US 2889591 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. c. PRATT l WINDOW STRUCTURE June 9, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fixled Nov. 19. 1953 w/ mi llllhlllll u Mill!! Il I HIUIHII .II Il INVENTOR. .@BY/fza/zd @J7/faz? @JMJ/W7) `lune 9, 1959 R. c. PRATT I 2,889,591
wNDOw STRUCTURE June 9, 1959 R. c. PRATT WINDOW STRUCTURE Filed Nov. 19, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet I5 R. c. PRATT WINDOW STRUCTURE June 9, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed NOV. 19. 1953 ivf . INVENTOR.
g BY United States Patent Oce Patented June 9, `1959 WINDOW STRUCTURE Raymond C. Pratt, Chicago, -Ill. Application November 19, 1953, Serial1`No.,393,037 4 Claims. `(l,20`53) 'The present invention relates toa novel closure, and more particularly to a novel window structure.
As is well known, large buildings, suchas oice buildings, usually are subject to a considerable maintenance expense due to the labor involved in washing windows. With the usual window structure heretofore known, it is necessary for the window washer to stand on the window sill supported lby safety strips and the like in order to V`wash the outside of the Window. This involves considerable' labor expense because of the time required toy climb in and out ofthe window `and also because of therather high cost ofthe labor due tothe hazardous nature of the job. .Another disadvantage'of window structures heretofore in general use is that the windowgmay'be Aonly -partially opened for ventilating or -othersimilar-purposes "It is, therefore, an object ofthe lpresent-invention--to Vovercome these disadvantages of prior window structures by providing a novel window V.structure Awhich may be .easily washed on both sides without requiring they washer -to climb through the window and which maytbe moved :Ito an open position with the windowopening substantially `completely unobstructed toprovide maximum ventilation.
.Another object of the present-inventionis to'provide anovel window structure of the above described type YWhichfmay be easily moved to and from opened and closed positions and which is effectively sealed vagainst entry of atmospherimmoisture andthe likerwhen in the closed position.
A more specific object of thepresent invention'is to zprovide. a novel rwindow .structure of the :above described typewith novel means forlocking the-.window :sash in a ,closed'position .Other Yobjects and -advantages of the vpresent invention .will become apparent from the following description :and qthe accompanying drawings, wherein:
AFig. l is a perspective'view illustrating ythe outside :of fa vwindow structure embodying Vthe principles -ofzthis invention with the windowsash in a closedfposition;
Fig 2 is a perspective view similar to kFig. 1,but;showing the window sash ,in .an vopen position;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary elevational view showing the inside of a lower portionof thenovel wind ow structure in greater detail;
Fig. 41's an enlarged vertical cross sectionalviewgtaken along line'4 4 in Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical crossxsec- `.tional view taken along line v5 5 in1i `ig., 2;
Eig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary lcross .gsectionalview v taken along line 6 6 in Fig. `1;
7 is afragmentary horizontal cross sectional vie-w taken alongvline 7 7 in Fig. y3;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary horizontal crosssectional view taken along line 8 3 in Fig 3;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary verticalcross sectional view taken along line 9 9 in Fig. 7;
Fig. V10 is a perspective view illustrating a locking ele- -ment vof the present invention;
Fig. -11 is an'enlarged fragmentary Vvertical cross secltional view showing anovel construction feature of this invention in .greater detail;
Figs. 12, 13, and 14 are somewhat diagrammatic vertical cross sectional views showing how various shades kor `heat and light filters may be used with the novel window structure; and
AFi-g. l5 isa cross sectional view taken along line 15 15 in"Fig. v14.
