Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2904860 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 22, 1959
Filing dateDec 27, 1955
Priority dateDec 27, 1955
Also published asDE1267385B
Publication numberUS 2904860 A, US 2904860A, US-A-2904860, US2904860 A, US2904860A
InventorsBlackford Jr Benjamin, Richard Hazelett Samuel
Original AssigneeHazelett Strip Casting Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Metal casting method and apparatus
US 2904860 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

- Sept. 22, 1959 I Filed D80. 27, 1955 C. W. HAZELETT METAL CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Sept. 22, 1959 C. W. HAZELETT METAL CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS Filed Dec. 27, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR. (AA/FENCE W HflZ/FLETT ATTORNEY P 1959 c. w. HAZELETT METAL CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Dec. 27, 1955 IN VEN TOR.

U. M W ,A! 1 MY 6 i E )1 MW. C

Sept. 22, 1959 c. w. HAZELETT METAL CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS Filed Dec.

5 Sheets-Sheet 4 4 fiil Z a M d1 6 15.11 l I: a -ill w w w x n z z /4 M Z 0/ 3 w 52 H W M M Z Z 6 0 o z 5 4 m w a m w F m m n z 0 W a w ATTOANEY /6 .77 INVENTOR.

p 1959 c. w. HAZELETT METAL CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Dec. 27, 1955 INVENTOR. CL/hfE/VCE VL fl/IZELETT ATTOE/VEY States METAL CASTING METHOD AND AFPARATUS -Clarence W. Hazelett, Greenwich, Conn; Samuel Richard Hazelettnnd .Beniaminhlackford, In, executors of the estate of Clarence W. Hazelett, deceased, assignors to l-larelett Strip-Casting Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Application December 27, 1955, Serial No. 555,445 33 Claims. (c1. 22----57.4)

spaced substantially planer surfaces moving together in a direction away from the supply zone and which define the upper and lower surfaces of the metal strip being molded. These surfaces can be formed conveniently by two endless metal belts mounted on suitably spaced pulleys. These metal bands are cooled by water or other means so that a continuous "strip of solidified metal is delivered from the machine.

Machines of this general type had been constructed prior to the present invention, and it is the purpose of this invention to provide further improvements in such machines to the end that they may find extensive commercial application for the economical high-speed casting of metal strip of high quality.

The various features, aspects, and advantages of this invention will in part be pointed out in and in part apparent from the following description of a strip casting mill incorporating the invention, considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure l is a simplified perspective view of the strip casting machine;

Figure 2 is an 'elevational view with certain parts cut away;

Figure 3 is a partial sectional View taken along line 33 of Figure 2 with certain parts omitted and others cut away in order to clarify the illustration;

Figure 4 is a simplified perspective view of the rear portion of the machine showing the water feed arrangement and the mechanism for supporting and lifting the upper band assembly;

Figure 5 is a partial perspective view of the upper band assembly with parts cut away to show the construction of the back-up rollers, the arrangement of orifices for supplying coolant to the band, and the deflectors for removing the excess of coolant from the surface of the band;

Figure 6 is a simplified perspective and schematic representation of one of the belt guiding and tensioning mechanisms;

Figure 7 is a partial perspective view showing the arrangement of fixed and moving dams forming the sides of the molten metal pool feeding into the casting region;

Figure 8 is a perspective view of the spreader for supplying molten metal to the mill; and

Figure 9 is a partial perspective view showing the construction of one of the moving dams.

In this example, the molten metal is supplied from a pouring box or ladle 2 (Figures 1 and 2) which feeds the molten metal to the mill through an outlet 4 in the bottom. The rate at which metal is supplied to the machine is controlled by the operator of the machine by means of a conventional stopper 6 which is connected by a vertical rod 8 to a control lever 10 pivoted L fl lfihil Patented Sept. 22, 1959 generally indicated at U and'L, respectively. These two bands are driven at the same linear speed and move in the "same direction away from the molten bath -B. Throughout the casting region, the metal bands form substantially planar, uniformly-spaced surfaces between which the metal is permitted to solidify, without pressure, so that a continuous solid strip of metal is delive'red "from the casting region.

In "order to insure uniform delivery of the metal to the casting region and to prevent turbulence in the molten "metal, the metal is distiibuted across the width of the bands 14 and lit) by a spreader positioned to receive the metal from the'ladle 2. The bottom opening of the outlet "4 is positioned as near as possible to the surface 'ofthe spreader 18 that supplies'the casing region of the machine to avoid trapping any air in the molten stream and which might be carried into the finished product. As best shown in Figure 8, the spreader is formed like ame'tal'trough having diverging tapered sides Eli and 22. The-spreader converges in a vertical plane and diverges in the "horizontal plane so that the flow of metal is directed to the full width of the strip being cast. The spreader 18 is positioned with a forward slope so that as the molten metal flows toward the casting region between the bands 14 and 16, it is formed into a relatively quiet pool which feeds into the casting region. In order to assist in this lateral flow and prevent turbulence in the metal, the bottom 24 of the spreader 18 is provided with a non-uniform or roughened surface having either grooves or ridges arranged to provide lateral deflection of'the metal. For example, a preferred arrangement is shown in Figure 8 in which the bottom 2 i is scored with spaced grooves 26 constituting two sets of parallel grooves extending at angles of about 45 degrees with respect to the longitudinal axis of the spreader 18, the two sets of grooves intersecting approximately at right angles.

In order to further control the distribution of metal in the distributor is, a metal flapper Q8 having diverging edges arranged to fit closely inside the side walls 20 and 22 is p'ivotally mounted at 30. The molten metal enters the distributor 18 in the direction shown by the arrow 32 in Figure 8 building a slight head of molten metal back of the flapper plate 28 causing it to pivot upwardly and permit a flat stream of metal to issue from beneath it and flow into the molten bath. This flapper plate serves to slow the metal and to distribute it laterally into a flat stream independently of the rate at which metal is being fed into the mill. In addition, the flapper 23 acts as a skimmer and accumulates the surface dross backjof the flapper. During the entire casting operation, the flapper 28 remains below the level of the sides 2% and 22, but at the end of the run, the flapper can be swung upwardly permitting easy removal of any accumulated metal and dross. The distributor 18 can be made of any metal of suflicient temperature resistance or it may be lined with high temperature refractory material.

Such a distributing means or its equivalent is important in mills of this type because the large tonnage ca pacity make it necessary to supply large quantities of molten metal at low linear velocities. Higher velocities would 'result in excessive turbulence in the bath B causing undesirable surface conditions in the cast strip.

Moreover, if the incoming stream of metal is not sufli ciently spread out and directed substantially to the Width of the strip to be cast, eddies will form in the molten metal bath causing the circulating metal to become cooler at the center of the eddies which may result in segregation of an alloy. Such cooler areas of metal may create vertical pressure in the casting region and cause burning of the bands.

The molten metal collects in a pool in the general area indicated at the letter B in Figures 1 and 2. This metal is carried by the band 16 (Figure 2) which moves in the direction indicated by the arrow 34 into the casting region between the belts 14' and 16, the belt 14 being arranged to move in the same direction, as indicated by the arrow 36, through the casting region. The bands 14 and 16 are formed of light-weight sheet metal, for example steel or other suitably flexible and heat-resistant metal. In order to minimize excessive heating and Warping of the bands, it is desirable that their surfaces adjacent the metal being cast have a thin coating of heatinsulating material. One of the simplest and most practical methods providing this insulation is to coat the bands with a layer of lamp black by exposing the surfaces of the bands, as well as other members Which come into contact with the hot metal, to a smoky flame while the bands are running in the mill. Other methods of reducing the flow of heat from the metal to the bands include treating the bands with phosphate or surface materials, as for example the commercial bonderizing process; anodizing the metal surfaces of the bands; or spraying or otherwise applying a coating of refractory oxides (such as zirconium or aluminum oxides) or metal hydrides. Alternatively, the surfaces of the bands can be roughened, by sand blasting or other means, to form small pockets of air which is expanded by the hot metal to form an insulating gas film. The surfaces of the members in contact with the hot metal can be coated also with silicones, oils, or other materials which will produce a gaseous film when heated by the hot metal. Such surface conditions are not always essential to good operation, but become increasingly important when metals of higher melting points are being cast. This limited insulation provides control over the rate of heat transfer and reduces the amount of water required to cool the bands sufficiently to prevent burning or warping. Moreover, it permits casting at slower speeds when this is desirable. The contact between the hot metal and the lower band is more intimate than with the upper band, and it is at times desirable to provide more surface insulation, for example by a heavier insulating coating, on the lower band than on the upper.

