US 2902780 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 8, 1959 B. A. BELLEW 2,902,780
' SPORT SHOE Filed March 12, 1957 INVENTOR. BERNARD A. BELLEW BY We; ATTOR/VE s United tats at 2,902,780 SPORT SHOE Bernard A. Bellew, Los Angeles, Calif;
Application March 12, 1957, Serial No. 645,570
4 Claims. (Cl. 36--2.5)
This invention relates to shoes and more particularly to athletic shoes employing spikes, cleats or non-slipping structures for enhancing performance of the wearer.
The placing of spikes, cleats or non-slipping structures, hereinafter referred to by the generic term calks, on most athletic shoes in use at the present time has not changed appreciably in the last thirty years. The actual number of calks and their positioning has been dictated more by style trends and manufacturing convenience rather than from the viewpoint of the actual user of the shoe. While it has been proposed heretofore to position calks on the sole of an athletic shoe in a manner corresponding with the anatomy of the foot, such proposals do not appear to have been based upon an accurate scientific analysis of the physiological functions of the soft tissues for which the bones of the foot provide an inert framework. At the present state of the art, the closest attempt to position calks in accordance with the anatomy of the foot has been to place the spikes under the metatarsals or other bones in the forward part of the foot. Practically no efiort has been made to properly define the optimum placement of calks on the sole and heel portions of the shoe in order to achieve maximum use of the sole and heel and associated joints, ligaments, tendons and muscles. There is much to be gained by a complete redesigning of the sole contouring of an athletic shoe as well as the proper placement of the calks. Most present day shoes provide a sole that is too long and narrow for the average foot with a heel portion that is placed too far laterally toward the outer edge. The tight laces used to bind shoes of this type to the foot can result in inhibiting much of the soft tissue from functioning individually and adequately.
Bearing the above in mind, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a vastly improved shoe structure particularly adapted for athletic shoes, but the principles of which may be employed in any shoe.
More particularly, it is an object to provide a shoe of the above type so designed with respect to the number and placement of calks employed as to enable optimum use of all soft tissues, particularly joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and fascia present in the foot, whereby greatly increased performance is realizable by the wearer.
Still another important object with respect to the above noted object is to provide in combination with proper placement of calks on a shoe sole, a newly contoured sole and heel portion so designed as to eliminate cramping of the wearers foot such that the aforesaid optimum use of soft tissues may be employed.
These and numerous other objects and advantages of the present invention are attained, briefly, by providing a contoured sole of shorter length and of greater transverse width to more naturally accommodate the width of the foot than characterizes most present day athletic shoe soles so that there is no tight binding of the soft tissues when the shoe is worn. In combination with this newly contoured sole, suspension of the foot is pro vided by means of calks by employing preferably ten Patented Sept. 8, 1959 individual calks under the forward part of the foot arranged in two predetermined curved rows passing under the distal phalangeal and metatarsal phalangeal joints, respectively. Thus, rather than placing the calk directly under one of the bones of the forward portion of the foot or between toes or metatarsals as has characterized some presentday proposals, the actual support is provided by the first row at the posterior portion of the five distal pads of the toes to fall substantially directly beneath the distal phalangeal joints. The second row similarly isarranged such that each calk is positioned at the middle portion of the pads under the metatarsal phalangeal joints. Thus, there is provided ten point pressure suspension for accurate and even support of the soft tissues of the forward part of the foot to provide improved balance by spreading of the toes and improved forward locomotion by the digging in action of individual toe pads over individual calks. The result of this described suspension provides full, even, and equal support at ten individual points corresponding to the five distal phalangeal and five metatarsal phalangeal joints.
With respect to the heel portion of those types of athletic shoes, for example, in which it is desirable to use heel calks, there are preferably provided four individual calks equally spaced from each other preferably in a square array equidistant from the center of the pressure point of the heel directly under the 0s calcis.
A better understanding of this invention and its various physiological and structural advantages will be had by referring to preferred embodiments thereof as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a side elevational view of a track shoe, preferably for running, designed and constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
Figure 2 is a plan view of the sole of a shoe indicated in outline in which the major joint and bone structure of the wearers foot is illustrated in order to depict the ten point pressure suspension arrangement of the calks on the shoe in accordance with the invention;
Figure 3 is another side View of a dilferent type of athletic shoe; and,
Figure 4 is a plan view of the underside of the sole of the shoe shown in Figure 3.
Referring to Figure 1, there is shown by way of example an athletic track shoe 1t providing with any suitable means such as elastic material lrll for securing the shoe to the wearers foot. The sole 12 is in turn provided with calks in the form of spikes indicated generally at 13.
