US 2896271 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 1959 G. E. KLOOTE ETAL 2,896,271
ENCLOSURES FOR REFRIGERATED AREAS Filed Jan. 31, 1955 s Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. I \o 9 1. \fi2um2.:,, u 8
rrr U I 6 F 22 a? A 'II/ J 8 90 2 20 9G 8 I INVENTOJQS Joseph A. Pozcbelz I Gear 0 EK/ooze 6601;? 0/1/6181 FIG. 5 BY 4 4770 E) y 1959 G. E. KLOOTE ETAL 2,896,271
ENCLOSURES FOR REFRIGERATED AREAS Filed Jan. 31, 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 7 44 H s l6 7 FIG. 5 9w 24L 9 66 I F1611 20 5/7 VII/2m 2 INVENTORS se h 14. Pom/18,,
George E K/ooze e 0 M91291" July 28, 1959 G. E. KLOOTE ETAL 2,896,271
ENCLOSURES FOR REFRIGERATED AREAS Filed Jan. 31, 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 LLIJIIWIIIIIIIWIIIIII 7 l/VVE/VTOBS Joseph ,4. pole/2612 George E Klooze George 0. M91251 2,896,271 I ENCLOSURES For: REFRIGERATED AREIAS w e -Kbde nd m e 1- M r c nteen and'Joseph A. PotchemMarne, Mich, assignors, by mes'ne"assig nrnent s, 'to Haskelite Manufacturing Gorporation, a corporation of Delaware Application raaaary" 31, 1955, serial No. 484,948
1113mm; (CH4 20 -4 This invention relates to the construction'of enclosures particularly adapted but not necessarily limited to refrigerated areas and more particularly to such an 'enclosure constructed of synthetic resin materials.
The use of synthetic resin materials 'for the construe tion of enclosures for refrigerated areas has many struc-' tural and functional advantages. a
In the construction of walls and other enclosing members for refrigerated areas, moisture constitutes one of the major unsolvedproblems of the industry. Moisture, even when present in only slight quantities, will migrate toward and collectin a zone of lower temperature. Prior to this invention, all usable thermal insulating materials have been porous to the migration of moisture. Attempts have been made to seal these materials in moisture tight jackets. These attempts have met with only partial suc cess since the slightest failure of the sealing jacket per'-" mitted entry of moisture. Within a relatively short time a substantial accumulation of moisture resulted. Once this occurs, the only known solution'is replacement of 3 the insulation. By means of this invention, enclosures for refrigerated areas may now be built with a laminated material having a moisture impervious face'and a moisture impervious thermal insulatingcore material. Thus, even though the" fa'cingmaterial is accidentallybreached, there Will be no; opportunity for the moisture'to enter and collect; Thus," the material will'maintain its thermal e'flieieney' through out its life rather than rapidly losing it due to theac'cum'ulationo'f moisture. Thus, this invention solves ne'flor the most serious problems in'the fieldof enclosuresfor' refrigerated' areas. It also, for the first time, provide's'a practical and economically feasible, moisture'proof'thermalinsu'lating material for other types of structures;
This invention has the further advantage of providing a durable material. It is durable since it cannot collect. moisture and, therefore, retains its thermal efii'ciency indefinitely. It is durable because it is resistant to corro-' sion, rot and fungus attack. It requires no painting or. other external finish either to preserve its physical 'conditionor appearance. 7 V I It is a material that is less expensive than theretofore known materials serving the same' purposes. The core material has a low coetficient of thermal transmission and, therefore, serves as one of the most eflfective'thermal insu lators known. The panels are light Weight and according- 1y easily handled. They are adapted to rapid andeasy installation, thus materially reducing the initial costof the structure. The panels are highly resistant to shock loading and will endure rougher treatment than hereto fore known materials usable for the same purpose.
The material is easily cleaned since it provides a nonabsorbent, smooth, interior surface. This surface may be quickly and easily cleaned by simple washing methods.
Where the refrigerated area is designed for use inconnection' withfoods,'thismaterial is particularly desirable 70 because it can be designed to be odorless," tasteless and inert in the presence of foodstutfs. Itcan also be de- 2 signed to be proof againstaaaeab any of theacidsor other "chemicals coiiiniimIy pr'eser it 'in connection with foods irrespective of whether they are 'fru itsfvegetables or meats.
These and other advanta erof taunt/ema l; a; readily understood by those acquainted with thelco'nstruc Fig. 4 is "an" enlarged, "fragmentary, sectional view or the j'oin't "betwee'n'the stationary wall and the door of an enclosure embodyihg'this invntion.
