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Publication numberUS2894478 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 14, 1959
Filing dateAug 31, 1956
Priority dateAug 31, 1956
Publication numberUS 2894478 A, US 2894478A, US-A-2894478, US2894478 A, US2894478A
InventorsJoseph Reed John, Wilson Reed William
Original AssigneeJoseph Reed John, Wilson Reed William
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fluid signaling means
US 2894478 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 14, 1959 w. w. REED T FLUID SIGNALING MEANS Filed Aug. 31. 1956 da/smjasip /iiip, WZA/lM/V/Zifl/VPEEO,


United States Patent FLUID SIGNALING-MEANS William Wilson-Reed, LosAngeles;Chlifi, and John JosejalfReedi-Flat-River, Mo.

. sApplicationAugust- 31, 1956,?Serial No; 607,501

ZClaims. "(Ck 116- 114) This invention relates'to fluid signalingmeans and moreparticularly to 'apparatus -tobe-used in connection "-Witli'fluid pressure supply lines of any character-fortrans- :Initting'information; such was awarning signal, from a central station toa plurality of separated'points'along the, -supply'line. Stillmore particularly the invention "re- "lates to -a stenchwarning signaling'means forfiuid pres- 'sure supply lines and especially to a stenchwarningsignalingmeans for compressed air supplylines feeding compressedair throughout' mines and-industrial plants. In

mines and industrial, plantsit'isnecessary toprovide some means-operative :from a-central station either manually 'or automatically f0r-warning-the workmen in theevent of someemergen'cy, suchas fire, explosion,- power-failure and the like, to" vacate-*thepremises.

The object of the present invention "is" to'provide a "stench Warning "means adapted for utility' in connection with fluid? pressure "lines" carrying air under pressure" for venti-lation or for operating pneumatic devices throughout *themine or industrial plant.

Another'object'is' to; provide a stench-Warningmeans operative-from acentral' station whichmeans is' adapted for utility-in'connection withfluid pressure supply lines "carrying" compressed air.

*A-further object is to provide a stench warning means operative from a central station which is adapted for utility'in connection withthe compressedair supply-lines "utilized in ventilating mines and industrial plants and in operating pneumaticmachinery 'andequipment.

= Other objects will be apparent as the-invention is *more fully hereinafter disclosed.

In accordance withthese objects .wehave devised a stench Warning signaling means which is adapted for wide utility in connectionwith fluid-supply lines of all types :but whichwis .particularlyadapted for utility .in: connection .with ifluid. supplydines. carrying air under :pressure for operating .pneumaticmechanismssand apparatus'ior Ilfor ventilation .purposes tinnmineswand factories. I7he stench warning signaling means ofthe present invention comprises in combination a pressure cylinder containing a "-liquid -phase -mixturecontaininga stench compound, such as a mercaptan, specifically ethyl mercaptan (C H SH) and an inert flame quenching compound, such as CCl F and CHClF and having an outlet opening therein normally closed by a perforable seal, a manually operative perforating valve means disposed in position over the outlet opening for perforating the seal and to permit the liquid phase mixture to escape from the cylinder at a controlled rate and a conduit connecting the outlet end of the perforating valve to the fluid pressure supply line through a shut-off valve to feed the mixture passing through the perforating valve in its gaseous phase at a controlled rate into the fluid pressure supply line.

The main problem involved in feeding a mercaptan into a compressed air line is to do so without forming an explosive mixture of air and mercaptan. The chemical insecticides. Freons, also have been found to 'h-aveiflaine quenching 2,894,478 Patented July 1.4, {1959 ice 2 compounds CCIQF and CHC1F heretofore iwelllkno wn in the art and sold under'the trademarksfFreon 12 land Freon 22, are well known--and.recognizedzasinertpropellants and have been variously utilized in' that. capacity as a propellant for a large number of compoundssuchas These chemical compounds, kno'wn as properties and heretofore .have been' utilize'dvincenn'ection with the projection or'fire xtinguishing compounds in fire extinguishing devices.

