US 2895155 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 21, 1959 R, Q PETERSON 2,895,155' v WIRE STEM BRUSH Filed Dec. 15, 1955 lis a M? W m P 0 F 1) T TOR NEKYS.
WIRE STEM. BRUSH Ruben 0. Peterson, University Heights, Ohio, assignor to The Osborn Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio I Application December 15, 1955, Serial No. 553,317
' 17 Claims. (Cl. 15-192) .This invention relates as indicated to a Wire. stem brush, and more particularly to an improved form of brush .of the general type disclosed and claimed in my prior Patents 2,465,396, 2,580,378, 2,603,921 and 2,690,631.
As described in my aforesaid patents, a substantially that layer of brush material may be secured between two generally flat opposed faces of parallel wire stem members and pressure then applied to such stem members locally to compact the brush material therebetween. The stem members will then be secured together, ordinarily by twisting but optionally by spot welding, appropriate clips, etc., to retain the layer of brush material therebetween. In the case of crimped wire brush bristle material, for example, pressures on the order of 10,000 to 20,000 pounds per square inch or more may desirably be imposed upon the wire stem members to compress the brush material therebetween, the generally flattened opposed faces of the stemmembers preventing cutting of the brush material. I have found that when a layer of brush bristle material has been thus locally compacted between the stem members, it will tend thereafter to expand somewhat, although not to the full original thickness of the layer, and such tendency of the layer to expand assists in retaining the same tightly clamped between the stem members. .Moreover, whereas very high pressures such as indicated above may be required thus to compact the layer of brush material, nevertheless relatively little force is required to restrain the subsequent tendency of the layer to expand and a wire stem member having a tensile strength of only 100 pounds will generally be sufficiently strong for the purpose for common size brushes.
It. is a principal object of this invention to provide a wire stem brush of the general type discussed above in which the opposed stem members are formed in a manner to afford increased resistance to withdrawal of the brush material from therebetween under conditions of use.
Another object is to provide such brush in which the stem members are especially formed to retain adhesive material assisting in securing the brush material in place.
A further object is to provide such brush in which the brush bristles are especially firmly gripped at two spaced points longitudinally of the bristles better to hold such bristles against swiveling. V Still another object is to provide such brush in which .the brush bristles (frequently wire) are both firmly gripped and also cushioned between the stem members to reduce concentrations of stress at such points and thereby prolong the useful life of the brush by reducing bristle fracture. I
' Other objects of the invention will appear as the description proceeds.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, said invention then comprises the features hereinafte f i 1ll y described and particularlypointed outin the claims, the following description and the annexed drawing setting forth in detail certain illustrative embodiments 2,895,155 Patented July 21, 1959 of the invention, these being indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principle of the invention may be employed.
In said annexed drawing:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of one form of my new improved brush;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged transverse cross-section taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 but showing incorporation of a bonding and cushioning agent;
Fig. 4 is a View similar to Fig. 2 but showing another form of cushioning agent;
Figs. 5 and 6 are views generally similar to Fig. 2 but showing opposed stem members enclosed in outer sheaths of softer material; and
Fig. 7 is a side elevation of a twisted stem brush of more or less conventional appearance but which may incorporate my new improvements.
Referring now more particularly to the drawing and especially Figs. 1 and 2 thereof, the embodiment of my invention there illustrated comprises a wire stem member of general half round cross-section doubled upon itself at 1 with the generally fiat faces opposed and the two end portions twisted together to form a stem 2. A generally flat layer of brush material 3 which may, for example, be crimped wire bristle material is interposed between two straight parallel portions 4 and 5 of th stem and firmly clamped therebetween.
As best shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the stem members may be formed with generally flat opposed sides such as 6 with the edge portions 7 and 8 protruding somewhat beyond such face. The stem member is accordingly of somewhat arcuate or half-moon cross-section, the edge portions 7 and 8 being rounded to avoid the formation of any sharply defined edge. As will be readily apparent, the brush bristle material 3 is gripped principally between the opposed rounded edge portions 7, 7 and 8, 8 with the central region of the brush material being permitted to bulge somewhat within the larger space afforded between the opposed faces 6. The brush bristles are therefore firmly held both against lengthwise withdrawal from between the stem members and against swiveling action.
The modification illustrated in Fig. 3 resembles that of Fig. 2 with a further provision of a layer of plastic material 9 against each of the flat surfaces 6, more or less filling the recesses between the protruding edge portions 7 and 8. The brush bristles may still bulge somewhat within the cavity between the opposed faces 6 but are embedded in and gripped by the plastic material. Such plastic material will desirably have strong adhesive qualities, the epoxy resin compositions being particularly suitable, and they will be applied to the face 6 of the stem member prior to folding of such stem about the layer of brush material. Preferred adhesive bonding agents are epoxy resin plasticized with polyethylene glycol, and epoxy resin plasticized with liquid thiokol polymer. These materials are effective in bonding and cushioning a wide variety of brush bristle materials including nylon bristles which are increasingly employed for many uses.