,Referring vnow more specilically to the drawings, where- ...inlikeparts are designated by the same numerals throughout Ythe various figures, a window structure 12 embodyving the principles lof this invention is shown best in Figs. 1 and 12. This window structure includes aogener- ,-allyrectangular frame 14 having upper and lower frame members 16 and 1S and vertical frame members 2i? and '22, which frame members are adapted to be secured withinl a window opening in a Wall 24. A window sash V26 `is ypivotally mounted by means described below for movement vfroma closed position in the plane of the Window'frame, as shown in Fig. l, to an open position, astshowningFig. 2. Inaddition, in accordance with a feature of this invention, the window sash may be pivoted atleast aboutl80 Yso asto enable both sides of the sash to vbe presented toward-the4 interior of the building fior easy .cleaning "The frame members 16 through 22Mof the window frgme are preferably formed from extruded aluminum, butjit is .understood that any Othensuitable, materialmay be used. As. shown bestinEig. 4, the framemernber .L16iinc1udesa-pair .of spacedllegs '28 and 'Sil which are interconnecte,d,by an integral web 32 in amender to ,provide the jframemember with .a generally .ld-'shaped Yerosssectidn. .Flanges-t .and extend. trcmthe .upper Yedgesof thelegs ZSand 3d and are provided With Suitable ,apertures jfor receiving bolts .or 4the like t 3g which are usefd tosecure the .frame men'iber to the building .wall .24. .The H-shaned .framememberis.adapted t0 .receive.thereinwindow sealing means 40 which'isrengageable vwithan dedgeofa closed window sash to provide Na substantially weathertight seal- .Byreferring to Fias- .4 ,and7, -it is seen thatthe frame members 18 and YVZlyare formedof-,cross sections-identical tothe framerne ber 1.6 andreceive Window sealing devices e2 and 41twhich Aare substantially identical .to the `above `.mentioned -seal- .,ing.means ,40. `:nis A understood `of course, .that the windowframe member 22 is .identical tothe frame memberQZtl ,andcontains a `-`sealing lmeans Iidentical lto ,the ,sealingumeans-dd. Sinceall otthesesealing.means are identical, only .thefsealingmeans 4b will be described in detail.
flfhesealingmeans A.id-,includesan elongated platemernber'46 which extends for the full length ofthe upper edge of the windowsash. The ,plate member 4.6 is slidably mountedbetweenthe legs `28 `and 300i the frame member Vbymeans ofapin 48 threaded or otherwise secured to the plate member, as at 5l), andslidably extendingthrougha Ysuitable aperturegSZlprovidedin ,thetwebSZ of the .frame member. I hepin isis .provided with yan enlarged head 54 which preventstherpinfrom coming out of the aperturein Vthe web 32,;.and .preferably a washer56 ispositioned between l thehead 54 andthe web l? .to prevent Vinjury tothe web. I.t,i,s, of course, .understood that .the
present invention v contemplates the use .of apluralitysof ypins similar to the pin 48 .spaced at convenientintervals Yalong the' lengthof the plate member 4 5. The plate. member 4dois provided along oppositelongitudinally extending marginsthereojf withflanges S8 and .6d which lare adapted slidably to engage the -frame member ylegs 2S rand 3b-,to guide the plate member for YSliding .movement'rand Lto prevent thekplate member from tilting relatiyetothe window frame.Y 'The rplatemember-46is also provided .with outwardly projecting and longitudinally extending ribs 62 3 and 64v adjacent opposite edges thereof and a similar centrally located rib 66 for cooperative engagement with the window sash in the manner described below. A longitudinally extending sealing pad 68 of rubber or any other suitable material is secu-red to the outer face of the plate member 46 and between the ribs 62 and 466, and a substantially identical sealingV pad 70 is disposed between the ribs 64 and 66. The elongated plate member is resiliently biased outwardly with respect to the frame member for engagement with the sash by means of one or more compression springs 72 which are preferably disposed Iaround the pins 48.
The sash 26 includes upper and lower frame members 74 and 76 and side frame members 78 and 80. As shown best in Figs. 9 and 1l, adjacent frame members are provided with bevelled mating ends which are retained together by means of an angle bracket 82 and a plurality of screws 84 passing through apertures in the frame members and threaded into the bracket. In order to draw the ends of adjacent frame members, such as the lower frame member 76 and the side frame member 78, together to provide a rigid and tight joint, the angle bracket is provided with screw receiving apertures 86 and 88 which are slightly offset from apertures 99 and 92 in the frame members 76 yand 78, respectively. Thus, as the screws S4 having bevelled entering ends are inserted through the apertures in the frame members and started into the apertures in the bracket in the manner shown in Fig. 1l, the ends of the frame members are drawn tightly together.
