|Publication number||US2904156 A|
|Publication date||Sep 15, 1959|
|Filing date||Jun 18, 1956|
|Priority date||Jun 18, 1956|
|Publication number||US 2904156 A, US 2904156A, US-A-2904156, US2904156 A, US2904156A|
|Inventors||Effinger Cecil S|
|Original Assignee||Effinger Cecil S|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (4), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 15, 1959 c. s EFFINGER MUSIC TYPEWRITER 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 18, 1956 I Z v- I 5 D. J5 8 Fl? 2, INVENTOR CFC/L EFH/VGER ATTORNEY Sept. 15, 1959 c. s. EFFINGER 2,904,156
MUSIC TYPEWRITER Filed June 18, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 llllllfl "III I v INVENTOR CECIL l5. EFFY/VGERf 'ATTORNEY United States Patent MUSIC TYPEWRITER Cecil S. Effinger, Denver, Colo.
Application June 18, 1956, Serial No. 592,053
6 Claims. (Cl. 197- 8) This invention relates to typewriters, and more particularly to typewriters for printing music characters and the like, thus relating to the subject matter of my US. Patent 2,672,228, granted March 16, 1954.
As set forth in my aforesaid U.S. Patent 2,672,228, such typewriters are useful not only in composing music, but also in making copies of music for use as such or for reproduction purposes. While there have been numerous attempts to equip a typewriter to print music, such attempts have generally involved undue complications in either structure or use and none prior to my aforesaid patent could be used to produce a properly prepared and natural appearing piece of music, in which the musical characters appear in a flowing pattern of what might be described as free-hand printing, in which there is no restriction as to placement of the characters, and in which the mind and eye decision of the music typist has full control.
The objects of thisinvention are similar to those set forth in my aforesaid U.S. Patent No. 2,672,228gand in addition are to provide a music typewriter which is an improvement over the music typewriter of my aforesaid patent accomplishing certain of the desired results in a similar manner but other results by the use of different construction features; to provide a music typewriter which includes a novel printing point indicator which is also useful on typewriters generally; to provide a music typewriter which includes a ratchet mechanism operated by a space bar or the like; and to provide a music typewriter haying novel means for placement of the carriage at any desiredand precise point for printing.
Additional objects and the novel features of this invention will become apparent from the description which follows, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a perspective View of an alphabet typewriter,
with changes in certain parts to produce a music type- I writer constructed in accordance with this invention;
Fig. 2 is a keyboard diagram, illustrative of one possible combination of keys which may be used in the typewriter of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a condensed top plan view of an escapement bar and certain associated parts, including-a vernier which is utilized to adjust the carriage to any intermediate point;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary, front elevation of a portion of the music typewriter of Fig. 1, taken at the printing position and illustrating more particularly a novel printing point indicator;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary-elevation, similar to Fig. 4; but with the parts thereof in the position assumed when a key is struck and a musical character or the like is being printed;
Fig; 6. is a further enlarged elevation of the principal 7 Patented Sept. 15, 1 959 ICE Fig. 8 is a fragmentary perspective view of certain parts involved in the escapement mechanism, by which the carriage is advanced automatically one step after a key of a normal alphabet typewriter is struck, illustrating in dotted lines the part which is removed in order to disconnect the keys from the escapement mechanism;
Figs. 9 to 16, inclusive, are photolithographic reproductions of musical printing done entirely on a typewriter constructed in accordance with thisinvention, as follows:
Fig. 9 is a reproduction of measures 210 to 223, in.- clusive, of the piano part of the Third Movement of the Piano Concerto, by Cecil S. Eflinger;
Figs. 10 and 11 show different sized staves andv illus trative examples of musical character combinations;
Fig. 12 shows parallel lines, both vertical and horizontal;
Fig. 13 shows various slanting lines;
Fig. 14 shows a flowing line of notes; and
Figs. 15 and 16 are reproductions of various musical patterns.