FigfS is 'an enlarged, fragmentary, sectional view of. thisinvehtion applied to'a structure for a refrigerated arealrav'ingarigidfmetallic,- exterior shell. Fig; 6 is a sectional, elevational view of aportioniof a structure "'inlwhieh'thisinvention is applied to an'exis't ing shell structure where the"interior surface of the she-'11 is uneven;
Fig. 7 is areal-aged, fraginentari", e'etioiialliie v'rfofl a clip used'to mount the panels inthe enclosure'shown inFigTG.
Fig. 8 is anfeaia'r'ged, fra mentar secuoaafiievfor invention V v I Fig; 9 is; "an enlarged,fragmentary, sectional view of typical wall t'o'ceilin'g joint in'ahenclosure embodying this still another method 'of 'aaashrngth enclosure, panels of' this" invention to a supporting shell structure Fig. 10 a a fragmentary, sectional view ar modified;
construction for the'joint between the panels of this in ventio'fi'. My
Figill'is a fragmentary sectional new illustrating a means that "th circumstances, they may" not exhibitsligli't hygro'scopical characteristics? This" invention' 'maybe exaautea; in a 1111351153. of ferent waysIfQSeVe'r'al of thes'e'ways "are 'describedin thef: followingpara'graphs. These; howevenl are not to be; considered as mutually exclusive of allthe various ways in which this invention"carfbefcflried out.
Primarily"th is inventioii c'ontempiates' the construction of an enclosure for a refrigerated area from laminated panels of syntheticfresin"material or the type. disclosed in ounc -pendin application Y entitled Method of Making Lam'ihated"lfanelsfserial No. 419,498, filed; January .13, 195 5, nov'vjabandon'ed This invention contemplates'the constructioifof s'uc'h enclosuresfrom these panels either as a self supportingfentir'ely self suff cient structure or. the 'use ofthes'e'panelsas a ming material for existing shell""struc tures ,With the shells serving as a protective structural: housiiig 'forfthe panels.
Tr f of substantl' theti resin "which vention lhe "terms moisture "impervious" andffnon liygroscopic are used to describe certain properties L 'of 't'he lsyiith e'tic resins em: I ployed. 'It'i's to b eunders'tood thatfthese terms as. 1
terials are charaeteri'z'edlby these prop erties forall practical" purposes but" not thatithejy are. absolutely impervious to "moisture or thatfunder proper nip-em v'es are fabricated basicallyof a core ffl p fi n i y, pa ded; eellli aterial' having] a low coefficient lot-j .TQ l ore 1176 b nd e" on or both "faces," a dens ty facing fs'heet of syn-.1. a, I a v oisture 'impervious' and nonhy-f. grosc'opic'. The'se' faciii'g 'sheetsare designed to have high A impact strength and for this purpose are normally reinforced with a fibrous material such as filamentary glass. The facing sheets are designed to support a substantial portionof the loading appliedto the panel. The core material serves the dual purpose of acting as the web of a beam and as the thermal insulating medium of the panel. It is essential that the core material or at least the major portion of it be non-hygroscopic and impervious to moisture.
Referring to the drawings and specifically to Fig. 1, the numeral 1 indicates an enclosure having side walls 2 and 3, a front wall 4, a ceiling 5 anda floor 6. Each of these components is made up of panels 7.
Referring to Fig. 2, the panels 7 each consist of a core 8 of a low density, rigid, expanded cellular, resin material. Each cell of the core 8 is an entirely self-contained area,'hermetically sealed from each adjacent cell. This is necessary to provide a material having a low coefficient of thermal transmission and one characterized by its imperviousness to the passage of moisture. 7
Although various materials may be used for this purpose, one of the most desirable materials from the standpoint of thermal efficiency, light weight, low cost and imperviousness to moisture is rigid, expanded polystyrene. It is preferable to select an expanded polystyrene having a density which will give the panel good structural characteristics. It has been found that expanded polystyrene having a specific gravity in the range of .032 to .072 provides a desirable core material for general application in this invention. This material has a K-factor of about 0.24. Throughout this density range the K-factor remains relatively constant. Density ranges both above and be low the range given have a somewhat higher K-factor and are, therefore, somewhat less desirable from the standpoint of thermal insulation. In the case of high surface loadings, such as are experienced in floor panels, the denser expanded polystyrene core material is used.
