|Publication number||US2894587 A|
|Publication date||Jul 14, 1959|
|Filing date||Jun 8, 1956|
|Priority date||Jun 8, 1956|
|Publication number||US 2894587 A, US 2894587A, US-A-2894587, US2894587 A, US2894587A|
|Inventors||Mcculloch Thomas B|
|Original Assignee||Jersey Prod Res Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (9), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
/N VE /V TOR. ha@
T. B. MccuLLocH PERMANENT WELL COMPLETION APPARATUS Filed June 8, 1956 trl. 51e. iflnflananlafnfae.
July 14, 1959 United States Patent O 2,894,587 PERMANENT WELL COMPLETI'N iAPPARATUS Thomas B. McCulloch, Houston, Tex., assigner, by mesue assignments, to `lersey Production Research Company, Tulsa, kla., a Icorporation of Delaware Application .lune 8, 1956, Serial No. `596,193 9 Claims. (Cl. 166-183) The present invention is directed to apparatus for completing a well. More particularly, the invention is directed to Lapparatus by way of which well completions and servicing operations may be conducted. In its more specific aspects, .the invention is concerned with permanent well completion apparatus in which a tubing string is positioned with its lower end at a level above a plurality of productive subsurface earth strata.
The present invention may be brieliy described as apparatus for use in a well having a casing arranged therein Iand provided with -a tubing positioned in the casing with its lower open end at a level above a plurality of productive subsurface stra-ta, intervals, zones, formations, sands, horizons Iand -the like. The apparatus lcomprises a packing means arranged adjacent the lower end of the tubing to isolate the annulus between the tubing and the casing from the casing below the lower end of the tubing. A conduit means in the packing means provides a passageway through the packing means between the annulus and the casing below the packing means. Sealingly arranged in the passageway is a retrievable elongated tubular member which projects a substantial distance below the packing means, for example, to a level adjacent a hydrocarbon productive interval to provide liuid communication between the annulus and the casing below the packing means.
The conduit means may be provided with -a guide member to allow the retrievable elongated tubular member to be placed properly in the passageway. This guide member may suitably be formed within and made part of the packer.
The tubular member is suitably provided with valve means openable under pressure imposed 'thereon and thisl valve means may comprise rst and second valves, one of which is openable on imposing fluid pressure on the annulus `and a second of which is` openable on exerting iluid pressure on the casing below the packing means. In
each event, the rst and second valves provide communication between the annulus and the casing below the packing member. Of course, it is understood that the valve meansv may comprise a single valve openable under pressure exerted either through the annulus or from the casing below the packing means.
The tubular `elongated member may suitably 'be provided with sealing or packing means to seal between the tubular elongated member and the passageway. Also the tubular elongated member may suitably be provided with a latching member engageable with the packing means to hold the tubular elongated member in the passageway.
The tubular elongated member may also be provided with means on its upper end engageable with a fishing tool carried by a wire line and the like for lowering and raising the retrievablc tubular member in the well.
The casing may have arranged therein `and may be provided with a guide means above the guide member for enaging the fishing tool with the retrievable tubular rnem- G1'.
Patented July 14, 1959 firice The present invention will be further illustrated by reference to the drawing in which:
Fig. l, partly in section and partly enlarged, shows the apparatus yof the present invention in a well;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the elongated tubular member;
Fig. 3 is a modilied view of `lFig. l showing a guide for the shing tool;
Fig. 4 is a view taken along the lines 4--4 of Fig. 3; and
Fig. 5 is a partial view of Fig. l with the retrievable elongated member removed and the passageway therefor plugged.
ReferringV now to the drawing in which identical numerals `will be employed to designate identical parts, a borehole 11 is drilled from the earths surface 12 to penetrate a plurality of subsurface earth intervals` 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 of which intervals or zones 16 and 14 may be productive and intervals 13, 15, and 17 may Ibe nonproductive of hydrocarbons, such as oil, gas, and the like.
Arranged in the borehole 11 is a casing 18 which is cemented in place with prim-ary cement 19. The casing 18 is perforated in stratum 16 to provide perforations 20 communicating the interior of the casing l18 with the stratum 16.
Arranged in the casing 18 and extending to the wellhead 21 is a tubing string 22 which carries on its lower end a packing member 23, the tubing 22 being threadedly connected by mating threads 2.4 to the packing member 23.
The packing mem-ber 23 is provided with opposing cup packers 25 Iand 26 which are carried by the packing member 23 and lalso with slip or pipe engaging means 27 land 28 which are operable and are caused to contact the inner wall of the casing by imposition of pressure onthe cup packers 25 and 26 from either below or above the packing member 23.
The packing member 23 has `a passageway 29 which communicates with the tubing 22 and has a second passageway 30 which extends through the packing member 23.
The tubing 22l extends throughI the wellhead 21 4and is provided with a valve or closure member 31 for control of uid or anything introduced through the tubing 22. A .ange member 32 is also provided for connection of a lubricator, such as 33, to the ange 32.