"Each of these Freon eem ounds have flamequ'nching properties in mixtures-'ofair and'mercaptanswhere the relative proportions of 'I'rier'captan and Freo'n compound exceed aboutl to "5. -We' have 'discoverdithat when the mercaptan to Freon compohnd inthepre'sslire cylinder is at' least 1 'to 6"the mixture iniitsgaseous phase may be safetly introduced at any des'ired'rate into a low or "high. pressure' fluid pressure line cari'yingjair v\t/here'the temperatures of "the and mixtureHo-hot exceed about -100TF. As thistemperature' is rarely exceeded in compressed .air'lines,particularly"in thoseair lines utilized for ventilation "orifor operating'pneuimatic equipment .we have adaptedthisl to 6 mercaptan Freon mixture 'in'the stench warning signaling means of the present invention Ja'ndin 'this mixture prefer to employ ethyl 'mercaptan' a'nd either'Freon 12 "to Freon '22'b'ut preferably re'on22. "The chemical" and physical properties of these compounds arefas follows:

'Freon'12 (CCIgF is a very stable, non-toxic and relatively inert gas under ordinary conditions. When compressed to 70 p.s.i.g. at 70 "it becomes a liquid.

When admixed with liquid phase 'ethyl mercaptan '(C H SH) the liquidjphase mixture will dis'char'ge'in'its phase from a pressurecontainer at a pressure of. about 123 p.s.i.g. at temperatures within the range 70"to"8l) F. This mixture is suitableto use in all fluid pressure lines carrying compressed air at a pressure of less than 123 p.s.i.g. andat temperature of less than -F.,

'Ethyl mercaptan"(C I-I5SH) is a highly volatile and infiammable'liquid having a boiling point of 98'"F. and a flash point below 40 F. Its vapor pressure 'a'ti120" F. is 24.2 p.s.i. .At atmospheric pressure itsflimits of flammability in air are 2.80 (lower) and 18.2 (u per) percent byvolurne. "It is miscible in-all proportions with "either Freon '12 or Freon 22.

We have found that when the mixture of either Freon 12 or Freon 22 with ethyl mercaptan contains 6 parts Freon to 1 part ethyl mercaptan the mixture can be safely introduced into either low or high pressure compressed air lines Without danger of explosion where the temperature of the air does not exceed 100 R, which is the maximum temperature usually present in such compressed air supply lines. For best results the mixture of Freon 22 and mercaptan should be used where the air pressure in the line exceeds 70 p.s.i.g. but not over 123 p.s.i.g. and the mixture of Freon 12 and mercaptan should be used where the air pressure in the line is less than 70 p.s.i.g.

As one specific embodiment of the invention, but not as a limitation thereof, we Will disclose the invention as it has been adapted for utility as a stench warning signaling;

means for mines. In this field of utility most mines are.

. 7 3 provided with compressed air lines extending to every part of the mine. This compressed air is utilized in the mine to operate pneumatic mining machines and for ventilation and usually is fed into the supply line at a pressure of about 100 p.s.i.g. For this field of utility I prefer to employ the mixture of Freon 22 and ethyl mercaptan consisting of about 6 parts Freon to 1 part ethyl mercaptan.

Referring now to the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a view illustrating the invention as adapted for use in a mine; and

Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view along plane 2--Z of Fig. 1 illustrating the operation of the device.

In Fig. 1 the compressed air line P carrying air under a pressure of about 100 p.s.i.g. from a source not shown is indicated as feeding the air into a pipe line p down to one of the lower levels of a mine where it supplies air through a flexible hose H to a pneumatic drill D operated by a miner M. The air exhaust from the drill D passes out into the mine atmosphere adjacent the miner M. There are a plurality of such pieces of mining equipment actuated by air from the air line p in the average mine.

In conformity with the present invention the stench warning means of the present invention is mounted in a position on wall W at the control center of the mine where it may be readily actuated manually in case of an emergency and, preferably, at a horizontal lever above the horizontal lever of the air line P. Cylinder C, containing approximately 100 grams of liquid ethyl mercaptan and about 600 grams of liquid Freon 22, is mounted on the Wall W by means of a bracket B with the perforable sealed end E thereof down. A perforating valve V1 is mounted on the end B with the perforating pin 12 thereof aligned in perforating position with the perforable seal S on the end B. A flexible conduit means F, consisting of aluminum or copper tubing, is connected at one end to the valve outlet opening of the valve V1 by means of the fitting A1 and the other end of the conduit means F is connected by a fitting A2 to a valve V2 opening through tap T into the main air line P.

As shown in Fig. 2 the end E of the cylinder C is provided with a perforable seal S closing the opening provided therein for filling and discharging the cylinder C. In the specific embodiment shown the seal S consists essentially of an exteriorly threaded plug member 10 closing the outlet opening of cylinder C, the said plug member 10 having an axially disposed bore passageway 11 therein adapted to permit the pin 12 of the perforating valve V1 to pass freely into the passageway. The bore passageway 11 extends substantially but not entirely through the plug 10 leaving a thin wall 13 at the bottom end thereof to be perforated by the pin end 14 of the pin 12 as indicated by the dotted line position 12 of the pin 12.