In order to retain the molten metal in the area between the bands and to prevent the pool B from spilling over the sides, a combination of moving and stationary dams is provided. A moving dam 37 is formed of flexible heat-resistant material of a thickness corresponding to the thickness of the metal to be cast. The moving dam 37 is in the form of an endless belt of slightly greater length than the band 16 and is arranged to ride on the upper surface of this hand through the casting region. A similar moving dam, indicated at 38 in Figure 3, is spaced laterally from the moving dam 37 and operates in the same manner. These two moving dams pass continuously through the casting region in close engagement with the upper band 14 and lower band 16 and provide side seals which confine the metal to the exact Width desired. These moving dams may be constructed, for example by blocks of metal or porous refractory material strung on a cable or flexible wire, or they may be formed of such blocks secured to or connected together by chain links. A preferred method of construction is illustrated in Figure 9. Blocks 42, of metal or refractory material, are provided with slots 44 through which is passed a flexible metal strip 46. After the blocks 42 have been placed on the strip 46 it is welded 4 into a continuous strip to form a dam such as that illustrated in Figure 2.

These moving dams '37 and 38 extend also along the sides of the molten pool B and there serve to maintain the sides of the pool and at the same time provide continuous movement along the sides of the pool so as to prevent excessive accumulation of metal around the edges prior to the time the metal enters the casting region.

However, the depth of the pool B preferably is greater than the thickness of the strip being cast and therefore a pair of stationary dams 48 and 50 (Figure 1), associated respectively with the moving bands 37 and 38, provide additional height on the sides of the molten pool B and form a seal where the molten metal enters the casting region. These stationary dams also serve as guides for maintaining the moving dams 37 and 38 in the proper positions. The construction of one of the stationary dams is shown in Figure 7. The dam 50 is formed of a metal block having a longitudinal groove along the bottom through which the moving darn passes. At least, on the inner side of the dam the side wall does not completely cover the moving dam 38 so that the lower portion of the moving dam is exposed to the molten metal, thereby preventing undesirable accumulation of the metal along the edges. A cooling means for the stationary dam may be provided, for example by inlet and outlet pipes 51 and 52 connected by a passageway 54 within the stationary dam 50. In order to provide a seal between the stationary dam 50 and the upper moving band 14, the leading edge of the stationary dam is tapered, as indicated at 56, and this taper closely c011- forms to the surface of the band 14 immediately adjacent the entrance to the casting region.

One of the advantages of the present mill is the ease with which it can be adjusted to produce strips of different widths. For this reason the stationary dams 48 and 50 which maintain and control the position of the moving dams 37 and 38 are arranged to permit ready adjustment of their positions both laterally and longitudinally. Each of the same 48 and 50 is connected by a rod 58 to a split collar 62 (as shown in Figures 1 and 2) which is slidable on a rod 64 supported in fixed position by a pair of frame members 66. The end portion of the rod 58 is threaded so that the longitudinal position of the fixed dam can be adjusted by means of two nuts 68 and 70 on either side of the split collar 62. When the nuts 68 are loosened the collars 62 can he slid laterally along the rod 64 to adjust the stationary dams, and thus the moving dams, to obtain the desired width of metal strip. As best shown in Figure 3, the moving dams 37 and 38 preferably are positioned along areas between the ridges 78 and 82 of the back-up rollers so that the flexibility of the metal bands 14 and 16 permits a good fit between the moving bands and the dams.

In order to support the lower metal band 16 in the casting region, a series of parallel back-up rollers 72 (Figures 2 and 3) is positioned immediately below the metal band 16. These rollers extend crosswise of the band and are distributed in spaced parallel relationship throughout the casting region. The number of rollers will depend upon the size of the casting mill and is not critical so long as enough rollers are provided to give effective support to the band 16 and maintain its surface substantially planar throughout the region where the metal is being shaped. The rollers 72 are supported in end bearings 74- in frame members 76.

In order to cool the metal band 16, its under surface is continually flushed with large quantities of water. To permit this water to cover substantially the entire area of the band that is in contact with the hot metal, the rollers 72 (Figure 3) are provided with spaced peripheral ridges 78. These raised areas or ridges are the only portions of the rollers that engage the band 16 so that water can be sprayed lengthwise along the band 16 without developing hot spots between the rollers and the band.

The upper band 14 is providedwith a similar set of back-up rollers 80 which serve. the same functions as the lower rollers 72. These rollers are also. constructed with circumferential ridges 82 and are. supported in end bearings 84 mounted in frame members 86.

In. order to cool the lower band 162. series of nozzles are arranged to cause a continuous film of rapidly moving water to cover the under surface ofv the band 16 opposite the casting region. This water preferably flows lengthwise of the band 16 as this direction of flow has been found to provide more effective cooling. These nozzles are formed by a series of conduits 88 extending across the underside of the band between the rollers 72 and which are provided with a series of'orifices. 90 (Figures 3 and These orifices are arranged to eject the water at a slight angle with respect to the band 16 and in the same direction as the movement of the band. By this means a rapidly-moving film of water with maximum cooling effectiveness is maintained throughout the area to be cooled.

Each of the conduits 88 is closed at one end and is connected at the other end to a flexible hose 92 which delivers water under pressure from a manifold 94.

The upper band 14 is cooled in a similar manner by nozzles formed by spaced conduits 96 which extend across the upper surface of the-band 14 and are provided with orifices 93. These orifices also direct the water at .a slight angle onto the surface of the band and provide maximum uniformity of cooling over the entire area. These conduits are connected by a series of hoses 100 to the manifold 94.

As many nozzles may be provided as are needed to provide the necessary cooling. However, it is important to avoid the accumulation of an excessive volume of water on the band which, because of its inertia. would decrease the velocity of the water so that maximum cooling. would not be attained. In order to prevent such accumulation of water, a number of scoops or scrapers 1102 (Figures 2 and 5) are provided which extend laterally across the upper surface of the band 14- and remove excessive water. Each of these scoops is provided with a blade portion 104 (Figure 2) the end of which is positioned near the upper surface of the band 14, for example with a clearance of of an inch, and is curved in a direction opposite to the flow of water so that water which impinges on the lower end 104 of the scoop 102 is thrown upwardly along this surface and into a gutter 106. A series of angularly-positioned baffles 108 (Figure 5) is positioned along one wall of each gutter 106 to provide a helical motion to the water so that it is delivered rapidly along the gutter toward the open end. One end of this gutter is closed and the opposite end is open, and the water which is delivered by these glitters, as well as that which drains from the surfaces of the bands 14 and 16, drains into a tank 110 (Figure 4) positioned beneath the casting mill.

In order to prevent the accumulation of an excessive amount of water on the lower band 16, a curved scoop 111 (Figures 2 and 5) is secured along the length of each of the conduits S3 and extends upwardly almost to the band 16, curving in a direction opposite to the flow of water. These scoops 111 remove the excess water from the lower band and insure maximum water velocity effectiveness of cooling.

A centrifugal pump 112, operated by a motor 114 recirculates Water from the tank 110 through a pipe 116 into the manifold 94. The pipe 116 enters the manifold 94 at the end nearest the input portion of the mill so that the water provided to the nozzles immediately adjacent the area where the molten metal enters the casting region is under higher pressure than the water fed to the orifices in more remote parts of the casting region. Thus, maximum cooling is provided in those areas where the metal is the hottest and the most rapid cooling is needed. It will be apparent that other means for pro- '6 vidingv this desired differential. pressure can be used, for example by the use. of multiple pumps or by use of different size conduits, or in other ways.