The casing 18 has a conduit 34 connected thereto controlledA by valve 35. Also connected to the wellhead equipment 21 is a valve member S6 having connected thereto a ange member 37 to which is connected a lubrica-tor 38 including a valve 39.
Arranged in the passageway 30 is a retrievable elongated tubular member 40 provided with packing means 41 for sealing between the tubular member 40 and the wall of the passageway 30.
The upper end of the tubular elongated member 40 may be enlarged as at 42 a-nd may enclose valve means 4-3 comprised of valves 44 and 45 which communicate with the annulus A between the tubing and casing by means of ports 46 and 47.
As shown in the drawing, the tubular member 410,V when seated in passageway 30, extends into the annulus A but does not extend to the wellhead 21 and is not co-extensive with tubing 22. Figs. l and 5 show the tubular member 40 extending above the packing member 23 a sutlicient distance to be retrieved from passageway 30 when desired.
The enlarged upper end 42 of the tubular member 40 is provided with a shing neck and spear designated by the numeral 48' for engaging with a wire line fishing tool as will be described.
The tubular elongated member 40 is alsofprovided with 3 latching means, such as spring latches 49, which are secured to the tubular elongated member 40 by frangible connecting means 50. Latches 49 prevent upward movement of tubular member 40 due to pressure but can be sheared loose by upward pull by a wire line retrieving tool.
The valve 44 is comprised of a valve seating member 5l which is designed to seat on seat 52 and a valve stem 53 arranged in a spider or plate 54 for centering same. A spring member 55 biases the valve member 51 into seating engagement with the seat 52.
The valve member 45 also comprises a valve seating member 56 which seats on the seat 57. A valve stem 58 is arranged in a spider or plate 59 and a biasing means di) biases the seating member 56 against the seat S7.
ri`he valve stems 53 and 58 are suitably sealed in the spider or plates 54 and 59.
The port 56 communicates with the interior of the valve 44 and by means of vertical passageway 6l with the passageway 62 in the elongated tubular member 40. The passageway 61 communicates by means of lateral and vertical passageways 63 with the valve 45 which, in turn, communicates with the port 47. As shown in dotted lines in Fig. 1, tubular member 40 may be of any desirable length.
Referring now to Figs. 3 and 4, the tubing 22 has attached thereto above the packing member 23 a guide member such as 70 for properly positioning a retrieving or shing tool 7Il attached to a wire line or cable 72 run into the well from the earths surface 12 to engage with the spear and fishing neck 48 of the tubular extension member 4i).
The packing member 23 is also provided with a guide surface generally indicated by the numeral 73 for guidin the tubular extension member 40 into the passageway 30.
Referring now to Fig. 5, it will be seen that the tubular extension member 40 has been retrieved from the packing member 23 leaving the passageway 30 to be plugged by a wire line plug 73 which may be suitably lowered and arranged within the passageway 30. The plug 73 is provided with packing means 74 for sealing between the walls of the plug and the passageway 30. Plug 73 is also provided with latch springs 49 as is tubular member 40.
The present invention may be employed in permanent well completion operations as described in World Oil, March 1954, and is designed to be used in gun perforating, cementing, washing such as to remove sand and debris, acidizing, well stimulating, fracturing of formations, strata, sands, and the like, and in the injection in or removal of any type of uid, and the like from the well.
For example, the present invention may be used suitably in cementing operations. Referring to Fig. l assuming that the gun perforator, such as '75, which may be either a shaped charge or a bullet gun perforator or which may be a mechanically or chemically operated perforator, is lowered on the wire line 72 to perforate the zone 16 and to form perforations 20 in the casing 1 8, cement 19, and the Zone 16. Production may then be had up through the passageway 29 and the tubing 22, the passageway 30 being closed either with the tubular extension member 40 or the plug 73 as has been described. After the hydrocarbons have been produced and further production is uneconomical for any reason such as salt water or gas invasion, and the like, it may be desirable to cement the perforations 20 and then to reperforate in the same zone or in a vertically displaced zone such as in the sand, stratum, or interval 14. Under these conditions, a retrievable tubular extension member, such as 40, of a length as indicated in the dotted lines in Fig. 1 is lowered in the annulus A and seated and sealed in passageway 30 as shown.
Cement may then be owed down the tubing 22 to deposit in the region of and in the perforations 20 to cause the formation of plugs or filter cakes in the perforations. A slurry of a low iluid loss cement, such as described in U.S. Patent 2,582,459 to Salathiel may be employed, although other low iiuid loss cements may be used.
After the cement has been deposited and forced into the perforations 20 and zone 16 as desired, excess fluid cement may be removed by circulating fluid, such as oil or water, drilling mud, and the like, down the tubing 22 through passageway 29 and up the tubular extension member 450. By imposing pressure on the washing uid, the valve 44 is caused to open and the fluid and fluid cement pass outwardly into the annulus A through the passageway 46. Likewise, fluid of the nature described may be introduced from annulus A by imposing pressure through port 47 on the valve 45 causing it to unseat and allowing fluid to pass through the vertical and lateral passageway 63 and 62 down into the desired region in the well below the packing member 23. In other words, the present invention is applicable either to flow down the tubing or up through the tubular member into the annulus or through the annulus down through the tubular member and up the tubing.