The facing sheets 9 of the panel may be of any one of a number of different materials. A preferred materiai, from the standpoint of durability and cost, is a high density, polyester resin such as Hetron 92, sold by Hooker Electrochemical Go, into which there is embeded filamentary glass either in random or woven form as a structural reinforcement. The thickness of this sheet may vary depending upon the particular requirements of the structure for which it is to be used. This thickness may vary from 0.015 to 0.060 of an inch but normally it is approximately 0.018 to 0.032 of an inch.
Where the structure is of the type illustrated in Fig. l, in which there is no outer, protective shell, it is neces sary that the core 8 be enclosed on both surfaces by facing sheets 9. Where, however, the panels are used as a lining material and thus their external faces are protected by. the shell structure to which they are attached, as illustrated in Fig. 6, the external facing sheet may in some cases be omitted.
The facing sheets 9 are bonded to the core 8 by a sultable synthetic resin which is non-hygroscopic and impervious to the passage of moisture. It also must be a resin which will not act as a solvent, in its unpolymerized condition, for the material of the core 8. Where the core material 8 is polystyrene and the facing sheets are a polyester resin, an epoxy resin such as BR-18795, sold by Bakelite Co., has been found a suitable adhesive.
A plurality of panels 7 may be assembled into a unitary structure suitable for use as a wall, ceiling or floor section of an enclosure by butting the ends of the panels together as shown in Figs. 2, 5 and 9, by using a lap olnt as shown in Figures 3 and 11 or by employing a tongue and groovelapping joint as shown in Figure 10. As may be seen in Fig. 2, the panels 7 making up the floor, ceiling and walls of the enclosure 1 are butted at their edges and the resulting joint (Fig. 2) sealed by means of a suitable adhesive such as an epoxy resin or an epoxy resin modified by loading with a suitable 4 inorganic material to increase its viscosity at the time of application. The resin in the joint 10 serves the dual purpose of providing a moisture tight seal and of firmly securing the panels together in a rigid, structural unit.
In many cases it may be desirable to cover the joint with a batting strip 11 to assure a complete moisture seal at the joint in the event there are any breaches in the bonding adhesive used at the joint. The batting strip 11 also protects the joint against mechanical injury. The batting strip 11 is normally of the same material as the facing sheets and is bonded to the facing sheets by the same adhesive used to form the joint 10. Where the backs of the panels are accessible, a second batting strip 16 is frequently applied to the joint at the back surface.
Where the panel 7 of the ceiling 5 and a wall 2 abut, the resulting joint 12 (Fig. 8) is formed in the same manner as the joint 10 with the panels bonded together by means of a suitable adhesive. Again, if desired, the joint may be sealed and protected by means of a batting strip 13. In this case the batting strip 13 is identical to the batting strip 11 except that it is L-shaped in crosssection. It is secured to the panels 7 by the same type of adhesive used for the batting strip 11. If greater strength is required in the joint, the pocket 14 formed between the batting strip and the apex of the joint may be filled with this adhesive at the time the batting strip is installed. Again, where the back faces of the panels are accessible, a second batting strip 17, similar in structure to the batting strip 13, may be applied.
A typical floor installation is illustrated in Fig. 3 where the floor panels 6 are shown as supported at suitable intervals by structural members such as the I-beams 20. The spacing between the I-beams will vary from one installation to another depending upon the nature and severity of the expected loading.
For the purpose of providing a smooth floor, the edges of the floor panels are designed to provide a lapped joint. The use of the lapped joints makes it unnecessary to apply a batting strip either to protect the edges of the panels at the joint or to assure a moisture tight seal. In his construction, each of the panels has an outwardly projecting lap tongue 21 having a thickness equal to substantially one-half that of the panel. The edges of the facing sheets 9a of the panels extend beyond the margins of the panels and are folded. The folded edges are bonded to the edge of the panels to provide a protective flange 22. When the panels are brought together, the protective flanges 22 abut. Since they provide a smooth, radiused band 23 at the surface of the panel, there is no tendency for objects moving over the panels surface to dig into the joint, get beneath the facing sheets and tear them loose from the core material.
It is characteristic of many foamed synthetic resins and particularly of expanded polystyrene that they exhibit relatively low strength in tension and relatively high strength in shear. It is, therefore, desirable, wherever possible, to cause loads to act in shear rather than tension. The folding over of flanges 22 causes any loadings tending to pull the facing sheets 9a from the core 8 to act in shear along the margins of the panels rather than to act in tension at the surface joint between the core and facing sheet.
The small pocket formed between the radii 23 is preferably filled with the bonding resin used to form the joint. This assures a tight moisture seal and provides a smooth continuity of surface, further eliminating the possibility of damage. The panels are locked together by this same adhesive which is applied to all abutting surfaces 25 of the joint. Where pockets 66 may be formed within the joint, these preferably are filled with adhesive. The resulting joint is both strong and moisture tight.