The endless band 16 passes over a large drive pulley 118,. which is carried by end bearings 120, and an idler pulley 122 positioned at the opposite end of the casting region, supported by end bearings 124. The upper portion of the band 16 between the rollers 118 and 122. is substantially planar throughout this region but slopes somewhat downwardly in the direction of metal flow. For example, the surface of this: belt may form a slight angle of approximately 5 to 10 degrees from the horizontal, as best illustrated in Figure 2.

The upper endless band 14 passes over a large drive pulley 126, supported by end bearings 128, and at the opposite end of the mill passes over an idler pulley 131), which is supported by end bearings 132.

In order to provide clearance at the entrance to the casting region so that the operator of the machine can observe the flow of metal from the bath B into the casting region between the bands 14 and 16, the. pulley 126 is positioned substantially higher than the pulley 130 and a smaller roller 134 is positioned at the entrance to the casting region so that the portion of the band 14 in the casting region between the pulley 130 and the roller 134 is maintained parallel with the juxtaposed surface of the band 16. However, between the roller 134 and the drive pulley 126 the band 14 diverges from the band 16, for example by an angle of 20 degrees. Thus, the flow of metal from the bath- B intov the casting region can be observed readily by the operator and the operation of the mill easily controlled.

The roller 134 is supported by end bearings 136 and preferably is grooved or provided with ridges similar to the ridges 78 and 82, described in connection with the back-up rollers 72 and $11, to prevent dry spots and local heating of the band 14. The roller 134 and the metal band 14 immediately adjacent this: roller are cooled by a nozzle assembly 138. (seen best in Figure 2) which is provided with a series of orifices 140 that direct water across the width of the band 14 adjacent the roller 134. The nozzle assembly may for example be constructed with each of its orifices corresponding in position to one of the peripheral grooves in roller 134. Alternatively, the roller 134 can be replaced by a stationary curved shoe formed of metal or temperature-resistant plastic and also provided with ridges or grooves to permit adequate lubrication and cooling.

In practical operation the size of the bath B and the length of the casting region will depend upon the rate at which metal strip is to be produced. The bath, however, must not be so large that excessive cooling takes place in the bath before the metal enters the casting region between the bands 14 and 16. Such cooling would result in squeezing solidified or semi-solidified metal as it enters the parallel casting region resulting in segregation or imperfect surface conditions in the cast metal. The longer the mill, the faster the metal can be fed into it and the greater the size of bath that can be used. However, the casting region must be long enough to permit cooling and solidification of the metal sufficient to permit it to be transferred to suitable conveyors or other transporting apparatus. Accordingly, the mill should be constructed with a casting region at least four times. as long as the length of the molten bath feeding into the casting region. That is, the length of the molten bath B measured from the entrance of the casting region at roller 134 along the band 16 should not be greater than one: fourth the distance which the metal travels between the parallel casting surfaces of the bands 14 and 16.

In order to provide tensioning and levelling of the band 14, a roller 142 (Figures 2 and 6) is arranged to engage the under surface of the upper portion of the band 14. This roller 142 is supported at each end in spherical bearings 144 between two arms 146 and 148,

These arms are secured respectively to sleeve members 150 and 152 which are rotatably supported by a horizontal shaft 154 mounted in the frame members of the mill. An arm 156 is secured to the sleeve 150 and is pivotally connected to a piston rod 158 of a pneumatic ram cylinder 161). In a similar manner, the sleeve 152 is secured to an arm 162 that is pivotally connected to the piston rod 164 of a pneumatic ram cylinder 166. Both of these cylinders are pivotally supported on a stationary cross member 167. With this arrangement equal pressures can be applied to the inlet openings 16% and 170 respectively of the pneumatic rams 160 and 166, which will apply tension to the band 14. In order to adjust the amount of this tension a suitable source of air pressure (not shown) may be connected through a conventional valve arrangement to these cylinders. A suitable arrangement is indicated diagrammatically in Figure 6 in which air pressure is supplied through a pipe 172 and through a pressure-reducing or regulating valve 174 and a pipe 176 to the cylinder 166. The pressure inlet pipe 172 is connected also through a pressure-reducing or regulator valve 178 to a pipe 180 connected to the cylinder 160. Thus, the valves 174 and 178 can be adjusted to apply equal pressures to the cylinders 160 and 166 so that even tension will be applied to both sides of the band 14.

In order to guide the band 14 automatically so that it will stay in alignment with the various rollers through long periods of operation, differential pressure is applied to the two cylinders 160 and 166 so that one end of the roller 142 is moved pivotally with respect to the other end of the roller by the amount necessary to guide the band 14 along the proper path. To accomplish this, the pipes 180 and 176 are connected respectively to inlet ports 182 and 184 of a pressure-regulating valve 186. The valve 186 consists of a cylindrical member 188 and a valve stem 191 that is slidable longitudinally through a central bore in the member 188. A slot and key 192 are provided to prevent rotation of the stem 19%). When the stem 190 is positioned centrally, as shown in Figure 6, both of the inlet ports 182 and 184 are closed off. The

stem 190, however, is provided with a recess 194 tapered at each end and having a total length slightly less than the distance between the inlet ports 182 and 184. This recess 194 communicates with an exhaust port 196 so that if the valve stem 190 is moved toward the right, as viewed in Figure 6, inlet port 184 is opened to the exhaust port 196 by an amount depending upon the displacement of the valve stem .190. If the valve stem is displaced in the opposite direction, inlet port 182 is gradually opened to the exhaust port 196. The position of the valve stem 190 is controlled by a hardened steel roller 198 mounted in a cage 2110 which is fastened to the end of the valve stem 1% and is held in engagement with one edge of the band 14 by a compression spring 262 positioned between the member 186 and the cage 201). I11 operation, if the band 14 starts to move toward the right, as viewed in Figure 6, the inlet port 184 is connected with the exhaust port 196, thus reducing the pressure on the cylinder 166 and permitting the arm 148 to move slightly in a clockwise direction. This movement of the arm 148 has two elfects. First, it moves the axis of the roller 142 so that it is no longer exactly perpendicular to the path of the band 14, and therefore urges the band to move toward the left, as viewed in Figure 6. In addition, movement of the arm 148 in this direction reduces the tension slightly on the adjacent edge of the band 14, and this also encourages the corrective movement of the band.

The roller 142 is provided with an outer covering 2194 of rubber which provides increased traction between the roller 142 and the band 14 and at the same time permits the use of a small diameter tensioning roller without causing the band 14 to bend sharply. That is, the resilience of the rubber coating 204 permits the band 14 to bend around a relatively large radius of curvature. Thus, it is seen that there is provided a simple and effective mechanism which controls the tensioning of the band 14 effectively and at the same time levels and regulates the movement of the band even though the band is not entirely uniform because of unequal camber or non-uniform heating.

A similar mechanism, generally indicated at 206 in Figure 2, is provided for tensioning and levelling the lower band 16 and accordingly need not be described in detail.

Because the thin metal bands may be damaged by handling or warping in manufacture or by overheating or non-uniform heating of the bands, there is provided a mechanism generally indicated at 208 in Figure 2 for smoothing and levelling the bands. Two horizontally spaced rollers 210 and 212 are rotatably mounted in the frame of the machine and extend the full width of the band 14 immediately beneath the normal path of the band 14. Another roller 214 is rotatably supported by a pair of arms 216 and 218 (see also Figure 1) pivotally mounted on the frame of the mill at 22% The arm 216 extends beyond the roller 214 to form an operating handle 216a. The roller 214 normally is positioned as shown in full lines in Figure 2. When it is desired to level the band 14 the handle 216a is moved to the position shown in broken lines so that the band 14 will follow the path indicated in broken lines, alternately bending in first one direction and then the other, so that the belt is stretched and levelled.