The typewriter T of Fig. 1, constructed in accordance with this invention, is a modification of a commercial alphabet typewriter, i.e., an R. C. Allen Model 714C, and includes a carriage C movable laterally in either direction along ways, a rotatable platen P mounted on the carriage, and'a plurality of keys K connected with type bars having musical characters thereon, such as corresponding to those shown in Fig. 2. Conventional left and right shift keys 10 and 10', left and right shift locking keys 11 and 11', a back space key 12, a tabulator key 13, a tab clear key 14, and a tab set key 15, may remain thereon. A space bar 16, when depressed and released, "will move the carriage C one space to the left in the conventional manner, but all of the keys K are disconnected from the escapement mechanism, thus actuated only by space bar 16, as in a manner described later. The typewriter T may also be provided with a type bar guide 17 and a ribbon lift 18, modified slightly as described later, while the carriage C may be provided with a paper bail 19, by which a piece of paper 20 is held against platen P, left and right platen knobs 21 and 21, a paper guide 22 and a line space platen release lever 23. When equipped therewith, the half space mechanism is preferably left on the machine. Conventional parts which may be omitted are the carriage return and line space lever, margin set keys, and the ribbon shift lever.
In accordance with this invention, the platen ratchet wheel 24, which may normally have approximately 32 teeth, is replaced with a ratchet wheel having, say, 132 teeth, so that either platen knob 21 or 21 may be turned to the next tooth and the surface of the platen P and consequently the paper 20 will move through a distance of 0.034 in. to 0.036 in. or the like, so that movement of the paper will correspond to one-half the vertical line spacing of the staff, such as produced by the sixth key from the left in the upper row. The conventional line space clutch arrangement, actuated by a button 25 mounted in platen knob 21, may be retained, so that the piaten P may be adjusted to any desired point relative to the ratchet wheel.
In further accordance with this invention, a Vernier V having an adjustment knob 30 is added to the machine, so that. the lateral position of the printing point on the paper 25) may be adjusted to any desired and precise point between the positions produced by the escapement mechanism with which the space bar 16 is connected. In general, the extent of movement provided by the Vernier V should be greater than the ratchet single space distance, such as 10% to 20% greater. It will be understood, of course, that by operation of line space release lever 23 or clutch knob 25, the platen P may be moved freely by either knob 21 or 21', so that any precise vertical position desired for the printing point may be obtained.
. .;The type bars with which the keys K are connected may have two characters thereon, primarily musical characters, except .for certain keys having only one character :thereon and which. extend sufliciently below the printing position, that another. character cannot be conveniently placed on the same type bar. of, characters and other styles or designs of characters -may be utilized, a suitable arrangement may be that shown in Fig. 2, the characters being listed below in accordance with the row in which the key is located and reading from left 1 to right in each row, with those .keys having only an upper character indicated thereon being connected with type bars having only one character thereon:
'Tap row of keys Lower character:
Down bow Small numeral 9 Small numeral zero Upper character:
Flag for stems up 16th rest 16th note, stem up 16th note, stem down Whole note Stafi liner Large numeral 2 Large numeral 3 Large numeral 6 Tie Square note head Asterisk Large numeral 1 Large numeral 5 Large numeral 7 Arpeggio sign Second row of keys Upper character: Lower character:
Treble clef Bass clef 8th rest 8th note, stem up 8th note, stem down Small numeral 6 Small numeral 7 Small numeral 8 Leger line Short dash Fine vertical line Short vertical line Sharp Double sharp Large numeral 4 Large numeral 8 Tie Large numeral 9 Large numeral zero Trill or roll liner Third row of keys Lower character: Up bow Small numeral 3 Small numeral 4 Upper character:
' Flag for stems down Mezzo Quarter rest Fourth row of keys Upper character: Lower character:
Piano Italic s Forte Italic z Bar line Small numeral 1 Half note, stem up Small numeral 2 Half note, stem down Half note head Horizontal heavy line Period Slanted heavy line Grace note Small half note head Double heavy line Comma Accent Italic a l in Fig. 3, the Vernier adjustment V may be provided with screw threads'Slat the inner end adapted to engage a; nut 32. attached; as'by. spot welding or brazing, to a While other arrangements place for the sake of appearance.
carriage end plate 33, the carriage C being mounted on end plates 33 and 33' and being movable along ways, as indicated previously. The inner end of Vernier V may be attached for rotation, as by a screw 34, to a bracket 35 which is connected to a rack 36 of the escapement mechanism, rack 36 having teeth 37 and normally being attached by brackets 35 and 35' to the respective carriage end plates 33 and 33'. Also, the usual hole by which bracket 35' is attached, as by a nut and bolt, to end plate 33, instead engages a pin 38, attached to carriage plate 33, so that upon adjustment of Vernier knob 30, the carriage C can be moved and pin 38 on end plate 33' will merely slidein bracket 35'. As indicated previously, the length of travel of Vernier knob 30 by means of the screw threads 26 is preferably longer than the distance which carriage C is moved by one complete actuation of space bar 16 of Fig. 1.