In the plan view of Figure 2, the manner in which the spikes 13 are positioned on the sole 12 is shown in complete detail wherein it will be noted that there are provided a total of ten spikes arranged in first and second rows following transverse predetermined curves across the sole. The first or foremost row contains five first spikes designated 13a, 13b, 13c, 13d, and 131s. These spikes as clearly indicated are positioned immediately beneath the distal phalangeal joints of the toes whereby assuming positions posterior to the forward pads of the toes. The second row includes a series of five second spikes indicated at 13 13g, 13h, 131', and 13 These spikes in turn are respectively secured to the sole to fall substantially beneath the center of the metatarsal phalangeal joints. Each spike is preferably triangular in cross section to facilitate penetration.
Extensive tests have shown that when the forward part of the foot is in a weight bearing position, each of the ten pressure points beneath which each spike is placed is employed equally and individually in supporting the weight of the wearer with the exception of the first distal phalangeal and first metatarsal phalangeal joints; that is, where the spikes 13a and 13 are disposed. Thesepre's- 3 sure points over the spikes 13a and 13f each carry approximately twice the weight as any one of the remaining points. It is important to note that as a result of these tests even the fifth distal phalangeal and fifth metatarsal phalangeal joints are as important as the second, third, or fourth joints. Therefore, it is important that the sole 12 be contoured properly tocontain these structures and permit spike placement to enable the effectiveness of the fifth metatarsal phalangeal joint over spike 13 and corresponding distal phalangeal joint over spike 13e to be taken full advantage of. To this end, the sole 12 is provided with a width w as indicated in Figure 2 which is somewhat wider than normally encountered in presently known athletic shoes of comparable length. Further, if AA represents the straight mid-line of a conventional athletic shoe, it will be noted that the sole and heel portion of the sole contouring of the instant invention is such as to position the heel portion medially or inward of this line to define a new correct mid-line BB which follows the natural longitudinal curve of the foot. This novel contouring in combination with the increased width w provides a shoe somewhat shorter in overall length than has characterized known shoes and rotates and positions the foot to minimize wear along the lateral sole edge and upper portion adjacent this edge as encompassed by the bracket C, which wearing has always heretofore been a major problem. In addition, the fifth metatarsal phalangeal joint and fifth distal phalangeal joint and their corresponding soft tissues are no longer inhibited from individual and adequate functioning. Proper individual functioning of the remaining toes is also assured by the novel flaring inward of the medial or inward edge of the sole encompassed by the bracket D adjacent to the first metatarsal phalangeal joint and first distal phalangeal joint. This flaring merges into a broadly curving lateral sole contouring between C and D which fully and snugly contains the five toes without cramping.
This overall improved contouring of the sole 12 permits the various soft tissues for which the bone structure illustrated in Figure 2 provides a frame to come into full play. These tissues which include ligaments, tendons, muscles, fascia, sub-cutaneous connective tissues, and skin all have elasticity. It is primarily the muscles and tendons that provide driving forces for the foot. In order, therefore, to take advantage of the natural elasticity of these soft tissues and attain optimum effects from the individual driving forces generated by the soft tissues, the proper individual spike positioning under the heretofore described ten joints is of paramount importance along with the just mentioned proper contouring of the sole.
The particular shoe shown in Figure 1 is primarily for events of track and field not requiring spike on the heel portion. The forward spikes of this shoe are substantially as indicated in the plan view of Figure 2. However, in Figure 2, there is illustrated for the sake of convenience the positioning of spike on the heel portion of the sole in the event such are desirable. In this latter type of athletic shoe, the forward two rows of five spikes each would be as already described and in addition, four spikes indicated at 14, 15, 16 and 17, preferably equally spaced from each other are provided at the heelportion of the sole. The center pressure point of the heel portion on the os calcis is indicated at 18, and it will be noted that the spikes 14, 15, 16 and 17 are all substantially equally spaced from this center pressure point and are placed at the posterior two-thirds of the heel portion of the shoe. Spikes on the heel portion of conventional shoeshave normally not been properly positioned with respect to the center pressure point 18 being too far forward or in the center. Actually, there should be provided support to the rear of this point 18 as is provided by the spikes and 17. The forward spikes 14 and 16, while not as important, in turn co-operate with the spikes 15 and 17 toprovide a relatively stable foundation for the heel of the known as the calcis which in and of itself is unstable and ordinarily would only have a single point contact with the ground.