While this type of joint has been illustrated as particularly desirable for the construction of the floor, it will be; r ecognized that it may be .usedon the walls and ceiling, eliminatingthe necessity for-the 'batting strips 'll.
The resulting surface is smoother and,--therefore', moreeasily cleaned.
Where the floor panels 6 are to be subjected to substantially higher than normalloadings; theymay be reinforced by making the core thicker and by-using a core material of substantially higher-densityadjacentthe top surface. Such higher density core materials include foamed isocyanate resin or slabs of a high density ex panded polystyrene, laminated to slabs of a low density polystyrene. If necessary, a wooden laminate 9b, Fig. 11, may be inserted between the facing sheets 9a and the thermal insulating, low density core 8 to give the panel great resistance -to crushingloads such as that ever, is not considered too serious in this constructioninasmuch as the'wood panels are'notrelied upon for thermal insulation. The moisture,'irrespective of the degree of-concentration, will not enter the non-hygroscopic, water impervious core material 8 to lower its thermal insulating efficiency.
The door 25-for the enclosure is made from the same laminated,-synthetic resin panels. Since thesepanels may be readily sawed and drilled, the enclosure may be erected and the opening for the door cut out afterward. Where such a cut-out is made,the exposed edge surfaces of the core material 8 are enclosed and protected by covering them with-a somewhat U-shaped channel section of filamentary reinforced, syntheticresinof the same type as that used for'the facing sheets 9 and for the batting strips 11. This channel may be considered as the protective edge jacket 26 (Fig. 4). The jacket 26 is applied by bonding it to the edge of the panel, using the same type of adhesive employed for attachment of the batting strips 11. The application of the jacket 26 restores pro" tection to the edge of the panel against mechanical injury. It will be recognized that all these operations can be executed easily at the site of installation.-
The jacket also serves to reinforce thepanel for theinstallation of hardware-such as the latch keeper 27. 'To' provide means for attachment of fasteners and'to furtherreinforce this area, a U-shapedelip' 56 is mounted-to the panel. -This c1ip and its application forthis purpose is fully described in-our copending application entitled Method andMeans fonSecuring Fasteners to Low Density'Core Panels, Serial No. 485,228, filed January 31, 1955.
The 'clip 56 is of a high-density, syntheticresin having" a filamentary glass reinforcement. It is similar in ma-- terial to the jacket 26.
To mount the clip 56, s lot s are routed in the panel 7 through the jacket 26, facing sheet -9 and partially through the core 8. Either the legs 57 -of the clip are coated with adhesive or the slots are partially filledwitliadhesive and the clip then pressed intothe slotsi The latch keeper '27 is installed by means of 'screws' threaded into the clip-56, jacket 26 and-facing sheet' 9. t This combination provides sufiicient thickness for the screws threads to obtaina firm anchorage to thepanel.
The legs. 57 of the clip serve to transmit the loads imposed by the latch-keeper27 tothe core as shear loads rather than tension' loadsr Tension loads -havea tendency to separate'the facing sheet 9-frorrr the-'co're'8.
Since expanded; cellular,--synthetic resin-mater'ials arecharacterizedby high shearstrength, the clip 56 provides a durable and substantial support for the-latch keeper which will not be subject to failure under theheavy loads imposed by the operation of the latch.
The slab detached from the wall proper in the formation of the doorway may be used as the door-25; The
6 edged the -door is covered by a protective jacket 26.
To provide a suitable reinforcement for mounting the latch mechanism '28 including the handle 29, U-shaped clips 56and 56a are mounted on the door. The mount ing of the clips 56 to the door is identical to that of mounting them to panel 4. To avoid making aligned cutsin the panel" from both faces, the clip 56a, on the interior "face of -the door; is turned withrespect to the clip 56 on: the exterior face. The shank or stem of the handle 29 is seated in a suitable opening through the door. It is desirable to prevent airleakage about the handle by providing suitable resilient gaskets about the shank adjacent each face of the door.
Although in some cases it may be desirable to provide internal reinforcement of the panelin the areas of the hardware, in the normal installation this is not considered necessary.
The gap between'the door 25 and the edgeof the Wall panels 4 may be sealed in any suitable manner such as by the use of the compressible gaskets 39.