In order to iron out any small dents or pimples, which might for example be caused in the band 14 by particles of dirt between the rollers and the band, the roller 214 is arranged to press against only the roller 212 and with sufiicient force to iron out such small dents or pimples, whereas if the roller 214 were arranged to apply equal pressures to the rollers 211 and 212 it would be more difiicult to obtain the pressure necessary to iron out these small imperfections. It is to be noted that the levelling and smoothing operation is carried on while the band is in the mill making use of the same driving and tensioning mechanisms as when metal is being cast.

In order to permit easy removal and replacement of the bands 14 and 16 and also to permit maximum access to other parts of the mill, a cantilever construction is used. As shown in Figures 1 and 4 this cantilever construction projects the upper and lower band assemblies U and L over near to the front side of the tank for added accessibility. The lower band assembly L which supports and operates the lower band 16 is mounted on two generally rectangular frames 221 (Figures 1 and 3) positioned at opposite ends of the pulleys 118 and 122 and which includes the frame members 76 carrying the back-up rolls 72 and the water conduits 88. These frame members are supported on two I beams 22-2 and 224 which extend transversely beneath the frame members 76 and to the rear of the lower band assembly where they are secured to cross beams 226 and 228 (Figure 4). These cross beams are supported by a frame work including vertical frame members 230 and 232.

The upper band assembly U which supports the upper band 14 is arranged to be raised and lowered readily with respect to the lower band assembly L. The pulleys 126 and and other parts associated with the operation of the band 14, are mounted on two generally rectangular frame structures, indicated at 236 (Figures 1 and 3), and which are joined by lateral cross members suflicient to forma rigid structure. Two of these lateral cross members 238 and 240 (Figure 2) are connected respectively to lever arms 242 and 244 (Figure 4) which raise and lower the upper portion of the machine.

The manner in which these lever arms are connected to the cross members is illustrated in Figure 3 in connection with the arm 244. The other arm 242 is con- 9 iiected and operates in substantially the same manner, and soneed not be described .in detail. The arm 2&4 is pivotally supported at 2 26 in a bracket 2-48 that is secured'to the underside .of an I-beam 2'50 extending between the upright framemembers 230 (see also Figure .region so that thejuxtaposed surfaces of the two bands maintain their parallel relationship as the two halves of the mill are separated. A pair of guide members 258 and 260 (Figure 3) are welded or otherwise secured to the upper and lower portions of the frame of the upper band assembly and are provided with approximately vertical bores which fit around the guide rod 256. Similar guide members are securedto the-frame of the upper band assembly and slide along theguiderod 254'.

In order to raise and lower theupper band assembly, a

hydraulic ram cylinder 262 (Figure 4) is secured to the frame member 228 and its piston. rod 264 is connected by a cross member 266 to the ends of lever arms .24 2 and '244. Any suitable meansmay be provided for supplying hydraulic or pneumatic pressure to the cylinder 267i, and

.since such mechanisms are well-known need not be described here.

In oper-atiorn the position of the upper bandassembly with respect to the lower band assembly is controlled by means of spacers such as are shown at Z68 and 27b in Figure 3. Preferably, hydraulic pressure is maintained on the upper surface of the piston of the cylinder 262 during operation of the mill. 'This counter-balancing force is insufficient to raise the upperportion of the mill from the spacers 268 and 27h, but'it does reduce the load on the spacers to such an extent that the uppenportion of the mill tends to float, so that in the event the mill should jam or any other difficulty occur, the upper portion of the mill will be lifted and thus prevent damage to'the bands or other parts of the mill.

In order to drive the bands '14 and '16, an electric motor 272 (Figure 1), preferably provided witha variable speed control mechanism, not shown,is connected by a drive chain 274 to sprockets arranged to turn the drive pulleys 118 and'126. The chain 274 extends over "a sprocket 276 (Figures 1 and 2) positioned above the upper band assembly U and arranged so that the upper band assembly can be raised ,and'lowered without disengaging the drive mechanism.

The mill described above isvpaiticularly adapted for casting aluminum and aluminum alloy strips, 'but the principles set forth are equally applicable to the casting of other metals. The mill provides maximumflexibility in operation making it especially attractive for short run operations. The width of strip being cast can-be changed very quickly merely by readjusting the separation of the fixed and moving damsby relocating the locking nuts 62 along-the rod '64. The thickness 'of the strip being cast can be changed quickly by replacement of the spacers 268 and 270 and replacing the moving dams 37 and 38 with dams corresponding in thickness to-the new separation between the bands'14 an'd'16.

From the foregoing it will be seen that'l have provided an efficient and economical casting mill well adapted to attain the ends and objects set forth in this description, andwhich may be readily modified in a variety of ways so as to best adapt it to the conditions of the particular casting operation.

What is claimed is:

.1. Apparatus for casting metal strip directly from molten metal comprising upper and lower band assemblies each including a frame with spaced pulleys carried by said frame and an endless flexible band extending thereover, means supporting said lower :band assembly in fixed position, a .pivotally supported lever extending from a position beyond one sideof saidupper band assembly into the interior of the upper band assembly and being pivotally connected to the frame of the upper band assembly by a pivot connection positioned within the interior of the band of the upper assembly for supporting it above said lower band assembly, the lower portion of said upper band and the upper portion of said lower band extending along spaced substantially parallel-paths, and means for moving said 'lever to raise said upper band assembly away from said lower band assembly.

2. Apparatus for casting metal strip directly from molten metal comprising upper .and lower band assemblies each including a frame with spaced pulleys and an endless flexible band extending thereover, 'first cantilever means secured to the frame of the lower band assembly and extending from one side of said lower .band assembly and supporting saidlower band assembly in fixed position from said one side, with the opposite sideof said lower band assembly being accessible for removing the lower band therefrom, and pivotally- .mounted second cantilever means connected to said upper band assembly and extending from the side of the upper band assembly corresponding with the side of the lower band assembly from which the first cantilever means extends and supporting it above said lower band assembly with the opposite side of said upper band assembly being accessible for removing the upper band therefrom, the lower portion of said upper band and the upper portion of said lower band extending along spaced substantially parallel paths forming a casting space therebetween, said pivotally-mounted second cantilever means being arranged to lift said upper band assembly away from said lower band assembly.

3. Apparatus for casting stripsof metal directly'from molten comprising a first lower metal band, firstmeans supporting said lower band for longitudinal movement along a first predeterminedpath a portion of which is substantially rectilinear, a second upper band, and sec ond means supporting said upper band for longitudinal movement. along a second predetermined path a portion of which is substantially rectilinear andpositioned immediately above and spaced from said rectilinear portionof said first path, the space between said bands as they move along said rectilinear portions of their paths forming a casting region for constraining molten metal therein, said first path extending at one end beyond said rectilinear. portionof said second path and forming a bath region on the lower bandfor supporting molten metal prior to its entry into the casting region,-said second means including curved guide means engaging said upper band near said bath region, andsaid upper band curving under said guide means prior to its entry into said rectangular portion of the second path, said guide means defining grooves therein adjacent to the inner surface of the upper band as it curves under said guide means, .and..=a nozzle assembly including outlets corresponding with-said grooves for directing liquid coolant into said grooves for cooling the upper band as it curves under said guide means.

4. Apparatus for casting from molten metal comprising a casting region including first and second moving flexible bands and means supporting said bands for movement in the same direction along spacedparallelpaths forming the opposed. parallel surfaces of said casting region, means for feeding molten metal into said casting region, a source of liquid coolant, means applying said coolant tov the surface of one of said metal bands opposite the surface defining said casting region, .said cool- .ant being applied tosaid band at a series of spaced positionsand beingpropelled in a direction parallel with till the direction of movement of said band, and a series of scoops extending laterally across said surface of said band near said casting region and located between the spaced positions at which the coolant is applied, said scoops being spaced slightly from the surface of the band to allow a reduced amount of coolant to pass between the scoop and the surface of said band, said scoops being arranged to remove the excess of coolant therefrom.