Summarizing the above, the proper contouring of the sole and heel portion of the sole and strategic positioning of individual spikes with respect to the metatarsal phalangeal joints and distal phalangeal joints and 0s calcis pressure point of the heel portion, provides the following physiological advantages. First, the stabilization provided by the strategic positioning of the spikes enables a proper relaxation of the limbs and spine, each pressure point being supported as equally as each other pressure point. This uniformity in foundation support provides balanced stresses in the lateral and medial columns of the foot supported, and thus the normally encountered stresses and strains are not transmitted improperly through the ankle, leg, and thigh to the pelvis and spine. In other words, the entire physiological ability 'of an athlete to co-ordinate and control his movements is improved by the proper stabilization of the athletes foot. Secondly, the contouring of the sole and heel portion of the sole enables the maximum use to be made of all of the soft tissues individually, particularly the joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons without undue binding or cramping of the foot.
With respect to structural advantages, the provision of ten forward spikes provides a greatly increased traction. Further, as a consequence of proper positioning of the spikes with respect to pressure points on the foot, no spikes will be bent as some are in present day shoes. As a result of the above feature, the shoe has a prolonged life. The triangular cross sectional shape of the various spikes provides for easier penetration of the spike into the earth and also correspondingly decreased ground resistance to penetration and removal of the spikes.
Referring now to Figures 3 and 4, there is illustrated a second shoe 19 which is provided for convenience and comfort with a securing means and top design similar to the track shoe of Figure l, but which may be a high shoe such as employed in basketball, if desired. The shoe 19 is provided with a sole 20 having a plurality of calks in the form of individual rubber supports or raised portions 21 for providing traction between the shoe and a'floor, for example. The various raised portions as indicated clearly in Figure 4 are secured to the sole in positions similar to these of the various spikes discussed with respect to Figure 2. The downward extent of these raised portions is exaggerated in the drawing for purposes of clarity. Thus, there is provided a first row of raised projections indicated at 21a, 21b, 21c, 21d, and 21e falling on a transverse predetermined curve passing beneath the various individual distal phalangeal joints of a Wearers foot and a second row of five raised projections 21f, 21g, 21h, 211, and 21 following a similar transverse curve falling beneath the individual metatarsal phalangeal joints of a wearers foot. In the basketball shoe of Figure 4, there are provided four raised projections about the heel portion of the sole indicated at 22, 23, 24, and 25 all equally spaced from each other and equally spaced from the center pressure point of the os calcis, indicated in Figure 4 at 26.
The shoe illustrated in Figures 3 and 4 is set forth simply to show that the basic principles of the present invention are applicable to practically all types of athletic shoes. The important feature is to provide a ten point pressure suspension for the forward part of the foot in combination with proper sole and heel contouring as described in detail with respect to Figure 2 whereby optimum use may be made of the soft tissues of the foot and maximum comfort and stabilization for the wearer is achieved.
From the above description it will be evident that the present invention provides a greatly improved athletic shoe scientifically designed to accommodate a wearers wearer which normally contains a dome-shaped bone 7 foot which shoe is specifically designed with the functioning soft tissues of the wearers foot in mind. Minor modifications within the scope and spirit of the present invention will occur to those skilled in the art. The principles are therefore not to be thought of as limited to the specific embodiments illustrated and shown for general descriptive purposes.
What is claimed is:
1. A shoe including: a flexible sole; a first row of five first calks secured to the bottom of said sole, said first calks being respectively positioned beneath the five distal phalangeal joints of a wearers toes; and a second row of five second calks secured to the bottom of said sole, said second calks being respectively positioned beneath the five metatarsal phalangeal joints of the wearers toes, whereby a ten point suspension for said shoe is provided.
2. A shoe according to claim 1, in which the heel portion of said flexible sole consists of four calks equally spaced from each other and equally spaced from a center point corresponding to the center of pressure on the os calcis of a wearers heel.
3. A shoe according to claim 1, in which the longitudinal midline of said sole and heel portion of said sole follows a curve corresponding to the natural longitudinal curve of the wearers foot, said heel portion being displaced medially inwardly to minimize wear along the lateral edge of the sole and avoid cramping of the wearer's foot.
4. In an athletic shoe, the combination comprising: a flezible sole; a first row of individual calks respectively secured to said sole at only those points falling directly beneath the distal phalangeal joints of a wearers toes; and a second row of individual calks respectively secured to said sole at only those points falling directly beneath the metatarsal phalangeal joints of a wearers toes.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 167,239 Guilford Aug. 31, 1875 325,194 Buck Aug. 25, 1885 737,920 Golden Sept. 1, 1903 997,657 Drake July 11, 1911 1,542,671 Craig June 16, 1925 1,855,452 Jones Apr. 26, 1932 2,022,992 West Dec. 3, 1935 2,072,351 West Mar. 2, 1937 2,080,680 Walther May 18, 1937 2,082,537 Butler June 1, 1937 2,652,638 Shoemaker Sept. 22, 1953