The'construction of the joints 30 (Fig: 10) provides a self-closing, interlocking union between the panels. In this construction, the panel edges in addition to being lapped are provided along their outer margins with a tongue 31 and a groove 32. The contacting edge 33 of the tongues 31 are inclined to urge the panels together as they are pressed flush to each other. The
grooves or channels 32 are designed to be slightly deeper than the tongues 31 whereby the panels may be brought into tight abuttingrelationship before contact between the ends of the tongues and the bottoms of the grooves prevents further alignment of the panels. The joint 30 is secured and sealed by the application of an adhesivesuch as the adhesive used to attachthe battingstrip 11,
on all contacting surfaces of the edges of the panels. This simultaneously seals the joint against the passage of moisture and firmly secures the panels together as a structural unit.
In the construction of the joint 30, the panel facing' sheets 9 preferably extend beyond the edges of the panels and are turned in to form edge flanges 34. The small pocket formed at the surface of the panel by the radius ing of the facing sheets at the panels edge is preferably filled with a bead 35 of adhesive. This assures a smooth oint and a positive moisture seal. The joint illustrated a tortuous path between the panels'which may be more readily sealed against moisture.
A number of means may be used for securing the panels to the structure of an external shell where such exists. A few of these are illustrated in Figsr5, 6, 7 and 9;
The means of-attachment illustrated in-Fig. 5 is de-" signed for the situation where the shell structure includes channel section studs fit) covered by an external skin 41 of suitable material such as aluminum'or stain-' less steel. In this situation it is assumed that the external facing 41 is applied after the insulating panels 7 have been erected and attached to the'studs 46. For
the purpose of effecting this type of erection, angle strips 42 of the same material as the batting strips 11 are secured to the studs 40 by suitable means such as rivets 4-3. The panels 7 are-then secured to the angle strips 42 by'a suitable adhesive such asthat used to attach the batting strips 11. The panels '7 are held in position by temporary props until the adhesive has set. When the adhesive has set, the panels are firmly secured to the studs 4-0. Prefera ly, the panels areso sized that their joints will fall at the studs 40. These joints'may be of any of the various types described with the actual joint 44 formed and sealed by the same adhesive. used to attach the angle strips 42 to the panels. Where the joint is of the simple type illustrated, it is normally coveredand protected by a batting strip 11, also adhesively secured to the facing sheets of the panels.
After the panels 7 have been secured to the studs 40, the surface sheets 41 of the shell are erected and secured to the studs 45) by blind rivets 45. Such an arrangement provides a good structure because the surfacing sheets 41 and the studs 40 provide a firm and positive protective structure for the enclosure while the panels 7 provide complete thermal insulation for the enclosure. The entrapment of moisture in the space between the panels 7 and the surfacing sheets 41 is immaterial in this type of construction so far as the insulating material is concerned since it is impervious to moisture. Where the back surface of the insulating material is protected against mechanical injury such as the protection provided by the surfacing sheets 41, the facing sheet 9 on the back face of the insulating panels 7 may be omitted.
Fig'. 9 illustrates another method of joinder of the panels to the structure of a surrounding shell. This method also assumes that the back of the insulating panels will be accessible for erection of the panels 7. In the particular illustrated embodiment of this method, the panels are secured to an I-beam 48. For the purpose of making the attachment, the panels 7 on the back face are provided with a cutout 49 of suflicient depth to seat the flange of the I-beam 48 flush with the back surface of the panels. Anchor strips 50, similar to the batting strips 11, are secured to the I-beam on each side of the web by means of rivets 41. A substantial portion of each of the anchor strips 50 extends beyond the I-beam and is secured to the surface of the panel by a suitable adhesive. As soon as this adhesive has set, the panels will be firmly held to the I-beam 48. After this has been accomplished, the I-beams are enclosed by attachment of exterior facing sheets.
The fact that the facing sheet 9 of the back face of the panels 7 is breached for the purpose of making this attachment is not important when the core material used in the panels 7 is non-hygroscopic and impervious to moisture. The breaching of the moisture impervious facing sheets will not permit moisture to enter the core 8 to impair or destroy the thermal efficiency of the panel.
Figs. 6 and 7 illustrate another method of attaching the panels to a surrounding shell enclosure. This particular means of construction is particularly adapted for use where the back of the panel is inaccessible, requiring blind attachment. This form of attachment is particularly suited to situations in which the shell is masonry and to those situations in which the interior surface of the shell is irregular so that the panels as a whole have to be spaced outwardly from the shell surface sufficiently to permit them to clear all irregularities of the shells interior surface.