In Fig. 4 another modification is illustrated where the opposed stem members 10 and 11 are of generally half round cross-section with longitudinally concave opposed faces 12 generally comparable to the recessed faces 6 of Figs. 2 and 3 but affording somewhat more smoothly rounded contours. Such stem members may be of pot annealed, half round cotter wire having a Rockwell hardness of B 30-50, for example. A ribbon 13 of elastomeric material is applied to such groove or recessed surface 12, such ribbon being wide enough to extend betweenthe most closely opposed side edge portions of stem,members,10 and 11. The brush material 3 gripped therebetween is accordingly secured in the same general manner as that in Fig. 3 but is also gripped and cushioned bythe elastorneric. material. where it emerges from between the: stem members, reducing vibratory concentrations of stress in use and achieving longer. brush life. The elastomeric material 13 ofFig. 4 willordinarily be bondedtothe wire stemtmembers by an appropriateadhesive such as rubber cement.
The Fig. 5 embodiment is similar to that of Fig. 4 except that the wire stem members and 11 are completely coatedwith an.elastomeric sheath 14 which may be extruded thereon or applied by means of alatex dip. Such elastomeric material may be compositions of natural rubber, neoprene, butadiene-styrene co-polymer, butadiene-acrylonitrile co-polymer, vinyl-acetate co-polymer, styrene co-vpolymer, vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer, and vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymer or other well-knownresiliently deformable material, as may be desired. These same materials may be deposited in the Fig. 4 grooves also.
The 'Fig. 6 embodiment somewhat resembles that of Fig. 5 but utilizes ordinary wire stem members 15 and 16 ofroundcross-seetion. These stem members are enclosed within sheaths 17 of a resiliently deformable elastomer capable of yielding sufficiently to embed a portion of the brush material 3 clamped therebetween. The clamping pressure, moreover, serves somewhat to spread and flatten the'engaged elastomeric surfaces'to afford a grip upon the brushsmaterial along a substantial portion of the length of the latter. As shown in Fig. 6, such elastomeric sheath 17 may be split at 18 for lateral insertion of the stern members. In other words, such sheaths may comprise lengths of longitudinally slit rubber tubing or the like. Alternatively, the elastomeric coating may be extruded on the wire.
While the novel features of my new brush construction are particularly advantageous when a generally flat layer of brush material is to be gripped between opposed stem members in the manner generally illustrated in Fig. 1 (it obviously being especially difiicult adequately to hold the'brush material in a brush of this type), the layer of brush material may if desired be twisted into a helix 19. In contrast to the usualtwisted stem brush of this type long commercially available, the brush bristle material may be retained in a relatively flat compact layer as shown.
Tools, of the type described above are particularly adapted \to be driven at high speeds when mounted in drill presses or similar special machines and may be used to clean and finish the interior surfaces of cylindrical openings. They are also useful in removing burrs and may also be incorporated in insulation stripping machines of the type disclosed in my prior Patent 2,526,769. While the brush material 3 will very commonly be crimped steel wirebristle material, other types of bristle material may be utilized as desired, including horsehair, Tampico fiber, plastic coated glass fiber, nylon monofilaments, felt, wire mesh fabric and metal sheet material, depending upon the particular operation for which the tool is designed. For many uses'these tools will desirably be secured within a. slotted tubular holder of the type shown and described in my prior Patents 2,465,396 and 2,603,921.
The bristle or sheet material employed may often desirably have a relatively high Knoop hardness (at least 600 Knoop), Hadfield steel being a suitable example. The. twisted stems 2 may be ground to true cylindrical shape to ensure proper balance in high speed operation. Instead of twisting the opposed wire stem portions together as shown in Fig. 1, they may be otherwisesecured as by spot-welding, for example.
Other modes of applying the principle of the invention may be employed, change being made as regards the details described, provided the features stated in any of the following claims or the equivalent of such be employed.
I therefore particularly point out and distinctly claim as my invention:
1. A brush comprising a stem formed of a doubled wire of general half-round cross-section, said wire being doubled with the convex portion of its peripheral surface outwardly and the opposed surfaces being longitudinally troughed, an adhesive material within such troughs, and a layer of brush material clamped between the doubled portions of saidwire andextending laterally therebeyond, said'brush material-beingbonded to said wire by saidadhesive and mechanically gripped by the laterally spaced longitudinally extending edge portions of said doubled wire portions on each side of such troughs.