As indicated in Figs. 4-7, a novel printing point indicator I having an apex or pointer 40 and which is applicable to alphabet and other types of typewriters as well as music typewriters, may be actuated by the ribbon lift 18, which is provided with forks 41 and 41' through which the ribbon is interlaced. A paper guide (not shown since it is preferably removed) may normally be attached, as by screws 43 and 43, to bracket arms 42 and 42, respectively, while screw 43 may be utilized to mount indicator I on bracket arm 42 and screw 43' may be left in Printing point indicator I, as in Fig. 6, may include a plate 44 having a slot 45 therein, through which screw 43 of Figs. 4 and 5 extends, and an arm 46 pivotally mounted on plate 44, as by a rivet 47 and normally resting on screw 43, as in Fig. 4, to position apex 40 at exactly the printing point, normally the center of the character, or the center of the head of a sixteenth, eighth, quarter or half note with stem. At its inner end, arm 46 is provided with an inwardly and upwardly extending triangular segment 48, which terminates in apex 40, and a downwardly extending abutment 49 adapted to be engaged by button 50, conveniently attached to ribbon lift 18, as in Fig. 7, so that when the ribbon lift 18 is elevated, when a key K of Fig. 1 is struck and a type bar 51 comes up, as in Fig. 5, button 50 will push arm 46 upwardly to cause the arm to clear the printing area. When the ribbon lift 18 is retracted, the arm 46 will fall back to the position of Fig. 4, but to prevent arm 46 from being thrown to or past a vertical position, from which it might not fall back readily, the outer end of arm 46, as in Fig. 4, may be provided with a longitudinally extending car 52 and the lower outer corner of plate 44 provided with an car 53 which is bent angularly to extend outwardly from the plane of Fig. 6, so as to engage ear 52 in the event that arm 46 moves upwardly past the position of Fig. 5. Thus, arm 46 can move only until ear 52 engages car 53, but will still be in a position to fall back readily to the position of Fig. 4.
As illustrated in Fig. 8, it is necessary to remove only one part to disconnect the keys from the escapement mechanism, for the conversion to a music typewriter of the typewriter indicated previously. Normally, when a key is struck, a type bar 51 will engage the upper universal bar frame assembly 55 to cause the escapement trip plate 56 to engage the lower end of escapement trip lever 57, thereby causing the escapement mechanism to shift carriage C one space to the left when the type bar 51 moves back after printing. However, by removing trip plate 56 shown in dotted lines in Fig. 8, the escapement trip lever 57 will not be engaged, so that the escapement mechanism will not be operated when a key is struck. It will be understood that one or more parts having the same function in other types of alphabet typewriters, may be removed or altered for the same purpose, or other suitable means to efiect dead key operation may be used. As indicated previously, the connection between the space bar 16 of Fig. 1 and the escapement mechanism, by which the carriage C may be shifted one space tothe left each :time thesspace .bar 16. is. depressed, may be. re-
,tainedlin the typewriter, although the keys-K are disconnectedfrom the escapement mechanism, as in the. manner described. .Thespring which normally pulls the carriage to the .leftmay also be retained, inorder to permit the spacing ofthe .c'arriage'byuse of the space bar to be accomplished in the conventional manner. However, the carriage C is movable toandretainable at any desired position through useof thespacebar 1'6 and the vernier V, 'which permits adjustment offthecarriage to any precise point intermediate adjacent, positions produced by the carriageshifting means, actuated by the space bar. When thehalf spacing mechanism is leftonthe machine, when space bar '16 is pressed down, thecarriage willbe moved one-halfspace, and when space bar 16 'is released, the carriage will be moved another one-half space, to complete the movement of the carriage. fora fullspace. Thus,
if a half spaceis desired, the space bar .16'may be depressed and helddown while thekey is :struck, or the vernier V adjusted to move the carriage to the precise printing point desired, if not exactly at the half space position, afterwhich the Fkeyisstruck. Furthermore, the platen P is also movable tov andretainableat any desired position normally vertically of the paper, either through the knobs 21 or -21'and'the'ratchet wheel 24 which, as