5. Apparatus for casting metal strip from molten metal comprising a casting region including upper and lower moving bands and means supporting said bands for movement in the same direction along spaced parallel paths forming the upper and lower surfaces of said casting region, means for feeding molten metal into said casting region, a source of liquid coolant, means applying said coolant to the surfaces of said bands opposite to the surfaces defining said casting region, said coolant being applied to said bands with a principal component of flow in a direction parallel with the direction of movement of said bands, and a plurality of scoops for removing excess coolant from said upper band, each scoop comprising a cross member having a lower edge spaced slightly from the surface of said upper band for allowing coolant to pass between the edge of the scoop and the surface of the upper band and having a scoop surface extending away from the edge for diverting the coolant engaged by the scoop.

6. Apparatus as claimed in claim including a plurality of gutters each haviru a longitudinal entrance communicating with the scoop surface of one of said scoops and arranged to receive coolant intercepted by its associated scoop and to carry said coolant away from said upper band.

7. In the art of casting metal strip directly from molten metal wherein the molten metal is fed into a casting region formed by the inner surfaces of two spaced, parallel bands moving in the same direction and at the same speed, the method of cooling said bands comprising the steps of ejecting liquid coolant over the outer surfaces of said bands at a plurality of spaced positions forming a substantially continuous moving film of liquid coolant thereover, and removing from said bands at a plurality of intervening spaced positions all of the coolant in said film in excess of a predetermined thickness, whereby to provide a substantially continuous film of moving liquid coolant over the outer surfaces of said bands.

8. In the art of casting metal strip directly from molten metal wherein the molten metal is fed into a casting region formed by the inner surfaces of two spaced bands moving in the same direction and at the same speed, the method of cooling said bands comprising the steps of ejecting a liquid coolant along the outer surfaces of said bands in a direction generally parallel with the direction of movement thereof to form a substantially continuous moving film of coolant thereover, diverting from said surfaces at spaced points a portion of the coolant in said film whereby to limit said film to a predetermined thickness, and ejecting further liquid coolant along the outer surfaces of said bands in a direction generally parallel with the direction of band movement beyond said spaced points to continue said substantially continuous moving film beyond said spaced points.

9. Apparatus for casting from molten metal comprising upper and lower moving flexible bands defining a casting region between said hands, a plurality of spaced rollers extending across the outer surfaces of said bands opposite to the surfaces defining the casting region, said rollers being adjacent to said casting region and supporting said bands for movement along spaced parallel paths forming the upper and lower surfaces of said casting region, each of said rollers having a plurality of spaced narrow peripheral ridges, said spaced narrow peripheral ridges providing substantially point contact and being the only portions of the rollers that engage the bands,

12 means for feeding molten metal into said casting region, a source of liquid coolant, and means applying said coolant to the outer surfaces of said flexible bands opposite to the surfaces defining said casting region, said coolant being applied to the outer surfaces of said bands at a slight angle with respect to the outer surfaces for creating a film of rapidly moving coolant travelling along the outer surfaces of the bands in a direction parallel with the direction of movement of said bands, said film of rapidly moving coolant travelling along the outer surfaces of said bands between said spaced narrow ridges for providing uniform cooling of the bands adjacent to the casting region. 7

10. Apparatus for casting metal strip from molten metal comprising first and second flexible bands, means supporting said bands for longitudinal movement along spaced predetermined paths portions of which are substantially parallel with each other, first and second flexible moving dams, means supporting said moving dams for movement along laterally spaced paths between said metal bands in the area where said bands are moving along parallel paths, a pair of fixed dams positioned respectively on top of said first and second moving dams adjacent the area where said bands are moving along parallel paths, said fixed dams each having means for guiding its associated moving dam, and releasable means for adjusting the lateral positions of said fixed dams and their respective associated moving dams.

11. Apparatus for casting metal strip from molten metal comprising first and second flexible bands, means supporting said bands for longitudinal movement along spaced predetermined paths portions of which are substantially parallel with each other, first and second flexible moving dams, means supporting said moving dams for movement along laterally spaced paths between said metal bands in the area where said bands are moving along parallel paths, a pair of fixed dams positioned respectively on top of said first and second moving dams adjacent the area where said bands are moving along parallel paths, said fixed dams each having a tapered end portion in close proximity on its lower surface with one of said moving dams and on its upper surface with said second hand where it enters the region of parallel movement with said first band.

12. Apparatus for casting metal from molten metal comprising upper and lower flexible bands, means supporting said bands for longitudinal movement along spaced predetermined paths portions of which are substantially parallel with each other, means for feeding molten metal onto the surface of said lower band, and means for holding said metal on said lower band including first and second flexible moving dams, means supporting said moving dams for movement along laterally spaced paths between said metal bands in the area where said bands are moving along parallel paths, and a pair of fixed dams respectively engaging said first and second moving dams adjacent the area where said bands are moving along parallel paths, at least a portion of the facing surfaces of said moving dams being in contact with said molten metal outside the area where said bands are moving along parallel paths, said fixed dams each having a tapered end portion in close proximity on its lower surface with one of said moving dams and on its upper surface with said upper band where it enters the region of parallel movement with said lower band.

13. A mill for casting metal comprising upper and lower band assemblies including respectively first and second endless metal bands, means supporting said first band for movement along a substantially rectilinear path, first and second pulleys supporting said second band for movement along a path substantially parallel with and spaced from the path of said first band, means for applying tension to at least one of said bands including a roller of smaller diameter than said pulleys and having an outer surface portion of resilient material, and means 13 for forcing said roller into engagement with the inner surface of said one band, means for feeding molten metal into the space between said bands, and means for cooling said bands.

14. Apparatus for casting metal strip directly from molten-metal comprising upper and lower endless flexible bands, means supporting said bands for movement in the same direction and speed along vertically spaced parallel paths defining a casting region, means supplying molten metal to said casting region, a plurality of orifices distributed along the surfaces of said bands opposite said casting region, and means supplying liquid coolant under pressure to said orifices including means for ejecting said liquid along the surface of the belt at an effectively higher velocity from orifices nearest the point where said molten metal is introduced to said casting region.

15. Apparatus for casting strips of metal directly from molten metal comprising upper and lower endless flexible bands, means supporting said bands for movement along first and second spaced parallel paths, guide means having a curved surface positioned at the end of the first of said parallel paths and arranged to change the direction of said upper band from a third path forming a substantial angle with said parallel paths into said first parallel path, said curved surface of the guide means having passages on the external surface providing passages extending along the inner surface of the upper band where it engages said curved surface, a source of liquid coolant under pressure, and coolant discharge means connected to said source and discharging the coolant for flowing the coolant along the inner surface of the upper band and flowing through said passages along the inner surface of the upper band.

16. A mill for casting from molten metal comprising upper and lower spaced bands defining a casting region therebetween, means supporting said bands for movement longitudinally along the boundaries of said casting region, and means for feeding molten metal onto said lower band adjacent the entrance to said casting region including a distributor having outwardly diverging sides and a downwardly sloping bottom surface, and spreader means pivotally supported and having a forwardly extending flapper having a substantially rectilinear bottom edge arranged for vertical movement above said bottom surface and positioned between said sides.

17. Apparatus for continuously casting metal strip directly from molten metal comprising a pair of flexible endless flexible bands, roller means supporting said bands for movement along spaced parallel paths forming a metal casting region therebetween, and a pair of flexible endless moving dams passing along spaced parallel paths between said bands in said casting region, thereby defining opposite edges of the casting region, each of said moving dams including an endless flexible flat strip having its plane parallel with said bands when passing between said bands in the casting region, and numerous blocks strung on said flexible flat strip and positioned side-by-side therealong.

18. In the art of continuously casting metal strip directly from molten metal wherein the molten metal is fed'into a casting region formed by the inner surfaces of two spaced, parallel bands moving in the same direction and at substantially the same speed, the method of cooling said bands comprising the steps of propelling liquid coolant over portions of the outer surfaces of said bands in substantially continuous rapidly moving films of coolant having surfaces free of confinement, scooping predetermined amounts of the coolant from said films after traveling over said portions of the outer surfaces of said bands, and propelling additional liquid coolant over adjacent portions of the outer surfaces of said bands to maintain'said substantially continuous rapidly moving films of coolant travelling over the outer surfaces of said bands.