The present invention is of considerable advantage and utility in that the tubing is full opening at all times. The tubing extension may be left in place and used as a production tubing if desirable or for injection of fluids and wells may be worked over and recompleted without removing the tubing extension provided a tubing extension of a proper length is employed such that it will not be perforated by a perforator.
It is intended that tubular extension members of the nature described of varying lengths may be employed and that a plurality of productive zones may be worked over or serviced either proceeding downwardly in the well from below the packer or upwardly in the well below the packer. As illustrative only the tubular extension meniber 40 may have a length ranging from 50 to 2000 feet although it is not intended to restrict this invention to any particular length.
Any illustrations given are by way of a better understanding of the invention and not by way of limitation.
The nature and objects of the present invention having been completely described and illustrated, what I wish to claim as new and useful and to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Permanent well completion apparatus for use in a well having a casing arranged therein and provided with a tubing permanently positioned in the casing with its lower open end at a level above a plurality of productive subsurface intervals which comprises packing means arranged adjacent the lower end of the tubing to isolate the annulus between the tubing and the casing from the casing below the lower end of the tubing, a conduit means in said packing means providing a passageway free of obstructions through said packing means between the annulus and the casing below the packing means, and a retrievable elongated tubular member having an open lower end and having its wall free of openings, said retrievable tubular member being lowerable through the annulus and being retrievably and sealingly arranged in said passageway and projecting a substantial distance below said packing means and the lower open end of the tubing to provide fluid communication between the annulus and the casing below the packing means, the retrievable tubular member extending into the annulus a distance substantially less than the length of the tubing.
2. Apparatus in accordance with claim l in which the packing means is formed to provide a guide surface for guiding the retrievable elongated tubular member into said passageway.
3. Apparatus in accordance with claim l in which the upper end of the tubular member is provided with valve means openable under pressure imposed thereon.
4. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in whichthev upper end of the tubular member is provided with valve means openable under lluid pressure imposed on the annulus.
5. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in which the upper end of the tubular member is provided with valve means openable under uid pressure imposed on the casing below the packing means.
6. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in which the upper end of the tubular member is provided with a first spring biased valve normally closed and openable on imposing an increase in fluid pressure on the annulus above the packing means and a second spring biased valve normally closed and openable on imposing an increase in lluid pressure on the casing below the packing means, said valve communicating separately with the annulus by means of separate spaced-apart ports and said valves being positioned in separate passageways in the tubular member communicating with said ports.
7. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in which the tubular member is provided with a latch member engageable with the packing means to hold said tubular member in said passageway.
8. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in which a guide means is provided in said casing spaced above and adjacent said packing means for engaging a iishing tool with said retrievable tubular member.
9. Permanent well completion apparatus for use in a well having a casing arranged therein and provided with a tubing permanently positioned in the casing with its lower open end at a level above a plurality of productive subsurface intervals which comprises packing means arranged adjacent the lower end of the tubing to isolate the annulus between the tubing and the casing from the casing below the lower end of the tubing, a conduit means in said packing means providing a passageway free of obstructions through said packing means between the annulus and the casing below the packing means, and a retrievable elongated tubular member having an open lower end and having its wall free of openings, said retrievable tubular member being lowerable through the annulus and being retrievably and sealingly arranged in said passageway and projecting a substantial distance below said packing means and the lower open end of the tubing to provide fluid communication between the annulus and the casing below the packing means, said retrievable tubular member being provided with means on its upper end engageable with a shing tool for lowering and raising said retrievable tubular member in said well and said retrievable tubular member having a valve arranged in its upper end openable under pressure imposed on said valve, said retrievable tubular member extending into the annulus a distance substantially less than the length of the tubing.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Re. 7,772 Cross July 3, 1877 1,014,272 Waitz Ian. 9, 1912 1,676,785 Lewis July 10, 1928 2,117,535 Baker et al May 17, 1938 2,745,497 Dale et al. May 15, 1956 2,746,550 Mitchell May 22, 1956 2,785,754 True Mar. 19, 1957 2,796,130 Huber June 18, 1957 2,798,558 McCulloch July 9, 1957 2,798,559 Fredd July 9, 1957 2,805,718 Tausch Sept. 10, 1957 2,837,165 Roberts June 3, 1958
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|US20060076140 *||Oct 7, 2004||Apr 13, 2006||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Gas Lift Apparatus and Method for Producing a Well|
|US20110061864 *||Oct 15, 2009||Mar 17, 2011||Don Umphries||Wireless pipe recovery and perforating system|
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|U.S. Classification||166/123, 277/336, 166/136, 166/114, 166/183, 166/189|