indicated previously,-is provided with relatively'fine teeth so that the platen-may be moved by knobs-21 or 21' to spaced vertical positions on the paper corresponding to-one-half-of'thestaflline-spacing; or the line space-re- -lease lever 23 may-be'operated so thatthe knob 21 or 21 and therefore the platen P may be freely turned, in the event that the desired printing point is somewhere between two of the positions produced by ratchet wheel 24. As will be evident, since the apex 40 of the printing point, indicator I is located at precisely the common printing point, such as the center of the musical character, or the head of a note, the typist always knows the exact position thereof. In use of the typewriter of this invention, one hand, such as the left hand, may be used to shift the platen P so that the precise vertical position of the printing point is obtained, while if the position of the musical character to be printed is not precisely located longitudinally by use of the space bar 16, the vernier knob 30 may be turned to adjust such lateral position on the paper. Thus, music such as shown in Figs. 9, 15 and 16 may be printed or reproduced with the placement, flexibility and precision required for best legibility. When a series of notes having their heads in vertical alignment are to be printed, the carriage is moved to the precise lateral position desired, while the platen P is then adjusted to the respective vertical positions for printing the desired music characters. Due to the ease and simplicity with which the carriage and platen may be moved to and retained at the desired printing point, the writing or reproduction of music proceeds smoothly, since only a small amount of practice is necessary for the user to become accustomed to the vertical adjustments of the platen P and the lesser number of lateral adjustments of the carriage C by the vernier V. The staves may be preprinted on the paper being used, or may be printed on the paper by striking the staff key (fifth from the right in the top row of Fig. 2) alternately with the space bar 16. Also, various patterns of lines and notes may be printed, such as the combination of ledger lines and bar lines at varying distances apart in Fig. 12 or the flowing line of notes of Fig. 14, through observation of the apex 40 of the printing point indicator and movement of the platen P, accompanied where necessary by slight adjustment of the vernier V. The slanting lines of Fig. 13 may be produced by shifting the paper in the machine to the desired angle, it being noted that the indicator I enables the paper to be returned to any desired printing point with ease and accuracy. In the event that the staifs preprinted on the paper are larger, as in Fig. 10, or smaller, as in Fig. 11, than the staff lines printed by the staff key,
-cach.note and music symbol may belocated in position and printed with-thesame case. In general, the necessity 'forcritical .vertical positioning is much more'than "the necessity forcritical lateral positioning, so that the .vernier Vneednot be adjusted nearly as often as the platen P, as the space bar '16 will normally provide, especially with the use of the half-space function, most of thelateral spacing requirements. In addition, the design of'the charactersmay'be correlated with the spacing provided by space bar'16, i.e., eitherfull'or half spaces to 'takefunctional. advantage thereof. For instance, thewidth fillsto amarked degree the requirements. andobjects here- 'inbefore set'forth. :It will also be evident that variations intheconstruction of the' typewriter of thisinvention may be used, suchias different arrangements of keys, other ways in' which the keys maybe disconnected from'the carriage spacingmechanism, other ways of connecting the vernier adjustment 'tothe carriage, different shapes and constructions of the'printing point indicator, as Well as others. Thus,'it"willbe evident that'additional embodiments mayexist and various changesmay be made therein, all without departing from the spirit and scope of this invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In a typewriter for printing music characters on paper or the like, a series of type bars having music characters thereon; a series of activating keys associated with said type bars for moving individual type bars to printing position; a carriage; a platen mounted on said carriage and movable to and retainable at any desired position; a pointer for indicating the printing point; means for shifting said carriage in lateral increments of a predetermined distance, said means being independent of the action of said keys; and adjusting means independent of said carriage shifting means, for moving said carriage to any desired point between adjacent positions produced by said carriage shifting means, whereby said carriage is movable to and retainable at any desired lateral position.
2. In a typewriter for printing music characters on paper or the like, as defined in claim 1, wherein said carriage adjusting means includes a vernier adjustment device.