The window sash frame members are preferably formed from extruded aluminum, and each is provided with a cross sectional shape substantially identical to the cross sectional shape of the frame member 74 which will be described in detail. As shown best in Figs. 4 and 6, the frame member 74 is generally rectangular in cross section and is provided with an upper wall 94, a lower wall 96,
.and side walls 98 and 100. The junctions between the side walls and the lower wall of the frame member are formed to provide channels 102 and 104 adapted to receive edges of glass window panes 106 and 108. In order to provide a weather and airtight seal between the glass and the frame members, elongated sealing elements 110 and 112 of rubber or any other suitable material and having a generally U-shaped cross section enclose the peripheral edge of the glass window panes 106 and 108, respectively, and seat in the channels of the frame members. The glass window panes are retained in position by means of clamping plates 114 and 116 secured to the side walls of the frame member 74 by any suitable means, such as screws and the like. These clamping plates are preferably constructed of aluminum and it is understood that substantially identical clamping plates are also aiiixed to the side walls of the frame members 76, 78 and 80 in order to clamp the entire peripheral edges of the glass panes.
The upper wall 94 of the frame member 74, as well as the corresponding walls of the other sash frame memy bers, is provided with a convex outer surface. A plurality of elongated grooves 118, 120, and 122 are formed in the convex surface for receiving and cooperating with the ribs l62, 64, and `66, respectively, extending from the plate member of the locking device. Thus, when the window sash is in the closed position shown in Fig. 4, the ribs enter the grooves to form a partial seal and to retain the sash in the closed position. In addition, the entry of the ribs into the grooves permits the concave sealing members 68 and 70 to press against the convex surface of the frame member, whereby a substantially air and weathertight seal is obtained. An additional preliminary seal is provided to prevent entry of rain water and the like between the edges of the Window frame and the sash. This preliminary seal includes a tlexible elongated strip 124 of rubber and the like secured to the outer side of the sash frame member 74 by a plurality of suitable screws 126. An elongated block or strip 128 is secured to or made integral with the outer wall 28 of the window frame member 16 and is provided with a notch 130 for receiving the edge of the rubber strip 124. Thus, it is seen that any rain water or the like will be directed past the joint between the window rame and the sash and onto the outer window pane. The space between the sides and lower edge of the sash and the window frame is also sealed by flexible rubber strips 132, 134, and 136 shown best in Figs. 3 and 4. It should be noted that the ribs and the complementary grooves of all of the sealing means plate members and window sash frame members are generally V-shaped so that upon application of a predetermined pressure tending to open the window in the manner described below, the ribs are cammed out of the grooves to permit the window sash to open.
In accordance with a feature of the present invention, the window sash is pivotally mounted for rotation about a central axis thereof by suitable means, whereby the sash may be rotated a-t least about 180 Ito present the outer surface of the sash toward the interior ofthe building for easy cleaning. Furthermore, by rotating the sash about 90 4from its closed position to the open position shown Iin Fig. 2, it is seen that the entire window opening is yleft substantially unobstructed so as to provide maximum ventilation. The means for pivotally mounting the sash -is shown best in Fig. 6 and includes a pivot pin 138 centrally located with respect to the window frame and the sash and extending through aligned apertures 140 and 142 in the web portion 32 of the window frame and the sealing plate member 46, respectively. The pivot pin is provided with an enlarged head144 to limit downward movement thereof and preferably a reinforcing and bearing plate 146 is disposed between the head and lthe web 32 and secured to the web by screws 148 or other suitable means. The lower end of the pivot pin also extends through an aperture 150 in the upper wall 94 of the sash frame member and is threaded into a reinforcing block 152, which block may be conveniently secured to the sash frame member wall 94 by suitable screws 154. With this structure, it is seen that the pivot pin 138 not only mounts the sash for pivotal movement about the central and vertical axis of the sash, but also supports the weight of .the sash. Since the weight is applied to the pivot pin in tension, forces tending to bend the pin are reduced to a minimum, thereby permitting the use of a pin having a relatively small diameter and substantially eliminating any possible need for relatively complicated and heavy bearing means for guiding and reinforcing the pivot pin. In order to restrain the lower edge of the window sash for proper pivotal movement, a second pivot pin 156 is provided in axial alignment with the pivot pin 138. The pivot pin 156 is threaded or otherwise secured to the outer peripheral wall of the sash frame member 76, as at 158, and slidably extends through aligned apertures 160 and 162 in the plate member of the sealing means 40 and the tranverse web of the window frame member 18, respectively. Since the pivot pins are `located at the central axis of the sash, it will be understood that the sash may easily be rotated through and in certain instances may even be rotated a full 360 if desired.