2. A brush according to claim 1, wherein said doubled wire portions engaging said brush material are in straight, closely pressed parallel relation and the portions of said wire extending beyond said brush material are twisted together to form a stemand to secure the brush material grippingportions in closelyspaced relation.
3. A brush according to claim 1, wherein said doubled wire portions engaging said layer of brush material are twisted together to dispose such layer in a helical pattern and the portions of such wire extending beyond said brush materiallayer are twisted together to form a stem.
4. A brush according to claim 1, wherein the opposed longitudinally extending edge portions of said doubled wire portions gripping saidlayer of brush material therebetween are arcuate in cross-section to avoid undue localized concentrations ,of stress When the brush material is flexed in use.
5. A brushaccording to claim 1, wherein said layer of brush material comprises bristles extending transversely of said doubledwireportions.
6. A brush comprising a stem formed of a doubled wire of general half-round cross-section, said wire being doubled with the convex portion of its peripheral surface outwardly andthe opposed surfaces being longitudinally troughed, a layer of deformable cushioning material disposed along such troughs and over the laterally spaced longitudinally extending edge portions thereof, and a layer of brush material clamped between the doubled portions of said wire and extending laterally therebeyond, said brush material being gripped by the cushioned edge portions of said doubled wire portions.
7. A, brush according toclaim 6, wherein said doubled wire portions-engaging said brush material are in straight, closely pressed parallel relation and the portions of said wire extending beyond said brush material are twisted together to form a stem and to secure the brush material gripping portions inclosely spaced relation.
8. A brush according to claim 6, wherein said layer of brush material comprises bristles extending transversely of said doubled wire portions.
9. A brush comprising a stem formed of a doubled Wire of general half-round cross-section, said wire being doubled withthe convex portion of its peripheral surface outwardly and the opposed surfaces being longitudinally troughed, a layer ofdeformable cushioning material enclosing said wire, and a layer of brush material clamped between the doubled portions of said wire and extending laterally therebeyond, said brush material being gripped by the cushioned edge portions of said doubled wire portions.
10. A brush according to claim 9, wherein said doubled wire portionsengaging said brush material are in straight, closely pressedparallel relation and the portions of said wire extending beyond said brush material are twisted together to forma stem andto secure the brush material gripping portions in closely spaced relation.
11. A brushaccording to claim 9, wherein said layer ofbrush material comprises bristles extending transversely of said'doubledwire portions.
12. A brush comprising two parallel closely spaced unitary wire stem members having hollows in their opposed faces, adhesive material in such hollows, and brush material clamped between said opposed faces and extending laterally beyond said wire stem members, said brush material being bonded to said wire stern members by said adhesive interlocked in said hollows.
13. A brush comprising two parallel closely individual stern portions having longitudinally extending hollows in their opposed faces and longitudinally extending edge portions on each side of such hollows projecting toward said edge portions of the other said stem portion, and a compressible layer of brush material extending transversely of and laterally beyond said stem portions, said brush material being clamped between said opposed edge portions and bulging into such hollows to resist withdrawal.
14. A brush comprising a stem formed of a doubled wire of general half-round cross-section, said wire being thus doubled with the convex portion of its peripheral surface directed outwardly and the opposed surface portions being longitudinally troughed, and a compressible layer of brush material clamped between the doubled portions of said wire and extending laterally therebeyond, said brush material being mechanically gripped by the opposed edge portions of said wire on each side of such troughs and bulging into such troughs for improved retention by said stem.
15. A brush comprising a brush material supporting stern formed of an elongated metal element of general half round cross-section doubled with its convex surface outwardly, the opposed surface portions of said element being longitudinally troughed, a compressible layer of brush material disposed transversely between said 0pposed longitudinally troughed surface portions and actively compressed and firmly mechanically gripped by the opposed longitudinally extending edge portions of said longitudinally troughed portions, said brush material bulging into such opposed troughs, and said doubled elongated metal element being twisted to join the two parallel extending portions thereof together and thereby to maintain the pressure With which said layer of brush material is compressed and gripped therebetween.
16. The brush of claim 12 wherein said wire stem members are portions of a single doubled wire.
17. The brush of claim 13, wherein said stem portions are formed of a single doubled wire.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 930,375 Hascy Aug. 10, 1909 FOREIGN PATENTS 139 Great Britain Jan. 15, 1866 41,454 Germany Nov. 4, 1887 409,462 Great Britain May 3, 1934 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 2,895,155 July 21, 19.59
Ruben. 0 Peterson It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.
Column 5, line '7, after "closely" insert mu Signed and sealed this 5th day of January 3.9600
KARL H. .AXLINE ROBERT C. WATSON Attesting Oflicer Commissioner of Patents