3. In a typewriter for printing music characters on paper or the like, as defined in claim 1, wherein one of said music characters is adapted to print a music staff; and said platen is provided with a ratchet wheel having a series of closely spaced teeth corresponding to one half the distance between the lines of said staff.
4. In a typewriter for printing music characters on paper or the like, as defined in claim 1, wherein said carriage includes spaced end plates and said carriage shifting means includes a member extending longitudinally relative to said carriage; and wherein said adjustment means includes a sliding pin connection between said longitudinal member and one said end plate, and a knob rotatably attached at its inner end to said longitudinal member and provided with threads engaging a threaded portion of the opposite end plate, said knob extending from said carriage at one end thereof and adjacent the corresponding end of said platen.
5. In a typewriter for printing music characters on paper or the like, a series of type bars having music characters thereon, one of said type bars being adapted to print a music staff; a series of activating keys associated with said type bars for moving individual type bars to printing position; a carriage movable to and retainv able at any desired position; a platen mounted on said carriage and movabletoandretainable atany desired position, said platen being provided with a ratchet Wheel having a series of closely spaced teeth corresponding to one half the, distance between the lines of Saidstafi; means including a space bar adjacent said keys for shifting said carriage in increments of a predetermined distance, said means being independent of the action of said keys; Vernier adjusting means connected ,wi-thsaid carriage and independent of said carriage shifting means, for
moving said carriage to any desired point between adjacent positions produced by said carriage shifting means; a ribbon lift for maintaining a ribbon-in a position nor mally spaced from the point at which a type bar will print and moving said ribbon to a position for engage ment with a type bar at the printing point when the 'key corresponding thereto is struck; a printing point indicator; a support for said indicator adjacent said ribbon lift, said indicator being pivotally mounted on said support; and means associated with said ribbon lift for moving said indicator away from the printing point upon movement of said ribbon lift to said printing point positon of said ribbon.
6. In a typewriter having a series of type bars and actuating keys therefor, and a ribbon for maintaining a ribbon in a position normally spaced from the'point at which a type bar will print and moving said ribbon to a position for engagement with a type bar at the printing point when the key corresponding thereto isstruck, the
improvement ccmprising a printing point indicator support adjacent said ribbon lift; a. printing point indicator including a platehaving a slot adjacent the inner end thereof and engageableby a screw orthe like for attachment to said support adjacent said ribbon lift, said plate having an outwardly eXtending ear at the-lower outer corner thereof; an arm pivotally connected to said plate intermediate said slot and ear and having a triangular segment at the upper inner corner Whose apex is adapted 'to indicate the printing point, an abutment below said References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 885,715 Bond Apr. 28, 1908 961,767 Gabrielson et a1.- June 21, 1910 2,117,363 Rundstatler May 17, 1938 2,306,905 Schuler Dec. 29, 1942 2,582,372 Clarkson ....t. Jan. 15, 1952 2,672,228 Efiinger Mar. 16, 1954
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US885715 *||Jul 19, 1905||Apr 28, 1908||Monarch Typewriter Co||Type-writing machine.|
|US961767 *||Oct 15, 1906||Jun 21, 1910||L C Smith & Bros Typewriter Company||Platen-brake for type-writing machines.|
|US2117363 *||Sep 24, 1936||May 17, 1938||Nototyp Rundstatler G M B H||Music typewriter|
|US2306905 *||Jul 5, 1940||Dec 29, 1942||Hugo Schuler||Machine for printing musical notation|
|US2582372 *||Jul 23, 1948||Jan 15, 1952||Clarkson Ralph P||Justifying and differential spacing device for typewriters and the like|
|US2672228 *||Nov 29, 1950||Mar 16, 1954||Effinger Cecil S||Music typewriter|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3388781 *||Aug 5, 1966||Jun 18, 1968||Cecil S. Effinger||Diagram typewriter|
|US3565229 *||Jun 17, 1968||Feb 23, 1971||Music Reprographics Ltd||Line spacing means for music typewriters|
|US3767023 *||Nov 22, 1968||Oct 23, 1973||Effinger C||Free platen typewriter|
|US5108203 *||Jan 17, 1991||Apr 28, 1992||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Printing apparatus including error correction and memory means, for printing vertical and horizontal form lines|
|International Classification||B41J3/00, B41J3/34|