19. Apparatus for casting metal strips directly from molten metal comprising upper and lower flexible bands,

means supporting said bands for longitudinal movement "along spaced predetermined paths portions of which are substantially parallel with each other, said parallel porcasting region,and first and second stationary dams asso ciated respectively with said moving dams and laterally spaced at opposite sides of said molten bath region, said stationary dams extending upward to provide a barrier of greater depth than thethickness of the moving dams and engaging the surface of the upper band, each of said moving dams moving along adjacent to its associated stationary dam.

20. Apparatus for casting metal strips directly from molten metal comprising upper and lower'flexible bands, means supporting said bands-for longitudinal movement along spaced predetermined'paths portions of whichvare substantially parallel with each other, said parallel portions forming a casting region, said lower band being adapted to support a molten metal bath thereon in a region adjacent to the entrance'to said casting region, first and second flexible moving dams moving between said flexible bands along laterally spaced paths in said castingregion, andfirst and second stationary dams associated respectively with said moving dams and laterally spaced at opposite sides of said molten bath region, each of said moving dams moving along adjacent to its associated stationary dam and being at leastpartially exposed to the molten metal in the bath, said moving and stationary dams effectively providing a barrier of greater depth than the spacing between said parallel portions of the bands in the casting region, each of said moving dams .being beneath its associated stationary dam, and substantially all of the inner surfaces of said moving dams being exposed'to the molten metal in the bath region.

21. Apparatus for continuously casting metal strip directly from molten metal and enabling changes in the thickness of the'strip being cast without disengaging the drive mechanism, comprising a pair of flexible endless bands, means'forsupporting and driving said bands for movement along spaced parallel paths forming a metal casting region therebetween including a pair of main band-driving rollers, means for moving at least one of said bands and its band-driving roller apart from the other band,'a pair of drive sprockets for driving said banddriving rollers, a closed chain engaging each of said sprockets, and a drive motor for revolving said chain, said chain including an extra length maintaining engagement with the sprocket of the movable band-driving roller, thereby to continue the drive when said bands are moved apart.

22. Apparatus for continuously casting metal strip directly from molten metal including a pair of endless flexible bands having portions moving in the same direction along spaced parallel paths defining a casting region therebetween, means for feeding molten metal into said casing region, and having liquid cooling apparatus including a plurality of conduits extending across each of said bands at positions spaced along the length of said casting region, liquid coolant supplying mechanism for feeding coolant into each of said conduits under pressure, a plurality of liquid-ejecting orifices, at least one orifice communicating with each of said conduits, the orifices associated with each band directing the coolant over the surface of the associated band in the same direction, a plurality of coolant scoops extending across each of said bands at positions spaced along the length of said casting region, each of said scoops being positioned between a pair of successive orifices and having an edge spaced from the surface of the band by a small predetermined spacing of the order-of one-sixteenth of an inch, each of said scoops being positioned closely adjacent to the succeeding orifice in the direction of coolant flow and removing the excess coolant from the surface of said band ahead of the succeeding orifice leaving a film of predetermined thickness equal to said scoop spacing.

23. Apparatus for casting metal strip directly from molten metal comprising a pair of flexible endless bands, means supporting and driving said bands with portions thereof passing in the same direction along spaced parallel paths defining a casting region between said portions of the bands, means for feeding molten metal into said casting region, and improved liquid-coolant applying apparatus for applying liquid coolant to the surface of at least one of said bands opposite to the surface defining said casting region, comprising a plurality of liquid-conducting conduits extending across said band at positions spaced along said band near said casting region, liquid coolant supply mechanism for supplying coolant under pressure to each of said conduits, a plurality of orifices, at least one of said orifices communicating with each of said conduits, said orifices providing a substantially continuous film of moving coolant travelling over said surface of said band, and a plurality of coolant-removing scoops each having an edge spaced a small distance from said surface of said band and removing coolant from said surface in excess of that passing between the edge and said surface, each scoop being integrally attached to one of said conduits and being positioned just ahead of the associated orifice in respect to the direction of coolant travel over said surface.

24. A mill for casting from molten metal comprising upper and lower spaced bands defining a casting region therebetween, means supporting said bands for movement longitudinally along the boundaries of said casting region, and means for feeding molten metal onto said lower band adjacent to the entrance to said casting region including a downwardly inclined distributor defining an outwardly diverging molten metal flow path, the bottom surface of said distributor being grooved at an angle to the metal flow path for slowing the rate of flow thereover and for distributing the molten metal laterally as it progresses down said flow path.

25. Apparatus for continuously casting metal strip between spaced parallel portions of a pair of casting bands and for changing the spacing between said bands while maintaining them parallel, comprising a first band assembly having a frame, bearings held by said frame, a plurality of spaced rollers carried by the bearings, and a first flexible band travelling around said assembly on said rollers, first cantilever means suspending said frame and projecting from one side of said first assembly with the opposite side of said first assembly being free for removal of the first band, a second hand assembly near to said first assembly and having a second frame, second bearings held by said second frame, a plurality of rollers carried by the second bearings and a second flexible band travelling around said second assembly on the rollers thereof, second cantilever means supporting said second frame and projecting from one side thereof with the opposite side of said second assembly being free for removal of the second band, the adjacent portions of said first and second bands running along spaced parallel paths forming a casting region between them, said first cantilever means being movable toward and away from the second cantilever means, a source of power connected to said first cantilever means for changing the spacing between the adjacent portions of the bands, and means for maintaining the frames of said band assemblies aligned, thereby to maintain the adjacent portions of the bands parallel with each other regardless of changes in spacing between them,

26. A mill for casting metal directly from a molten source comprising upper and lower band assemblies each including an endless flexible band and pulleys supporting said bands for continuous rotation, said lower assembly having means guiding its hand along a substantially l6 rectilinear path including a plurality of spaced rollers each having a plurality of spaced ridges thereon engaging the reverse surface of the lower band, said upper assembly having means guiding its hand along a substantially rectilinear path parallel to and spaced from the rectilinear path of the lower band including a plurality of spaced rollers each having a plurality of spaced ridges thereon engaging the reverse surface of the upper band, the space between said bands forming a casting region for the shaping and solidification of molten metal, means for maintaining a pool of molten metal on the lower band adjacent to said casting region and means for cooling the reverse surfaces of both bands opposite areas engaged by the metal to be cast comprising a source of liquid coolant under pressure, coolant application means connected to said source and applying coolant to the reverse surfaces of said bands at a slight angle to the reverse surfaces and with a principal component of flow parallel with the reverse surfaces for creating a film of coolant travelling along the reverse surface of each hand between said spaced ridges, and a plurality of scoops extending across the reverse surfaces and spaced a small distance from them to allow a reduced thickness of the fllm to pass between the respective scoops and the reverse surface.

27. Apparatus for casting metal strip directly from molten metal comprising at least one flexible metal belt, a source of water under pressure, discharge means connected to the source for applying water to one surface of the belt, means for feeding molten metal to the other surface of the belt, the surface of the belt next to the solidifying metal being roughened to form small pockets for retaining gas therein for the purpose of lessening the heat transfer from the solidifying metal to the belt.

28. Apparatus as claimed in claim 27 and wherein the surface of the belt next to the solidifying metal is roughened by sand blasting.

29. In apparatus of the type wherein molten metal is cast into metal strip by confining the molten metal by means of a moving flexible metal belt during solidification of the metal, means for guiding the flexible belt and for cooling the belt comprising curved guide means having a curved surface over which the belt is flexed as the belt moves, said curved guide means defining a plurality of grooves in said curved surface adjacent to the inner face of the belt as it travels against said curved surface, a source of liquid coolant under pressure, and a nozzle assembly connected to said source, said nozzle assembly having a plurality of orifices each corresponding in position to one of the grooves in the curved surface and directing coolant along the inner face of the belt.