While the operation of the above described window structure is believed to be clear, a short description of such operation is as follows. Starting with the window sash located in Ithe closed position shown in Figs. 1 and 4, it is understood that the sash is normally retained in this position by nterengagement between the ribs or; the sealing plates located in all four window trame members and the complementary grooves located in all four of .the sash frame members. In order to open the win? dow, it is merely necessary to apply a predetermined force with the hand to a portion of the sash adjacent members are-cammed 4away .the action of -their respectivecompression springs until vly force and lock-the 115 a vertical margin thereof, whereupon the sealing plate from the `sash and against the ribs disengage from thegrooves. Upon disengagement'of the ribs-from the -.groov.es, Ithe window sashmay be freely moved to any desired position. It is runden stood, of course that the preliminary sealing strips 124, 132, 134, and'136, which are made of rubber or the like, are suicientlyexible to-.eliminate any substantial interference with pivotal movement o'f the sash.
In many instances, -it may `be desirable to lock the sash positively -inits closed position, and in accordance with the presentinvention,such locking may be `obtained with thestructure'shown-bestin Figs. V8,9 and 10. `This ylocking structure includes a shaft 164 rotatably mounted between opposite sidesoffthefwindow frame member 20.
'In'the illustrated'embodimentythe shaft'is provided-with apair f of cam portions 166 and -168 adjacent its `opposite ends ywhich iit-within-notches 170 and "172 in .the sealing plate member 1174 Yof-the sealing-means 44. The shaft 164 is mountedatits wopposite ends'byeccentrically located stub shaft portions '176 Aand 178, so that upon rotation of the shaft, the-cam portions 166 and 168 positivesealing plate member 174 in secure engagement with the Window sash framemember 78. The locking shaft 164 may conveniently be operated by a suitable tool, not shown, insertable into a non-circular socket 180 in the end of the shaft. Since the locking shaft 164, when properly located, positively prevents movement of the sealing bar away from the sash, it is seen that the interengaging ribs and grooves effectively retain the sash in the closed position regardless of the amount of press-ure applied to the sash. It is understood, of course, that, when necessary, a plurality of the locking shafts 164 may be spaced along the window frame member 20, and, if desired, additional shafts, not shown, may be located .in the opposite window frame member 22.
From the above description, it is seen that the present invention has provided a window structure, wherein the window sash may be moved to present both sides of the sash toward the interior of the building for easy cleaning. With this structure, the expense of cleaning the windows may be materially reduced, and a further saving may be obtained by eliminating the necessity for cleaning blinds or shades which are usually associated with the window. In order to accomplish this latter result, a Venetian blind structure has been inserted between the spaced parallel glass window panes 106 and 108, and since the space between the window panes is sealed against entry of moisture, dust, and the like in the manner described above, the Venetian blind structure never needs cleaning. In the illustrated embodiment, the Venetian blind structure includes upper and lower tilt bars 182 and 184 which are pivotally mounted between opposite vertical sides of the sash frame. A plurality of slats 186 are spaced between the tilt bars and have forward and rear edges secured to a pair of spaced tapes 188 and 190. The tapes, which are preferably continuous, encircle the tilt bars and are fixed thereto so as to move upon rotation of the tilt bars to adjust the angular position of the slats.
Suitable means is provided for rotating the -tilt bars of the blind structure, and this means is shown best in Figs. 3, 4, 7, and 9. The tilt bar actuating means includes a shaft 192 journaled in the sash frame member 7S and having an actuating knob 194 secured to an out- Wardly extending end portion thereof. The inner end of the shaft rigidly carries a worm 196 meshing with a worm wheel 198. The worm wheel is fixed on a shaft 200 which has one end journaled in a wall of the sash frame, as at 202 (see Fig. 9), and the opposite end, which is non-circular in cross section, is inserted into a socket member 204 xed to the lower -tilt bar 184. It is obvious, of course, that the shaft 202 must extend through ian lgaperture, yfsuch -as fthe .aperture 206 inthe .zinner wall lof 'thefsashfframesmember 20, and in order `to zseal @this zaperture, v`a conical stopper member .208
:constructed ,of .'cork, rubber, for othersuitable material ttightly ksurrounds the shaft and securely seats ion the Aconical wall :of the aperture. With A.this structure, .itiis seen `that "the kVenetian 'blind may easily be Yadjusted :merely r by turning the hand Aknob 194.