While this form of attachment is particularly suitable for masonry walls, it will be recognized that it may be used with wooden and other types of non-masonry structures. While particularly suited to situations involving inaccessibility of the panel backs, it is equally useful under practically all other circumstances where the panels are to be attached to a supporting structure. It is contemplated that this form of attachment will be extensively used under all of these various circumstances.
This particular form of attachment is preferred over those illustrated in Figs. and 9 because it takes advantage of the fact that low density core materials such as expanded polystyrene have high shear strength. The legs of the clips transmit loads to the panel as shear loads rather than as tension loads tending to separate the facing sheet from the core.
For the purpose of making this type of installation, the clip 5f; is utilized. Although the clip 50 may be of many different types of construction, one particularly useful embodiment consists of an elongated U-shaped corrugated clip. The free ends of thesides of the clip are sharpened at 51 to provide a cutting and penetrating edge. This particular clip is illustrated and claimed in our co-pending application entitled Clip for Mounting Panels, Serial No. 484,954, filed January 31, 1955.
The enclosure to be lined with the panels 7 is prepared by first attaching the clips securely to the shell of the enclosure. Where the shell is of wood or other readily penetrable material as suggested in Fig. 7, the clip is secured by means of screws 52. Where, however, the enclosing shell is of masonry, suitable attachment means such as a screw and masonry anchor combination or a percussion set stud is used. Whatever means are employed for attachment of the clip to the shell, it is essential that this attachment be firm and stable so that the clips will be rigidly held to the shell. The quantity and spacing of the clips 50 will be determined by that necessary to provide adequate support for the panels 7. This will vary from one installation to another.
After the clips 50 have been installed, their sides are coated with an adhesive bondable upon curing to both the facing sheets and the core. For this purpose an epoxy resin is desirable where the facing sheets are a polyester resin and the core material is expanded polystyrene. This is the same type of adhesive utilized for mounting the batting strips 11. With the clips 50 freshly coated with the adhesive, the panel is placed in position and then its inner face pushed or struck with sufiicient force to cause the sharpened edges 51 of the clip to penetrate partially through the panel. Of course, if the panel has a facing sheet 9 on the back surface, the force required to do this is substantially greater. Some of the adhesive on the sides of the clip is carried into the panel, forming a bond, indicated by the numeral 53, between the clip and the panel core. Some of the adhesive piles up at the point of entry of the surfacing sheet 9, forming a strong bead or fillet 54 further securing the clip to the panel.
The depth to which the clip 50 is caused to penetrate the panel 7 depends upon the circumstances of the installation. Normally the clips 50 are provided with sides or legs having a length appreciably in excess of the depth of penetration necessary to adequately hold the panel. By this arrangement, the panels may be pushed onto the clip only so far as necessary to provide a firm anchorage. Thus, if the surface of the shell structure is irregular, as is indicated by the irregular surface 55 of the side wall in Fig. 6, the panels may be caused to stand out from the general surface of the wall sufliciently to clear all obstructions created by the irregularities.
The several panels 7 forming a single wall or ceiling may be erected by partially inserting them on the clips 50. When all the panels have been so placed, they may be aligned to provide a flush surface by forcing the inwardly projecting panels flush with the other panels. This must be done with sufiicient rapidity that it will be accomplished before the adhesive on the clips starts to set.
Normally, the panels when erected as a wall by this method will hold their position without external support until the adhesive on the clips is set. Where, however, the clips 50 are used to mount ceiling panels 7 to form ceiling 5, such as illustrated in Fig. 6, the ceiling panels must be supported until the adhesive is set. Since the panels are comparatively light weight, this presents no serious problem. Panels of this type in four by eight foot sizes are normally light enough for a single man to easily lift and place on the ceiling.
This invention is equally applicable to both stationary and mobile enclosures. It is useful in the construction of refrigerated rooms, portable containers, box cars and trucks. Because of its good structural qualities, it will withstand the loadings characteristic of these applications including vibration and jar incident to use in mobile enclosures.