Valves V1 and V2 are each common in the art and, per se, form no part of the present invention except in combination with pressure cylinder C and flexible conduit F. Valve V2 is necessary and essential to the combination of the present invention as a normally open shutoff valve in the pressure in line P to permit an empty cylinder C to be removed and replaced with a full cylinder C.

Valve V1 is a perforating valve of the type providing for pin 12 to advance to perforating position when the valve is in closed position, substantially as shown in the drawings. In rest position the valve V1 is in open position and the full pressure in line P is applied onto the plug 10 to counter balance the internal pressure in the cylinder C. To perforate the sealed end 13 of the plug 10 the valve V1 must be manually actuated from open to closed position and then re-opened sufliciently to permit the mercaptan-Freon mixture contained within the cylinder C to feed into the conduit F and through valve V2 into line P at a desired rate. At F. this specific mercaptan-Freon mixture will feed into line P at a pressure of about 123 p.s.i.g. where the airpressure in the line P approximates pounds and at a rate controlled by the extent to which the valve 1 is opened manually. At higher and lower temperatures the pressure within the cylinder C will vary with the temperature increasing with increase in temperature. The cylinder C should be located in a position where the temperature of the cylinder does not exceed 100 F. and does not fall under 70 F.

Having hereinabove disclosed the present invention generically and specifically and having given one specific embodiment thereof it is believed apparent that the invention may be widely varied without essentially departure therefrom and all such modifications, changes, adaptations and departures are contemplated as may fall within the scope of the following claims:

What we claim is:

1. A signaling means for mines and the like comprising a compressed air line having an air operated tool on a terminal portion thereof, a pressurized container having therein a gaseous mercaptan stench compound such as ethyl mercaptan gas, conduit means interconnecting said container and said air line, and a valve means in said conduit means, whereby when said valve means is opened and the tool is in operation the mercaptan stench gas will issue from said tool giving the operator thereof an olefactory signal.

2. The signaling means of claim 1 wherein said pres surized container contains a non-explosive mixture of said mercaptan stench compound and one of the gaseous flame quenching compounds of the group consisting of CCI F and CHClFg.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 458,937 Blass Sept. 1, 1891 977,947 Grohs Dec. 6, 1910 2,302,336 MacDonald Nov. 17, 1942 2,826,452 Le Fevre Mar. 11, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 284,807 Germany June 5, 1915

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US458937 *Aug 2, 1890Sep 1, 1891 Edtjard blass
US977947 *Jun 15, 1910Dec 6, 1910Anton GrohsDanger-signal apparatus for mines, &c.
US2302336 *Nov 7, 1939Nov 17, 1942Macdonald Joseph RMethod and apparatus for keeping live shellfish
US2826452 *Jun 15, 1956Mar 11, 1958Fevre Herbert W LeVapor dispenser
*DE284807C Title not available
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US3072097 *Nov 18, 1960Jan 8, 1963Morchand Charles AAnimal training device
US3434632 *Aug 24, 1967Mar 25, 1969John A BatrowLiquid dispensing apparatus
US3861350 *Apr 20, 1973Jan 21, 1975Selleck Albert BWarning system and device, and malodorous warning composition of matter and process for its preparation
US4551154 *Mar 2, 1983Nov 5, 1985Columbia Gas System Service CorporationSulfur hexafluoride and chloropentafluoroethane
US4690689 *Oct 24, 1985Sep 1, 1987Columbia Gas System Service Corp.Gas tracer composition and method
US4773255 *Jun 19, 1987Sep 27, 1988Columbia Gas System Service CorporationApparatus for injecting gas into a pipeline
US5055822 *Jul 6, 1990Oct 8, 1991Gordon CampbellScent alarm device
US6517009Mar 30, 2001Feb 11, 2003Gotit Ltd.Automatic spray dispenser
US6540155Dec 18, 1998Apr 1, 2003Gotit Ltd.Automatic spray dispenser
US7066172 *May 29, 2003Jun 27, 2006Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaAWarning device for a respirator product
EP0147250A1 *Sep 20, 1984Jul 3, 1985Commissariat A L'energie AtomiqueConfinement vessel for dangerous, especially radioactive products
WO2003076765A1 *Sep 20, 2002Sep 18, 2003Stricker Kenneth BernardSafety system
U.S. Classification116/214, 116/266, 239/309, 48/195, 454/86
International ClassificationE21F17/18, F15B20/00, G01L19/00, G01L19/12, E21F17/00
Cooperative ClassificationF15B20/00, E21F17/18, F16K13/04
European ClassificationF15B20/00, F16K13/04, E21F17/18