion and removal of the collapsible shell.
7. A hypodermic syringe according to clairn l, in which said opposite end wall has an external concavity to receive an antiseptic fluid and said concavity is closed by an outer, easily puncturable partition, and in which said shell is relatively long axially from end wall to end wall thereof compared to its dimensions transverse to its axis, a generally cylindrical, rigid container surrounding said shell from end to end thereof, a plunger mounted in said container at one end of said shell for engaging the adjacent end wall thereof to which said needle is secured, said container including a cap adjacent the opposite end of said shell, said cap having. an aperture therethrough in axialy alignment with said needle for penetration thereby when said plunger is actuatedl to, collapse said shell against the cap and project the needle therefrom, the cap of said container being removably securedv thereto for opening and closing the same for insertion and removal of the. collapsible shell, said cap including inwardly directed means for puncturing the outer partition of said cavity when said plunger is actuated.
8. A hypodermic syringe comprising a non-frangible, collapsible shell defining a closed reservoir containing a fluid medicament, one end portion of said shell being relatively thick and rigid, a hypodermic needle disposed entirely within the shell and having a butt end and a pointed end, the butt end being secured to and held by said relatively thick and rigid end portion of the shell with the pointed end disposed in close proximity to the opposite end portion of the shell, and an opening from said reservoir into said needle adjacent the butt end thereof the opposite end portion of the shell being relatively rigid and including a central portion axially aligned with the needle and suciently thin and soft to be readily penetrated thereby, and the side wall of the shell between said end portions being generally cylindrical and being thin and flexible relative to said end portions for easy collapsing.
9. A syringe according to claim 8 in which said opposite end portion of the shell includes means defining an external cavity to receive an antiseptic uid, said cavity being closed by an outer end wall that is readily rupturable to release the antiseptic fluid.
l0. A syringe according to claim 8 in which said opposite end portion of the shell includes means dening an external cavity to receive an antiseptic uid, said cavity being closed by an outer end wall that is readily rupturable to release the antiseptic uid and is readily penetrated by the needle when the shell is longitudinally collapsed to force the needle through said opposite end portion and to force the fluid medicament out of said reservoir through the needle.
ll. A pair of hypodermic syringes according to claim 8, a generally cylindrical container therefor having a plunger of substantially lesser length than the container mounted for sliding longitudinally therein toward and away from either end thereof, said syringes being respectively disposed in said container at opposite ends of said plunger with the needles of the syringes directed in opposite directions outwardly from the plunger, and caps removably secured over opposite ends of the container to permit insertion of the syringes and subsequent removal thereof, each of said caps having an aperture therethrough in alignment with the needle of the adjacent syringe for penetration thereby when the plunger is moved in a direction to collapse the adjacent syringe against the cap and project the needle from the syringe, whereby movement of said plunger in one direction will collapse one of said syringes and movement of said plunger in the opposite direction will collapse the other of said syringes.
12. A pair of hypodermic syringes according to claim 8 in which said opposite end portion of each syringe shell includes means defining an external cavity containing an antiseptic uid, said cavity being closed by an outer end wall that is readily rupturable to release the antiseptic uid, a generally cylindrical container for the pair of syringes having a plunger of substantially lesser length than the container mounted for sliding longitudinally therein toward and away from either end thereof, said syringes being respectively disposed in said container at opposite ends of said plunger with the needles of the syringes directed in opposite directions outwardly from the plunger, and caps removably secured over opposite ends of the container to permit insertion of the syringes and subsequent removal thereof, each of said caps having an aperture therethrough in alignment with the needle of the adjacent syringe for penetration thereby when the plunger is moved in a direction to collapse the adjacent syringe against the cap and project the needle from the syringe, each of said caps including inwardly directed means for puncturing the outer end wall of said cavity of the adjacent syringe shell when it is urged against the cap by movement of the plunger, whereby movement of said plunger in one direction will urge one of said syringes against the associated cap and collapse said one of the syringes and movement of said plunger in the opposite direction will urge the other syringe against the associated cap and collapse said other syringe.
13. A syringe according to claim 1, including a relatively rigid cylindrical tube of uniform cross section along its length surrounding the side Wall of said shell, a cap removably secured over one end of said tube adjacent said other end wall of said shell to permit insertion of the shell and subsequent removal thereof, said cap having an aperture therethrough in the path of the point of said needle to permit the same to pass freely therethrough when the shell is longitudinally collapsed, and a plunger in said tube adjacent said one of said end walls of the shell, said plunger being slidable in the tube for longitudinally compressing and collapsing the shell against said cap, said syringe including wall means dening an external cavity adjacent but outside of said other end wall of said shell toward which the point of the needle is directed, and said cap including inwardly directed means for puncturing the wall means of said external cavity when the syringe is urged against the cap by movement of said plunger.
No references cited.