In addition to enclosures for refrigerated areas, it may ease-271* be used for'standard building construction, replacing the entire roofand' wall structures." It provides in a single construction component a structural support, a weather resistantv and weather'tight exterior; a durable, injury resistant'surfaceon both the :inte'rior and exterior and an' insulating'factor superioratoirthat of conventionally used materials; In such "construction vit may-be used asthe' solebuilding material 'or it maybe applied as the enclosureipaneling for a skeleton frame: I
An enclosure forarefrigerated-area-' constructed according to this 'invention'has the' advant'age of a durable Wall of high thermal insulatingiefiiciency." This thermal insulatingpefliciency will be-retainedthroughout the life ofthe'enclosure; It has notendency t"lose its thermal:
efliciency due to the accumulation of moisture such as characterizes thermal insulating materials heretofore employed; It is also highly resistant to -m'echanical injury. If injured, it may be quickly and inexpensively repaired by use of a patch of the same type of material as that used for" the batting'stri'psi Small breaches may befilled with the'adhesivef Boththe'repa'ir strip and the adhesive form moisturetightseals to prevent the formation of pockets'into which dirt or other materials characteristic of refrigerated "area's'may accumulate. Since the panels retain'theirth'erm'al efiicienc'y throughout their life,-- the frequent" replacement'commonly required of pr'eviously'known insulatingmaterials is eliminated. This in itself effects a substantial'saving'in cost and in down time of' the" refrigerated' enclosure necessitated by repairs.
While a preferred embodiment and several modifications of this invention have been described, it will be recognized that various other modifications maybe employed Without departing fromthe' principle of this invention. Such modifications are to be considered as included in the hereinafter appended clairns,"unless'these claims'bytheir language expressly state'otherwise.
1. An enclosure for a refrigerated areacomprising a plurality of laminated panels having on at least the surfaces exposed to the interior of said enclosure a moisture impervious facing of synthetic high density resin, a core having a loW coefiicient of thermal conductivity, said core being a rigid expanded cellular synthetic resin, the cells of said core resin being independent and hermetically sealed from each other, and a moisture impervious adhesive bonding said facing to said core, the abutting surfaces of said panels being adhered with a moisture impervious adhesive to thereby form a strong moisture impervious joint which presents a continuous smooth interior surface in said enclosure.
2. An enclosure for a refrigerated area comprising a plurality of laminated panels having on at least the surfaces exposed to the interior of said enclosure a moisture impervious facing of synthetic high density resin, a filamentary reinforcement embedded in said resin, a core having a low coefficient of thermal conductivity, said core being a rigid expanded cellular synthetic resin, the cells of said core resin being independent and hermetically sealed from each other, and a moisture impervious adhesive bonding said facing to said core, said panels being joined so as to form an enclosure presenting a continuous smooth interior surface, each of the joints thereof being sealed with an adhesive that is moisture impervious.
3. An enclosure for a refrigerated area comprising laminated panels having on their surfaces exposed to the interior of said enclosure a moisture impervious facing of synthetic high density non-hygroscopic, moisture impervious resin, a core having a low coeflicient of thermal conductivity, said core being a non-hygroscopic, moisture impervious, rigid expanded cellular synthetic resin, the cells of said core resin being independent and hermetically sealed from each other; and a moisture impervious adhesive bonding said facing to said core, the
10 facing :on each of said panels =:havinga down-turned flange portion extending over and 'adhesively secured 'to' at "leasta portion of an end -surfaceof-said-core and a pluralityof said panels being abutted so. as to :place the said fianges thereof in -contact,said-panels=beingJadhesively joined' together tot form said=-=enclosure so that? said facingpriesents a substantially smooth surface at said--- joints."
4.- In an enclosure for a refrigerated area ,the' com-'- bination comprising a plnrality-.of-'panels and adhesive means joining said panels together as said enclosure, said adhesive means 'sealingzthe-joints between' said-pauels against the migration of moisture therethrough, the -surface exposed'to the-interiorof said-enclosure of each of said panels being covered by :a moisture impervious facing of a synthetic high' den'sity-resin having embedded"- therein a filamentary glass*reinforcementand presenting a smooth continuous interior surface,--a core having a low coefficient of thermal conductivity, said-core being: of'rigid expanded" cellular "synthetic: resin, the cellsof saidc'ore resin 'being independent and hermetically sealed from each "other;'a moisture impervious adhesive bonding said facingtosaid core, and a laminateresistan't to crushing under-load adjacent themppersurface of those of said panels'forming-the floorof said enclosure'.
5. In an enclosure for a refrigerated area, the combination'of 'claim "1 wherein the surface of each of said panels emosed to the-interior of said enclosure is covered by a moistureimpervious facing of-ja high density poly-'- ester resin havingembedded-therein a filamentary glass reinforcement,'and said core comprisesa slab of rigid expanded polystyrene;
6.'In an enclosure for 'a 'refri-ger ated'area, thecom bination"comprising a pluralityrof: panels and means joining said panels together as said enclosure, adhesive-- means" "sealing .Lthe joints betweem said panels against the migration"of moisture therethrough, the surface -exposed to the interior of said -e'nclosure of each of said 1 panels being covered by a moisture imperviousfacing of a highdensity polyester *resinha'vingembedded therein: a filamentary 'glassreinforcement; and a core comprising a slab of rigid expanded polystyrene, a moisture imper vious adhesive bonding said facing to said core, the core slabs of those of said panels forming the floor of said enclosure being of a rigid expanded polystyrene of a higher density than the core slabs of the others of said panels.