30. Apparatus for casting from molten metal comprising an upper band assembly including a first endless flexible band and means for driving said band along a first closed path at least a portion of which is substantially rectilinear, a lower band assembly including a second endless flexible band and means for driving said band alonga second closed path at least a portion of which is substantially rectilinear and parallel with and spaced below said rectilinear portion of said first path, means for feeding molten metal into the space between said first and second bands, and means for cooling said bands opposite the space between said bands including a source of liquid coolant, a plurality of nozzle assemblies having orifices directed at a slight angle toward said bands and arranged to eject coolant thereon with a principal component of flow parallel to the surfaces of the bands so as to cause a film of coolant to flow over the surfaces of said bands, said noz-zle assemblies comprising a plurality of cond'uits connected to said source and extending at spaced intervals transversely across said bands and having said orifices communicating therewith distributed across said bands and arranged to eject coolant lengthwise along said bands parallel to the direction of band movement, said coolant forming a substantially continuous film of coolant moving over the surfaces of the bands.

31. In the art of casting relatively wide thin shapes of metal between a pair of moving flexible belts having portions travelling in face-to-face relationship defining a casting region between said belts, the method of cooling both of said belts as they move along beside the casting region comprising the steps of applying liquid coolant to the outer surfaces of each of the belts adjacent to the casting region at a slight angle with respect to the outer surface of the belt having a principal component of flow parallel to the respective outer surfaces of the belts, the velocity and volume of the liquid coolant being sufiicient for creating a substantially continuous unconfined film of rapidly moving coolant in contact with the respective outer surfaces, and travelling said film substantially continuously over the respective outer surfaces of the belts.

32. In the art of casting relatively wide thin shapes of metal between a pair of moving flexible belts having portions travelling in face-to-face relationship defining a casting region between said belts, the method of cooling both of said belts as they move along beside the casting region comprising the steps of applying liquid coolant to the outer surfaces of each of the belts adjacent to the casting region in a direction parallel to the direction of belt movement and at a slight angle with respect to the outer surface of the belt having a principal component of flow parallel to the respective outer surfaces of the belts, the velocity and volume of the liquid coolant being sufficient for creating a substantially continuous unconfined film of rapidly moving coolant in contact with the respective outer surfaces, and travelling said film parallel to the direction of belt movement substantially continuously over the respective outer surfaces of the belts.

33. In casting apparatus of the type wherein molten metal is cast into metal strip by confining the molten metal during solidification between a pair of moving flexible belts having portions travelling in spaced face-to-face relationship defining a casting region between said belts, first guide means for guiding a portion of at least one of the flexible belts along beside the casting region, second guide means for guiding said belt as the belt travels around a curve at one end of the casting region, and cooling apparatus for cooling said belt as the belt travels along beside the casting region and as the belt travels around said curve, said first guide means comprising a first plurality of spaced narrow ridges engaging the reverse surface of the belt opposite to the surface which is beside the casting region, said second guide means also comprising a second plurality of spaced narrow ridges engaging the reverse surface of the belt as it travels around said curve, said cooling apparatus comprising a source of liquid coolant under pressure, a nozzle wsem- 'bly connected to said source and extending across the reverse surface of the belt and applying an unconfined layer of liquid coolant flowing along the reverse surface of the belt and passing between said first plurality of spaced narrow ridges, said unconfined layer of coolant also passing between said second plurality of spaced narrow ridges and flowing along the reverse surface of the belt as the belt travels around said curve.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 741,072 Roth Oct. 13, 1903 1,139,885 Mellen May 18, 1915 1,321,658 Mellen Nov. 11, 1919 1,583,130 Engel May 4, 1926 1,671,360 Fletcher May 29, 1928 1,841,881 Davis Ian. 19, 1932 1,879,336 Foley et a1. Sept. 27, 1932 1,974,826 Low Sept. 25, 1934 2,075,394 Hazelett Mar. 30, 1937 2,236,205 Wright Mar. 25, 1941 2,285,740 Merle June 9, 1942 2,291,830 Obenshain Aug. 4, 1942 2,348,178 Merle May 2, 1944 2,355,448 Kratz Aug. 8, 1944 2,383,310 Hazelett Aug. 21, 1945 2,423,407 Searles et al. July 1, 1947 2,560,639 Giesler et a1. July 17, 1951 2,584,704 Horn Feb. 5, 1952 2,631,343 Hunter Mar. 17, 1953 2,640,235 Hazelett June 2, 1953 2,693,012 Harris et al. Nov. 2, 1954 2,705,353 Zeigler Apr. 5, 1955 2,706,118 Camras Apr. 12, 1955 2,708,297 Zeigler May 17, 1955 2,715,252 Schaefer et a1 Aug. 16, 1955 2,751,067 Nicholson June 19, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 254,517 Great Britain July 8, 1926 OTHER REFERENCES The Iron Age, vol. 158, issue No. 23, December 5, 1946, pp. 77-80.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No, 2,904,860 September 22, 1959 Clarence Wa Hazelett et a1.

It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column 2, line 24, for "easing" read castin' column 10, line 40, after "molten" insert metal same line 40, after "lower" strike out "metal"; same column 10 line 58, for "rectangular" read rectilinear column 13, line 14, for "belt" read band line 47, after "endless strike out "flexible"; column 14, line 60, for "easing" read casting Signed and sealed this 26th day of April 1960:.

(SEAL) Attest:

KARL H. AXLINE ROBERT C. WATSON Attesting Officer I Commissioner of Patents

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US741072 *Mar 13, 1903Oct 13, 1903Firm Of Roth & EngelhardtMusic-sheet feed mechanism.
US1139885 *May 16, 1914May 18, 1915Continuous Casting CorpMethod of and apparatus for continuous casting.
US1321658 *Jun 17, 1915Nov 11, 1919Continuous Casting CorpContinuous casting-machine.
US1583130 *Apr 28, 1922May 4, 1926F OneA coepoeation of
US1671360 *Mar 10, 1924May 29, 1928Morris J WolfMethod and apparatus for making continuous metallic strips
US1841881 *Feb 10, 1930Jan 19, 1932Jasper N DavisMachine for casting storage battery plates
US1879336 *Feb 27, 1932Sep 27, 1932Foley Frank WApparatus for forming metal strips
US1974826 *Jun 25, 1931Sep 25, 1934Hartford Empire CoConveyer driving mechanism
US2075394 *Dec 21, 1934Mar 30, 1937Hazelett Clarence WMethod of surfacing metallic rolls for rolling metals and apparatus therefor
US2236205 *Feb 16, 1939Mar 25, 1941Gustave Wright CarlBelt conveyer
US2285740 *Jul 1, 1938Jun 9, 1942Merie Joseph MApparatus for producing solid and tubular products from undercooled molten material
US2291830 *Aug 1, 1940Aug 4, 1942West Virginia Pulp & Paper ComAutomatic band guide
US2348178 *Nov 3, 1937May 2, 1944Merle Joseph MMethod of making metallic products of sheetlike form
US2355448 *Nov 12, 1941Aug 8, 1944Carbide & Carbon Chem CorpBand leveling apparatus
US2383310 *Mar 16, 1939Aug 21, 1945Hazelett Clarence WContinuous casting apparatus and process
US2423407 *Mar 18, 1943Jul 1, 1947Amos SearlesIdler roller for belt conveyors
US2560639 *Dec 13, 1948Jul 17, 1951Robertshaw Fulton Controls CoContinuous casting of metal
US2584704 *Sep 7, 1948Feb 5, 1952Horn Harry LStrip casting machine
US2631343 *May 17, 1950Mar 17, 1953Hunter Douglas CorpContinuous casting machine
US2640235 *Jun 2, 1949Jun 2, 1953Clarence W HazelettMetal manufacturing apparatus
US2693012 *Sep 8, 1950Nov 2, 1954Gen Motors CorpMethod and apparatus for manufacturing sheet material
US2705353 *Apr 4, 1952Apr 5, 1955Kaiser Aluminium Chem CorpMethod of continuous casting
US2706118 *Jul 3, 1947Apr 12, 1955Armour Res FoundMagnetic recorder
US2708297 *Oct 12, 1954May 17, 1955Kaiser Aluminium Chem CorpContinuous casting apparatus
US2715252 *Jun 21, 1951Aug 16, 1955Clevite CorpContinuous casting apparatus for aluminum onto metallic strip material
US2751067 *Dec 20, 1954Jun 19, 1956 nicholson
GB254517A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2946100 *Aug 27, 1956Jul 26, 1960American Smelting RefiningBlock graphite mold for continuous casting
US3036348 *Mar 17, 1958May 29, 1962Hazelett Strip Casting CorpMetal casting methods and apparatus
US3041686 *Dec 21, 1959Jul 3, 1962Hazelett Strip Casting CorpCooling methods and apparatus for providing a rapidly moving uniform layer of liquidcoolant
US3099867 *Aug 4, 1961Aug 6, 1963Ingot Casting Machines LtdCasting machines
US3123874 *Mar 17, 1958Mar 10, 1964 Metal casting apparatus
US3142873 *May 22, 1961Aug 4, 1964Hazelett Strip Casting CorpContinuous metal casting apparatus
US3163896 *Jun 23, 1961Jan 5, 1965Aluminium Lab LtdCoated belt and method of making same for continuous metal casting process
US3167830 *Dec 8, 1960Feb 2, 1965Hazellett Strip Casting CorpContinuous metal casting apparatus
US3193888 *Aug 29, 1961Jul 13, 1965Aluminium Lab LtdContinuous casting apparatus including endless steel belt with red iron oxide coating
US3228072 *May 7, 1962Jan 11, 1966Hazelett Strip Casting CorpFeeding means for strip casting
US3318367 *May 9, 1966May 9, 1967Southwire CoAdjustable belt wheel-type continuous casting apparatus
US3326271 *Aug 4, 1966Jun 20, 1967Southwire CoCasting wheel with band positioning device
US3336972 *Sep 8, 1966Aug 22, 1967Southwire CoCasting wheel with band positioning means
US3339625 *Jan 28, 1965Sep 5, 1967Armco Steel CorpContinuous casting apparatus having bent-edge belts
US3426836 *Dec 13, 1965Feb 11, 1969AlusuisseMachine for the continuous casting of slabs between bands
US3433289 *Jun 23, 1966Mar 18, 1969Mannesmann AgGuide means for the casting in a continuous casting machine
US3474853 *Mar 19, 1968Oct 28, 1969Hazelett Strip Casting CorpApparatus for cooling and supporting the casting belt in a continuous metal casting machine of the drum and belt type
US3482620 *Apr 4, 1967Dec 9, 1969Siderurgie Fse Inst RechApparatus for continuous metal casting
US3848658 *Mar 16, 1973Nov 19, 1974Hazelett Strip Casting CorpCarriage orientation and lift system for a twin belt continuous metal casting machine
US3865176 *Sep 28, 1973Feb 11, 1975Hazelett Strip Casting CorpCasting method for twin-belt continuous metal casting machines
US3937270 *Nov 9, 1973Feb 10, 1976Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationTwin-belt continuous casting method providing control of the temperature operating conditions at the casting belts
US3942582 *Apr 16, 1974Mar 9, 1976Metallurgie Hoboken-OverpeltManufacture of copper wire rod
US3955615 *Nov 11, 1974May 11, 1976Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationTwin-belt continuous casting apparatus
US4002197 *Aug 7, 1975Jan 11, 1977Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationContinuous casting apparatus wherein the temperature of the flexible casting belts in twin-belt machines is controllably elevated prior to contact with the molten metal
US4217947 *Apr 27, 1978Aug 19, 1980Prolizenz AgProcess for the delivery of molten metal to a caterpillar type mold
US4239081 *May 30, 1979Dec 16, 1980Asarco IncorporatedSide dam apparatus for use in twin-belt continuous casting machines
US4260008 *May 30, 1979Apr 7, 1981Asarco IncorporatedSide dam apparatus for use in twin-belt continuous casting machines
US4367783 *Oct 27, 1980Jan 11, 1983Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationMethod and apparatus for continuous casting of metal under controlled load conditions
US4537243 *Nov 9, 1983Aug 27, 1985Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationMethod of and apparatus for steam preheating endless flexible casting belt
US4588021 *Nov 7, 1983May 13, 1986Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationMatrix coatings on endless flexible metallic belts for continuous casting machines method of forming such coatings and the coated belts
US4664174 *Jun 25, 1986May 12, 1987Fried. Krupp Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter HaftungTwin-belt continuous caster
US4921037 *Jul 19, 1988May 1, 1990Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationMethod and apparatus for introducing differential stresses in endless flexible metallic casting belts for enhancing belt performance in continuous metal casting machines
US5086827 *Dec 6, 1990Feb 11, 1992Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationMethod and apparatus for sensing the condition of casting belt and belt coating in a continuous metal casting machine
US5515908 *Dec 23, 1993May 14, 1996Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical CorporationMethod and apparatus for twin belt casting of strip
US5564491 *Dec 23, 1993Oct 15, 1996Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical CorporationMethod and apparatus for twin belt casting of strip
US5645159 *Mar 30, 1994Jul 8, 1997Lauener Engineering, Ltd.Method and apparatus for continuously casting metal
US5868193 *Mar 26, 1998Feb 9, 1999Lauener Engineering Ltd.Method and prestressed beam chain for use in an apparatus for continuously casting metal
US5878805 *Mar 26, 1998Mar 9, 1999Lauener Engineering, Ltd.Apparatus for continuously casting metal
US5924474 *Mar 26, 1998Jul 20, 1999Golden Aluminum CompanyRoll support apparatus for transporting a support beam
US5961797 *May 3, 1996Oct 5, 1999Asarco IncorporatedCopper cathode starting sheets
US5964276 *Jul 24, 1998Oct 12, 1999Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationEdge-DAM blocks having abuttable upstream and downstream faces meshing with each other in mating relationship for continuous casting of molten metals--methods and apparatus
US6076657 *Mar 26, 1998Jun 20, 2000Nichols AluminumApparatus for continuously casting metal
US6102102 *Feb 13, 1997Aug 15, 2000Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical CorporationMethod and apparatus for continuous casting of metals
US6153082 *Jun 14, 1999Nov 28, 2000Asarco IncorporatedCopper cathode starting sheets
US6325204Jan 7, 1999Dec 4, 2001Nichols Aluminum-Golden, Inc.Method and drive apparatus for continuously casting metal in a continuous block caster
US6581675Apr 11, 2000Jun 24, 2003Alcoa Inc.Method and apparatus for continuous casting of metals
EP0144769A1 *Nov 6, 1984Jun 19, 1985Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationMatrix coating flexible casting belts, method & apparatus for making matrix coatings
EP0304607A2 *Nov 6, 1984Mar 1, 1989Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationApparatus for making matrix coatings
EP0351785A1 *Jul 18, 1989Jan 24, 1990Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationMethod and apparatus for introducing differential stresses during manufacture of endless flexible metallic casting belts for enhancing belt performance in continuous metal casting machines
EP0974413A1 *Jul 22, 1999Jan 26, 2000Hazelett Strip-Casting CorporationMethod and apparatus for twin belt casting, using keyed edge-dam blocks
WO1995017274A1 *Dec 22, 1994Jun 29, 1995Donald G HarringtonMethod and apparatus for twin belt casting
WO1995026842A1 *Mar 27, 1995Oct 12, 1995Lauener Eng LtdMethod and apparatus for continuously casting metal
Classifications
U.S. Classification164/481, 164/432, 164/485, 164/431
International ClassificationB22D11/06
Cooperative ClassificationB22D11/0668, B22D11/0605, B22D11/0654
European ClassificationB22D11/06B, B22D11/06L2B, B22D11/06L3D