In Figs. `112 through 15 there are illustrated several modified v.forms fof `the present invention wherein vthe above described `Venetian `blind structure between the :glass panes vrhas been-eliminated and been replacedby V-a blindrorilter structure secured to the window'sash so that it fwill move with the sash. More particularly vin Fig. 12 -a.conventional Venetian blind v220 is :secured cloth Window shade 224 is supported between brackets T226 :fixed to the upper :sash frame member 74.
.in-.whichia lterfstructure228 is secured to the outwardly faoing :'sidefofgthe window sash to-control the amount of light and heat -radiating through .the-window. This filter structure may include a screen 230 mounted within a frame 232, which frame is hinged to the vertical window sash member 78 as at 234. A latching device- 236 iis mounted on the opposite vertical sash member 80 to retain the filter frame in the closed position against the window sash shown in solid lines in Fig. l5. With this structure the light filter may be conveniently swung away from the wlindow sash for any desired purpose such as cleaning the window pane. The screen 230 may be of any Well known louvre type wire mesh or it may be made of any other material capable of filtering heat and light. l .Inadditiom the filtering structure 228 might be replaced by a plurality of louvres, not shown, adjustably mounted directy on the window sash.
From the above description, it is seen that the present invention has provided a novel window structure, wherein the sash may be easily positioned so as to present both sides thereof for relatively rapid and economical cleaning, thereby providing considerable reduction in maintenance costs. Furthermore, it is seen that the present invention has provided a window structure having a pivotally mounted sash with novel and relatively simple means for obtaining a substantially air and weathertight seal between the sash and the window frame. It is also seen that the present invention has provided a window structure with novel and relatively simple means for positively locking the sash in the closed position.
While the preferred embodiment of the present invention has been shown and described herein, it is obvious that many structural details may be changed without departing from the spirit an'd scope of the appended claims.
l. A window structure comprising a generally rectangular frame including channel portions facing inwardly around the opening therethrough, a generally rectangular sash member complemental in size and shape to the opening through said frame, means pivotally mounting 'said sash member within said frame for movement between open and closed positions, an elongated member reciprocable in each channel portion of the frame, means yieldably biasing the elongated members toward a position for engagement with the edges of the sash member, the edges of said sash member and said elongated members having mutually interengaging projection and recess means with mutually cooperating camming surfaces operable with the sash and elongated members in substantial registering posiition during initial opening and nal closing of the sash member to shift the elongated members away from the sash member when the sash member is initially moved toward open position and when finally approaching closed position, and weather sealing means and secured to the member carrying the said projection means and disposed adjacent the said projection means in position to seal against the other member and clear of the mutually cooperating camming surfaces, and Said Aweather sealing means being relieved from contact with said other member under cooperation of said camming surfaces when the sash member is initially moved toward open position and when finally approaching closed posi- `tion whereby the Weather sealing means is subjected substantially only to the pressure of the biasing means substantially without friction or rubbing contact between the sash member and elongated members during open and closing movements of the sash member.
2. A Window structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein the projection means is on the elongated members and the weather sealing means is carried by the said elongated members clear of the canin-ling surfaceson the projection means.
3. A window structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein the projection means comprises projecting elements spaced laterally of the member carrying the same with the Weather sealing means disposed between the projecting elements ,and clear of the camming surfaces thereon.
4. A window structure as claimed in claim 1, wherein the projection means comprises a plurality of elongated ribs spaced apart laterally of the member carrying the same and with Vthe weather sealing means disposed between the said ribs and clear of the camming surfaces thereon.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 254,068 Sturm Feb. 21, 1882 751,379 Christensen Feb. 2, 1904 1,301,454 Kerr Apr. 22, 1919 1,826,121 Brogie Oct. 6, 1931 2,179,763 Smolowitz Nov. 14, 1939 2,207,065 McCormick July 9, 1940 2,268,114 Foster et al Dec. 30, 1941 2,307,647 Starck Jan. 5, 1943 2,447,347 Krantz Aug. 17, 1948 2,560,196 Smith July 10, 1951 2,631,339 Pratt MaI. 17, 1953 2,632,927 Iarland 2e Mar.3l, 1953 2,640,567 Pressnall June 2, 1953 2,731,681 Gall Ian. 24, 1956