7. A lining for an enclosure for a refrigerated area having a rigid shell, said lining comprising a plurality of panels joined together so as to form an enclosure sealed at the joints between said panels by an adhesive capable of preventing the migration of moisture therethrough,, the surface exposed to the interior of said enclosure of each of said panels being free of protuberances and covered by a moisture impervious facing of a synthetic high density resin, a core having a low coefiicient of thermal conductivity, said core being of rigid expanded cellular synthetic resin, the cells of said core resin being independent and hermetically sealed from each other, a moisture impervious adhesive bonding said facing to said core, and anchor elements secured to said shell and to said panels for holding said panels to said shell.
8. A lining for an enclosure having a rigid shell, said lining comprising a plurality of panels and means joining said panels together, means sealing the joints between said panels against the migration of moisture therethrough, the surface exposed to the interior of said enclosures of each of said panels being covered by a moisture impervious facing of a synthetic high density resin, a core having a low coeflicient of thermal conductivity, said core being of rigid expanded cellular synthetic resin, the cells of said core resin being independent and hermetically sealed from each other, a moisture impervious adhesive bonding said facing to said core, and anchor elements rigidly secured to said shell and adhesively bonded to the surface of said panels for holding said panels to said shell.
9. A lining for an enclosure for a refrigerated area having a rigid shell, said lining comprising a plurality of panels joined together so as to form an enclosure sealed at the joints between said panels by an adhesive capable of preventing the migration of moisture therethrough, the surface exposed to the interior of said enclosure of each of said panels being covered by a moisture impervious facing of a synthetic high density resin, a core having a low coefficient of thermal conductivity, said core being of rigid expanded cellular synthetic resin, the cells of said core resin being independent and hermetically sealed from each other, a moisture impervious adhesive bonding said facing to said core, anchor elements rigidly secured to said shell, a portion of each of said anchor elements penetrating said panels, and an adhesive bonding said penetrating portion of the facing and core of said anchor elements to said panels.
10. In an enclosure for a refrigerated area, the combination comprising a plurality of panels and means joining said panels together as said enclosure, each of said panels having a hook shaped tongue projecting from two of its parallel edges, the free end of the tongue on one of said edges extending oppositely to the free end of the tongue on the other of said edges, the face directed toward the panel of the free end of each of said tongues being inclined and converging with said panel toward the base of said hook whereby said panels are adapted to be forced into tight edge to edge relationship as said panels are aligned with each other, means sealing the joints between said panels against the migration of moisture therethrough, the surface exposed to the interior of said enclosure of each of said panels being covered by a moisture impervious facing of a synthetic high density resin having embedded therein a filamentary glass reinforcement, a core having a low coeflicient of thermal conductivity, said core being of rigid expanded cellular synthetic resin, the cells of said core resin being independent and hermetically sealed from each other, and a moisture impervious adhesive bonding said facing to said core.
11. A method of forming a refrigerator enclosure which comprises the steps of providing an outer shell, attaching a plurality of spaced panel-securing means to the interior surface of said shell, providing a plurality of panels, each panel having an expanded cellular synthetic core portion and a moisture impervious facing of a synthetic high density resin adhesively secured to one surface of said core, applying a moisture impervious adhesive to the edge surfaces of said core and to the surfaces of said panel-securing means and forcing the said panel against said panel receiving means so that the said receiving means at least partially penetrates the said core, and repeating the step of forcing additional panels against said panel receiving means until the interior surface of said shell is covered.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES Scientific American, September 1945, pages and 156.
Article entitled Polyester Chair Takes the Prize," reprint from Modern Plastics, August 1950, two pages.
Article entitled Sizes for Glass Textiles for Reinforcing Polyester Plastics, reprint from American Dyestufi Reporter August 18, 1952.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent Nos 2,896,271 I July 28, 1959 George E. Kloote' et al It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correct-ion and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.
Column l, line 56, for theretofore" read es heretofore column 2, line 45, for "means" reed mean column 10, lines 6'7 and 68, for enclosures" read enclosure column 11, line- 18, strike out "the facing and core' of" and insert the same'before the Word "said", first occurrence, in line 18, same column.
Signed and sealed this 19th day of April 1960.
KARL HWAXLINE ROBERT C. WATSON Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents